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GENERAL W. T. SHERMAN 



Life and Deeds 

of 

General Sherman 

Includiog the Story of His 

Great March to the Sea ' 

BEING A GRAPHIC NARRATIVE OF 

His Boyhood and Early Life ; Education at West Point ; Career 
in Florida, California and Louisiana ; Daring Deeds 
at Shiloh, Corinth and Vicksburg ; Sublime 
Achievements in the Georgia and Tenn- 
essee Campaigns, and Closing 
Scenes of the Great 
Struggle, etc., etc., 

COMPRISING 

Thrilling Descriptions of Battles, Marches, and Victories; 
Personal Anecdotes ; Life as a Citizen ; Last Sickness 
and Death ; the Nation's Sorrow, and Magnifi- 
cent Tributes to the 

GREAT COMMANDER, HERO and PATRIOT 



By Henry Davenport Northrop 



SUPERBLY EMBELLISHED WITH STRIKING ILLUSTRATlONa 



PHILADELPHIA : 

NATIONAL PUBLISHING CO., 
239 Levant Street. 



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JUL - 1 1898 




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PREFACE 



The story of General Sherman's brilliant career is 
one of the most interesting ever told. His early 
life was spent in poverty and obscurity; he rose to 
the highest pinnacle of fame. Fortune was against 
him ; he conquered it ; he was a conqueror through- 
out his eventful life. Without wealth or outside 
influence to lift him above his surroundings, he 
carved his name high before the eye of the world, 
and died amidst the honors of the nation he defended 
so nobly. 

Like nearly all Americans who have achieved fame, 
Sherman was a self-made man. He was a patriot 
who courted sacrifice and death ; he was a leader of 
undaunted bravery, brilliant strategy, and unfaltering 
resources. His rank is among the world's greatest 
heroes, and his place is in the hearts of more than 
sixty millions of people. 

The complete story of his life, contained in this 
volume, gives a graphic account of his boyhood and 
youth. The reader sees him struggling with early 
trials ; the sturdy boy grows into the manly youth, 
pressing on in his eager pursuit of an education. He 
enters the Military Academy ; he graduates with 



iv PREFAc:6. 

honor, and is fully equipped for his magnificent mili- 
tary career. 

General Sherman is then seen among the Ever- 
glades of Florida, at Fort Moultrie in South Carolina, 
and on the Pacific Coast. The outbreak of the war 
finds the gallant leader in Louisiana ; he sees that 
war is inevitable, resigns his position, and appears in 
Washington. 

At the first battle of Bull Run, Sherman is a colonel; 
he rises to the rank of brigadier of volunteers and is 
sent to Kentucky. His upward strides are rapid, and 
the reader next beholds him in command of a division 
at Shiloh, where he displays consummate generalship 
and heroism, and saves that famous battle. He is the 
first to enter Corinth ; he takes command at Memphis; 
he makes a bold attack on Vicksburg; and next ap- 
pears upon the world-renowned field of Chattanooga. 
Through the dense smoke and fiery glare of Mission- 
ary Ridge the reader sees the commanding figure now 
prominent before the nation, whose presence on the 
field is the signal for victory. 

These wonderful exploits, this daring heroism, this 
extraordinary command of men, these magnificent 
deeds which thrill two hemispheres, are ^depicted in 
this work. The theme is brilliant and captivating. 
Step by step the thrilling history is unfolded ; over 
the pages armies march and charge, and the reader 
moves amid startling scenes : the old days of heroism 
and Spartan bravery are brought back. 

The crowning achievement of General Sherman, 



PREFACE. V 

that which electrified the whole world, that which 
even military men believed to be impossible, was his 
celebrated march to the sea. This part of the narra- 
tive has an extraordinary interest for the reader, and 
is told in this volume by General Sherman himself, 
who was as skilful and fascinating with the pen as he 
was valiant with the sword. Here the great general 
showed his remarkable foresight, burned the bridges 
behind him, pushed into the enemy^s country, met 
and mastered seeming impossibilities, and put the 
, plendid climax upon his marvellous career. 

We find him at Atlanta with an army which il 
compelled to subsist upon the surrounding country. 
Thence he marches to the Adantic. This almost 
miraculous feat, resulting in the capture of Savan- 
nah, the retreat of General Hardee from Charleston, 
and other events of vast importance, is fully por- 
trayed. The grave doubts as to the result all van- 
ished before the masterly generalship, intrepid 
courage, and perseverance of the illustrious leader. 

Next the reader sees the two great generals, Sher- 
man and Grant, face to face. The bloody days are 
ended, the smoke of battle lifts from the field, the 
noise of guns is hushed, and the world looks on in 
wonder at the closing scenes of the greatest struggle 
of modern times. Conspicuous in this thrilling period 
of our history, his majestic form standing in the 
nation's eye, we see the hero and patriot, the invin- 
cible commander. He has received the surrender of 
Johnston, and has acted a part no less remarkable and 



Vi PREFACE* 

successful than that of Grant in the Wilderness and 
before Richmond, 

This work also gives a striking picture of General 
Sherman's life as a citizen. He was a genial man; 
he was an admirable speech-maker ; he was the idol of 
the nation : he was honored on every public occasion 
where his commanding figure was seen ; his loyalty to 
the old veterans was sincere and unwavering; his 
popularity. among the army boys was surpassed by 
that of no other general. 

All readers are interested in personal anecdotes and 
reminiscences concerning great men. In the long life 
and checkered career of General Sherman many inci- 
dents occurred, and account of which the public is 
anxious to obtain. Stories of camp-life, long marches 
hardships of the campaign, and anecdotes concerning 
General Sherman's private life and intercourse with 
his old comrades enliven the pages of this volume. 
Side by side stand with him other brilliant heroes in 
the nation's struggle, and a picture of him as a man 
among men is presented. 

The demonstration of sympathy and sorrow when 
his death occurred has scarcely been paralleled in this 
country. Sherman was loved by everybody, as well 
as admired. His death struck home to the heart of 
the nation. All classes of citizens, including the 
President, members of the Cabinet, army and naval 
officers, merchants, farmers, professional men, the 
rich, the poor, vied with each other at his funeral *.n 
telling of his glory and in honoring his memory. 



CONTENTS. 



BOOK I. 



CHAPTER I. 

J^ Rkmarkabi^e Famii^y.— The Ii,i,ustrious Commandsr»s 
Bari^y Life and Struggi.es.— Born to be a Hero . . 17 

CHAPTER II. 

Education at West Point.— Chasing Savage Seminoi^ES in 
THE South ... 25 

CHAPTER III. 
A Recruiting Officer. — Stirring Times in Cai^ifornia . 32 

CHAPTER IV 

Sherman's Romantic Marriage. — Banker in Cawfornia 
AND New York. — Become a Lawyer 40 

CHAPTER V. 

Prophet and Patriot. — Advice to the War Department 
THEATED AS A Proof of Insanity 50 

CHAPTER VI. 

Army of the Tennessee. — Sherman Co-operates with 
Grant. — Forward Movements 65 

CHAPTER VII. 

From Ati,anta to the Sea. — ^Thrii,i.ing Story of One of 
THE Greatest Feats in Military History ... 78 

vii 



Vlll CONTENTS.* 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Important Letter of Generai. Sherman.— The Country 
DeIvUded in the Eari,y Part of the War. — Strange. 
Charge op Lunacy 95 

CHAPTER IX. 
After the War.— Not a Candidate for the Presidency. — 
Sketch of the Hero.— Life in New York . . .113 

CHAPTER X. 
Reminiscences of the Renowned Commander. — Ardent 
Friendship for Grant. — Interesting Facts and Anec- 
dotes 133 



BOOK II. 



CHAPTER XI. 
Sherman at the Batti^e of Bui.Iv Run.— His Graphic Ac- 
count of the Bi,oody Confwct 175 

CHAPTER XII. 
Events preceding the Batti^e of Shii^oh.— Rapid Move- 
ments IN THE CUMBERI.AND VAI,I.EY AND SOUTH-WEST ""^T 189 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Sherman Saves the Batti^e of Shii^oh.— Vai,i,ey of Death. 
—A Wai,!, of Iron.— Grant Praises Sherman's Heroism. 206 



CHAPTER XIV. 
Genkrai, Sherman's Graphic Description of the Batti^e 
of Shii^oh 236 



CONTENTS. 1| 

CHAPTER XV. 

pAca 

T4JMLI.ING PEN-PiCTURB OI'' THE BATTI^E O^ ShILOH BY AN 

Army Surgeon 254 



CHAPTER XVI. 
Generai, Sherman's Achievements at Vicksburg • . 270 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Sherman's Superb Vai^or at Chattanooga .... 314 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Generai, Sherman's Fascinating Story of the Batti^e of 
Chattanooga 357 

CHAPTER XIX. 

The Great Ati^anta Campaign.— Grand Forward Move- 
ment 393 

CHAPTER XX. 
From Ati^anta to the Sea.— The Famous March . • ,417 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Brii,i,iant Campaign oe the Carownas . » o e • 450 

CHAPTER XXII. 

Surrender of Johnston to Sherman.— Capture of Fifty 
Thousand Men 469 



2 CONTENTS. 

BOOK III. 
CHAPTER XXin. 

PAGB 

Fatai, Ii,i,nbss.— The Giant Shorn o^ his Strbngth. — 
Anxiety throughout the Nation 481 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

TlATTWNG WITH THE FOE.— A GaI,I,ANT FiGHT EOR I/IEE . . 490 

CHAPTER XXV. 

The STRUGGI.E Ended.— The Great Warrior's Last Bat- 
Ti,E - . . 50.^ 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
A Nation in Mourning.— Tributes of Love and Respect . 514 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

FiNAi< Obsequies oe Generai. Sherman.— Grand Proces- 
sion OE Troops and Civic Bodies 529 

CHAPTER XXVIIL 

Gl^OWING EUI^OGIES UPON THE WORI^D-REKOWNED COM- 
MANDER 548 



BOOK L 

STORY OF GENERAL SHERMAN'S 
LIFE AND DEEDS. 

CHAPTER I. 

A Remarkable Family. — The Illustrious Com- 
mander's Early Life and Struggles. — Born to 
be a Hero. 

A PATRIOTIC American, a wise, brave, skilfui soldier, 
A sincere, earnest, friendly man, General Sherman 
died honored and beloved by numberless personal 
friends and by millions of his countrymen. In a 
sense broader than that of a military genius. General 
Sherman was a orreat man. He showed in his war 
correspondence that he had the learning of the scholar 
and the wisdom of the statesman. Such men do not 
die ; they pass on from among their surviving old 
comrades of camp and field to a grander life, to the 
reward of men who are good and great. 

Like Grant, Meade, and Sheridan, General Sher- 
man had not only military genius ; he had the high- 
est qualities of a citizen of the great Republic. He 
entered the service of his country as one who was 
willing, if need be, to die. He gave it no half-hearted, 
2 17 



18 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

halting service, and the mighty energy he so continu- 
ously displayed on the march and in the assault was 
as much the inspiration of his loyal heart as of his 
alert mind and vigorous body. 

A Brilliant Record. 

Sherman's education wsls unusually liberal and 
comprehensive before the war began. He was grad- 
uated from the West Point Military Academy with 
distinction ; he served in the army v/ith credit and 
usefulness as second and as first lieutenant and as 
captain. Subsequently resigning his commission, he 
became a banker and lawyer, and still later on a rail- 
road president and the superintendent of the Louisiana 
State Military Institute ; which latter position he re- 
signed, when Louisiana seceded from the Union, in a 
letter that was in the highest degree creditable to his 
honor and patriotism. He was nearly forty-one years 
old when the Civil War began, and was then in ilu: 
fullest vigor of physical and mental health. His fine 
intelligence, his diverse education, his varied associa- 
tions and intercourse with men of distinction in dif- 
ferent walks of life, had peculiarly fitted him for the 
great work to which his country called him at the 
beginning of the war. 

The story of his achievements is one of the most 
glorious and precious records of his country, and 
most conspicuous In It is that chapter of it known to 
his countrymen, to the admirers of military genius of 
all countries — the march through Georgia from the 
mountains to the sea. It was the grandeur of this 



EARLY LIFE AND STRUGGLES. 



19 



great movement, the grandeur of Its courage and 
of its results, which will render it forever remark- 
able. 

No soldier of ancient or modern history more com- 
pletely burned his bridges behind him than did Sher- 
man when he marched out of Atlanta at the head of 
i'^it great Union host, the objective point of which 
was die Atlantic Ocean, the purpose of which was to 
cut through the Confederacy in Its most vital part, 
and to bring its chief support, the army of Lee, be- 
tween two fires, that of Grant and Meade and that of 
Sherman. As It was planned, it was executed — with- 
out a single failure at any point. All that was antici- 
pated from it was reahi^d, and history wrote one of Its 
most thrilling chapters that day when Sherman, turning 
his back upon the mountains, set out upon his march 
to the sea. 

It is Impossible to form any just estimate of the 
value of services such as this Illustrious soldier ren- 
dered his country In Its time of greatest need. He 
was one of those who stood as an Impregnable fort- 
ress In defence of national unity. He offered to the 
cause of Union and freedom all that man has to offer 
— intellect, strength, and even that for which all things 
else will be freely sacrificed, life. General Sherman's 
was the genius of both planning and doing. He 
thought and he wrought with magnificent courage 
and effective skill for his country, and his efforts were 
crowned with success, ^n the sudden making of 
splendid names his name became one which Inspired 



20 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

armies with confidence and assured the soldierly en- 
deavor which achieved triumphs. 

Such men are so truly great that their countrymen 

can only reverently salute them and resolve to keep 

their deeds in grateful remembrance as they, pass 

from the world which was better for their living in it. 

Sherman's Ancestors. 

The Sherman family from which William Tecumseh 
Sherman sprang was of English descent. In the rec 
ords of the British Museum there is an account of the 
Shermans of Laxley, in the county of Suffolk, dating 
as far back as 1616. There was another branch of 
the family in Dedham, Essex county. The first Sher- 
man whose name is found recorded in this country 
was Edmond, who, with his three sons, Edmond, 
Samuel, and John, was at Boston before 1636. In 
the History of Anciejit Woodbury, Connecticut, it is 
stated that Samuel Sherman, the Rev. John Sherman, 
and Captain John, his first cousin, arrived from Ded- 
ham in 1634. This Captain John was the ancestor 
of Roger Sherman, the signer of the Declaration of 
Independence. The Ohio Shermans trace their de- 
scent from Samuel Sherman and his brother John, the 
clergyman. 

All these Shermans and their children were men of 
prominence in their respective places. They were 
justices, judges, commissioners, representatives in 
the Assembly, town-clerks — in fact, they were good 
office-seekers, lucky in getting what they wanted, and 
pretty deserving men generally. In religion they 



EARLY LIFE AND STRUGGLES. 21 

were rigid Presbyterians. In politics, when the 
struggle for independence came, they were rebels. 

The Family Settles in Ohio. 

When James Monroe became President in 1817, he 
made Lawyer Charles R. Sherman, of Norwalk, Conn., 
a collector of internal revenue Two of his deputies 
robbed the Government, and involved him in financial 
embarrassment from which he never recovered. In 
the hope of bettering his condition he went West in 
1 82 1, leaving his wife behind him in Connecticut. A 
year later he sent for her, and under the escort of 
some friends and neighbors she travelled on horse- 
back over the Alleghanies, holding her infant child on 
a pillow in front of her. The new home was in Lan- 
caster, O. Mr. Sherman in a short time won great 
prominence as an able, eloquent, and judicious 
advocate. 

His reputation soon extended over the entire Statev 
and his practice was very large and fairly remunera- 
tive. In 1823, when he was only thirty-five years of 
age, the Legislature of Ohio elected him a judge of 
the Supreme Court. 

This was upon the recommendation of his fellow- 
citizens, as follows : 

"Somerset, Ohio, July 6, 1821. 

" May it please your Excellency : 

" We ask leave to recommend to your Excellency's 
favorable notice Charles R. Sherman, Esq., of Lan- 
caster, as a man possessing in an eminent degree 



22 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

those qualifications so much to be desired in a judge 

of the Supreme Court. 

" From a long acquaintance with Mr. Sherman we 
are happy to be able to state to your Excellency that 
our minds are led to the conchision that that gentle- 
man possesses a disposition noble and generous, a 
mind discriminating, comprehensive, and combining a 
heart pure, benevolent, and humane. Manners digni- 
fied, mild, and complaisant, and a firmness not to be 
shaken and of unquestioned integrity. 

"But Mr. Sherman's character cannot be unknown 
to your Excellency, and on that acquaintance without 
further comment we might safely rest his pretensions 

"We think we hazard little in assuring your Ex- 
cellency that his appointment would give alniost uni- 
versal satisfaction to the citizens of Perry county." 

He was soon after appointed a judge of the Su- 
preme Court, and served in that capacity to the day 
of his death. Admirably fitted for the bench, his 
written opinions prove that he possessed a fine legal 
mind. His manner was kind and considerate, and to 
know him was to be his friend. The salary attached 
to the office was barely sufficient to support himself 
and his large family, so that v/hen he suddenly died 
at Lebanon, O., June 24, 1829, in the noon of his 
fame and at the age of forty-one, those dependent on 
him were almost totally unprovided for, and the family 
was suddenly thrown on its own resources. 

In this emergency the rcjavives and friends of her 



EARLY LIFE AND STRUGGLES. 23 

husband came to the assistance of the widow and her 
eleven children. Two of them were adopted by an 
aunt. John, afterward United States Senator and ex- 
Secretary of the Treasury, went to live with an uncle, 
and Thomas Ewing, who had then been United States 
Senator and Secretary of the Treasury, took William 
Tecumseh into his family and educated him as one of 
his own children. 

Adopted by Mr. Ewing. 

The story of the adoption is interesting. Mr. 
Ewing, who was not only a warm friend, but also a 
distant relative of Judge Sherman, drove across the 
country to the Sherman home as soon as he heard of 
the death. He knew the family was large, that they 
were very poor, and he resolved to take one of the 
children until the fortunes of the house grew brighter. 
Mrs. Sherman was unable to decide which one of the 
little ones to surrender. After a tearful consultation 
she and her eldest daughter accompanied Mr. Ewing 
out of doors, where the boys were romping on the 
grass. 

" Well," said Mr. Ewing, " which one of 'em shall I 
take ? They all look alike to me." 

The distressed mother* was still unable to decide, 
when the daughter, snatching up one of them in her 
arms and holding him out, said, "Well, Mr. Ewing, if 
you must take one, take ' Cump,' because he is the 
smartest." 

"All right, then — 'Cump' it is," said Mr. Ewing, 
taking the child in his arms and placing him in his 



24 GENERAL SHERM/^. 

carriage. Mr. Ewing took him to his family, and, says 
General Sherman, " ever after treated me as his own 
son." " Cump " was then nine years of age, having 
been born in Lancaster, February 8, 1820. His father 
knew and admired the Indian chief Tecumseh, which 
accounts for his middle name. 

You nor Sherman was sent to the Lancaster Acad- 
emy by his benefactor. It was the best educational 
establishment in the place — as good a school, in fact, 
as any in Ohio at the time. He studied all the or- 
dinary branches, including Latin, Greek, and French. 
The years passed on, and one day a note came from 
Senator Ewing, who was in Washington, notifying 
him to prepare for the Military Academy at West 
Point. Previous to this, however, Sherman was al- 
lowed in 1834 to work during that fall and the follow- 
ing spring as rodman for a surveyor who was making 
surveys for a canal to connect with the great Ohio one 
at Carroll, eight miles above Lancaster. He was paid 
a silver half-dollar for each day's actual work, and this 
was the first money he earned. 




MAJOR-GENERAL llEiNRY \V. S LOCUM. 



CHAPTER II. 

Education at West Point. — Chasing Savage 
Seminoles in the South. 

During the autumn and spring of 1835-36 young 
Sherman worked hard studying mathematics and 
French, the chief requisites for admission to West 
Point. The letter of appointment came early in 1836 
from the Secretary of War, Mr. Poinsett. Sherman 
made the journey to Washington to see Mr. Ewing. 
A week was spent at the capital. General Jackson 
was then at the height of his power, and General 
Sherman has left it on record how he spent an hour 
looking through the wooden railings which then ran 
around the White House at " Old Hickory " as he 
walked up and down inside. In less than thirty years 
his own fame as a soldier was destined to surpass that 
of the hero of New Orleans. 

The start for the academy was made, and on June 
1 2 he stepped, in New York, on board the steamer 
Cornelius Vanderbilt, and finished the last stage of his 
journey. 

He joined the class of 1836 and went through the 
regular course of four years, graduating in June, 1840, 
No. 6 in a class of forty-three. The class originally 
was more than one hundred. "At the academy," says 
the general, " I was not considered a good soldier, for 

25 



26 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

at no time was I selected for any office, but remained 
a private throughout the whole four years. Then, as 
now, neatness in dress and form, with a strict con- 
formity to the rules, were the qualifications required 
for office, and I suppose I was found not to excel in 
any of these. In studies I always held a respectable 
reputation with the professors, and generally ranked 
among the best, especially drawing, chemistry, mathe- 
matics, and natural philosophy. My average demerits 
per annum were about one hundred and fifty, which 
reduced my final class standing from No. 4 to No. 6." 
Early Service in the South. 

After graduation and the usual three months' fur- 
lough he was commissioned second lieutenant in the 
Third Artillery, and ordered to report the following 
September at Governor's Island in New York har- 
bor. There he was placed in command of a com- 
pany of recruits preparing for service in Florida. In 
less than a month the company, with three others, was 
ordered to Savannah, Ga. They embarked in a sail- 
ing vessel for that port, where they were transferred 
to a small steamer and taken to St. Augustine, Fla. 
General Taylor was then in command in Florida, with 
headquarters at Tampa Bay. 

The Third Artillery, Sherman's regiment, occupied 
the posts along the Atlantic coast from St. Augus- 
tine to Key Biscayne, his own company being sta- 
tioned at Fort Pierce, on the Indian River. He was 
detached from the company of recruits and joined his 
own command. In November preparations were be- 




MESS HALL. 



NQRIH BARRACKS, 




ACADEMV^BUILDIRa 



BARRACKS. 



AT WEST POINT. 



27 



28 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

gun for active operations against the Indians, the ob- 
ject being to catch the scattered bands of Seminoles 
then on the Peninsula and send them to join their 
tribe in the newly-estabhshed Indian Territory. The 
Hfe was not without its perils. The Indians did not 
want to leave, and frequently offered resistance with 
disastrous consequences to themselves as well as to 
the military 

First Promotion. 

In November, 1841, Sherman received his first pro- 
motion, being made the first lieutenant of Company 
G. He left Fort Pierce and joined his new command 
at St. Augustine. Shortly afterward he was placed 
in command of a detachment of twenty men at Pico- 
lata, on the St. John's River. He remained there 
only a few months, having been ordered on duty 
which took him to Pensacola. Thence he was sent 
to Fort Morgan, Mobile Point. 

He was now quartermaster and commissary. The 
following June found him in Fort Moultrie, the regi- 
ment having been changed from the Gulf posts to 
those on the Atlantic. " We remained at Fort Moul- 
trie," says General Sherman, " nearly five years, until 
the Mexican war scattered us for ever. Our life 
there was of strict garrison duty, with plenty of leis- 
ure for huntine and social entertainment. We soon 
formed many and most pleasant acquaintances in the 
city of Charleston, and it soon happened that many of 
the families resided at Sullivan's Island in the summer 
season, where we could reciprocate the hospitalities 



30 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

extended to us In the winter." This life was inter- 
rupted by a brief leave of absence in 1843, which he 
spent in Ohio and in visiting some of the principal 
Southern cities. 

First March through Georg-ia. 

An order came from the War Department at Wash- 
ington in January, 1844, which, curiously enough, took 
him through the country over which he was in after 
years to sweep at the head of a conquering army on 
one of the most famous expeditions in all military 
history — the " march to the sea." It was a detail to 
assist Colonel Churchill, the inspector-general of the 
army, in taking depositions in Upper Georgia and 
Alabama concerning certain losses by volunteers ii? 
Florida of horses and equipment by reason of the 
failure of the United States to provide sufficient for- 
age, and for which Congress had made an appropria- 
tion. 

The order directed him to go to Marietta, where 
Churchill was conducting the investigation. It was all 
over in two months, when Sherman rode south on 
horseback by way of Rome, Allatoona, Marietta, At- 
lanta, Madison, and Augusta, Ga. "Thus, by a mere 
accident," says Sherman, " I was enabled to traverse 
on horseback the very ground where, in after years, I 
had to conduct vast armies and fight great battles. 
That tiie knowledge thus acquired was of infinite use 
^Q me, and consequently to the Government, I have 
always felt and stated." 



SERVICE IN THE SOUTH. 31 

Meets with an Accident. 

ifn the winter of 1 844 his right shoulder was dislo- 
cated by the fall of his horse while hunting deer on 
the Cooper River. He suffered severely, and spent a 
short leave of absence which was allowed him in the 
North. He was back in Fort Moultrie by March, 
1845. Congress had about this time passed a joint 
resolution providing for the annexation of Texas, 
then an independent republic, and the army and the 
country looked for an immediate war with Mexico. 
General Taylor had assembled some regiments of in- 
fantry and one of dragoons at Fort Jessup, La., and 
the orders from Washington were that he should ex- 
tend military protection to Texas against the Indians 
or a "foreign country'' when the terms of annexation 
were agreed to. The terms were accepted in July, 
and he moved his troops to Corpus Christi, at which 
point during the summer and fall of 1845 ^^s concen- 
trated the army that in the spring of the following 
year was to begin the Mexican War. 



CHAPTER III. 

A Recruiting Officer. — Stirring Times in 
California. 

A CO. '^ \Ny of Sherman's regiment was ordered 
fr'jm Fort ivouitrie to Corpus Christi, but it was net 
his, and before the other companies were directed to 
follow Shermaj was detached for recruiting service, 
May I, 1846. That detail took him out of the Mexican 
War and deprived him of the promotion it brought 
to so many. Perhaps it also preserved him for the 
greater work he was to do. The recruiting order 
wrought him back again to Governor's Island. The 
Pittsburgh district was given to him, and he took up 
his headquarters at the St. Charles Hotel in that city 
early in May. Recruits were in very active demand, 
and he was authorized to open a sub-rendezvous at 
Zanesville, Ohio. 

He had been at Pittsburgh only a few weeks when 
the stirring news of the battle of Palo Alto excited the 
entire country. " That I should be on recruiting 
service," says Sherman, " when my comrades were 
actually fighting was intolerable, and I hurried to my 
post at Pittsburgh. I wrote to the adjutant-general 
at Washington, asking him to consider me as an appli- 
cant for any active service, and saying that I would 
willingly forego the recruiting detail, which I well knew 

32 



STIRRING TIMES IN CALIFORNIA. 33 

plenty of others would jump at. Impatient to approach 
the scene of active operations, without authority — and, 
I suppose, wrongfully — I left my corporal in charge of 
the rendezvous, and took all the recruits I had made 
in a steamboat to Cincinnati, turning them over to 
Major N. C. McCrea, commanding at Newport Bar- 
racks. I then reported to Cincinnati, where the super- 
intendent of the Western recruiting service Inquired 
by what authority I had come away from my post. I 
argued that I took it for granted he wanted all the re- 
cruits he could get to forward to the army, and did 
not know but that he might want me to go along. In- 
stead of appreciating my volunteer zeal, he cursed 
and swore at me for leaving my post without orders, 
and told me to go back to Pittsburgh." 

He went back, and the following June received 
orders relieving him from the recruiting business, and 
assigning him to Company F, then under orders for 
California. This brought him once more to Gover- 
nor's Island. 

Early Days in California. 

Over in Brooklyn the United States storeship Lex- 
ington was then being fitted out for the long journey 
around Cape Horn to California. The Lexington at 
last was ready, In July, 1846, and they sailed. Among 
that party of officers were Ord and Halleck. It was 
a slow, tedious voyage. The first port made was 
Rio de Janeiro, at the end of sixty days. They had 
a good time on shore for a week, seeing Dom Pedro 
and his then young empress, the daughter of the king 



34 GENERAL 8HERMAN. 

of Sicily. Throne and empress have passed away, 
ind only Dom Pedro himself remains, the last per- 
haps of all. 

The Lexington resumed her voyage, and in Octo- 
ber saw the snows of the Cape. In sixty days from 
Rio, Valparaiso was reached. There they heard news 
about the war, the events of which up to that time 
had been a sealed volume. At last, about the middle 
of January, the California coast began to loom up, 
and wlien the high mountains about Santa Cruz came 
in view a boat with Lieutenant Henry Wise, master 
of the Independence frigate, that they had left at Val- 
paraiso, came alongside. He told them that Cali- 
fornia had broken out into insurrection ; that General 
Kearney had reached the country and been beaten in 
a severe battle ; and much else which was not strictly 
fact. 

Ready to Fight. 

When the old Lexington dropped anchor in the 
Bay of Monterey, Jan. 26, 1847, after a voyage of two 
less than two hundred days from New York, all on 
board were ready to fight at once. But when they 
went on shore, nothing could be more peaceful than 
Monterey. No fighting was necessary. Sherman 
was then quartermaster and commissary, and he had 
abundance of work on his hands for a few weeks. 
But he soon had leisure enough, and he employed it 
in learning something about the country in which the 
chances of war, although it was all peace to him, had 
thrown him. Sherman was not making much history 



STIRRING TIMES IN CALIFORNIA. S6 

then, but the vivid story of the scenes and incidents 
in those distant California days which he tells shows 
that- if he was denied the chance to make history, he 
knew how to write it. 

Making Surveys. 

Sherman was acting assistant adjutant- general of 
the Department of California until February, 1849, 
when he was transferred to San Francisco on similai 
duty on the staff of General Persifer Smith, com- 
manding the Division of the Pacific. There was very 
little to do, and General Smith encouraged Sherman 
and two or three other officers to go into any business 
that would enable them to make money. Sherman 
made a contract to survey Colonel J. D. Stevenson's 
newly-projected city, which was to be called " New 
York of the Pacinc," at che mouth of the San Joaquin 
River. The contract embraced also the making of 
soundings and the markmg out of a channel through 
Suisun Bay. For this work he got five hundred dol- 
lars and ten or fift^ien lots. Sherman sold enough 
lots to make an additional five hundred dollars, 
"and," he tells us, " let the balance go, for the ' City 
of New York of the Pacific ' never came to any- 
thing." 

Subsequently he made a bargain with a Mr. Hart- 
nett to survey his ranch at Consumnees River in the 
Sacramento Valley. General Ord was associated 
with him in this work. It took about a month to 
make this survey, which, when finished, was duly 
plotted, and for -it they received one-tenth of the land 



36 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

or two sub-dlvislons. Sherman by the sale of the 
land subsequently realized three thousand dollars. 
Ord and he did some work for a man named Bailor, 
who paid them five hundred dollars a day for the 
party. He invested these earnings in Sacramento 
Cit}' lots, on which he made fair profit. 

General Smith had promised Sherman that he 
would send him East the first opportunity, and the 
chance came in December, 1849. Smith was in 
Oregon, and from there he sent despatches to Sher- 
man, to be delivered in person to General Winfield 
Scott, who was then in New York. He came back by 
way of Panama. Scott questioned him closely, he 
s;4ys, in regard to affairs on the Pacific coast, and 
" Uartled me with the assertion that *our country was 
01 the eve of a terrible civil war.' He interested me 
by anecdotes of my old army comrades in his recent 
battles around the city of Mexico, and I felt deeply 
the fact that our country had passed through a foreign 
war, that my comrades had fought great battles, and 
yet I had not heard a hostile shot. Of course I 
thought it the last and only chance in my day and 
that my career as a soldier was at an end." 

Sent to Washing-tou by General Scott. ^ 

By order of Scott, Sherman went to Washington 
to lay before Secretary of War Crawford the de- 
spatches he had brought from California. He found 
Mr Ewing Secretary of the Interior, and of course 
his position was in every way assured. Crawford, he 
says, questioned him on California, but he seemed to 



STIRRING TIMES IN CALIFORNIA. 3? 

be Interested In the country chiefly as It related to 
slavery and the route through Texas. The President, 
Zachary Taylor, whom he had never met, although 
he had served under him in Florida in 1840-41, re- 
ceived him with great kindness, told him that he had 
heard his name mentioned with praise, and that he 
would be pleased to do him any act of favor. A few 
years before, if he had spoken these words to the re- 
cruiting officer at Pittsburgh, he would have promptly 
asked him to take him with him Into Mexico. 

Very wonderful stories are told of those old days In 
California, Persons are now livlna- who can remember 
well when gold was first discovered, and how the gold 
fever swept like wild-fire over the country. Men left 
home, family, friends, and all their pleasant surround- 
ings In the East to make their fortunes on the Pacific 
coast. The country was in a craze; men were mad 
to obtain sudden fortunes. 

Eag^er for Gold. 

Life in California at that time was of course rough 
and wild. Men were their own diggers ; hands that 
had never been hardened by work grew rough by 
handling the spade ; wherever there was gold to be 
had, a whole host was after It ; some men made for- 
tunes, and many others lost the litde fortune they had 
acquired In the East In the vain endeavor to obtain a 
larger one in the West. 

Sherman's life at this time, since It brought him into 
contact with all grades of men, was well calculated to 
prepare him for his future career in the service of the 



S8 GENERAL 6HERMAN. 

United States. It is particularly important that a 
general should have a knowledge of men, should 
know the interests by which they are influenced, and 
should be able to control them at his will. Only a 
man of experience who has seen a great deal of the 
world can do this. One thing is particularly to be 
noted, however ; which is, that General Sherman did 
not in California make a fortune for himself. How- 
ever rich the diggings might be, he was not himself a 
" digger." 

Men slept on the ground, and even during the 
rainy season the sky was their only covering. As a 
soldier in the service of the United States he had only 
those comforts which soldiers obtain in the field. The 
life of a soldier is hard anyway, and the only wonder 
is that during his brief stay in California Sherman did 
not break down under it. He was possessed, how- 
ever, of an iron constitution, which served him ad- 
mirably through his long life. The fibre of which 
he was made was oak, not basswood. 

A Fine City. 

What a contrast between the California of to-day 
and the California of forty years ago ! Now the wave 
of civilization, sweeping westward, has struck the 
Golden Gate. San Francisco, one of the great cities 
of the Republic, has its inviting streets, lofty mercan- 
tile establishments, costly public buildings, schools, 
churches, and financial institutions, and in some re- 
spects is the foremost city in the land. At the time 
when Sherman traversed the vales and climbed the 



STIRLING TIMES IN CALIFORNIA, S9 

mountains of the country all this was but a dream, if 
any one dreamed it at all. 

As an instance of the kind of life United States 
officers and soldiers led there, Sherman relates that 
the servants whom General Smith had brought from 
New Orleans, and who had pledged their word that 
they would remain with him faithfully for a year, de- 
serted him one after another. The ladies were left 
without maid or attendant, and, says Sherman, with an 
exquisite touch of humor, "The general commanding 
all the mighty forces of the United States on the Pa- 
cific coast had to scratch to get one good meal a day 
for his family." There was no regular time for break- 
fast, dinner, or supper ; breakfast could generally be 
had by twelve o'clock, and " dinner according to cir- 
cumstances," which circumstances varied from day to 
day, so that the most uncertain thing was the dinner, 
as no one knew when it was coming nor what it was 
to be composed of when it did come. 

We have been more particular to refer to this ex- 
perience of Sherman on the Pacific coast in order to 
bring out the varying struggles of his earlier days. 
If he had been the scion of wealth he would never 
have been the world-renowned commander. He was 
to be a self-made man ; he was to make his own way 
in the world ; he was to master the world — was to 
put the world proudly beneath his feet ; he was to 
rise above men, stretch out his arm over them and 
give them command, and his early experience qual- 
ified ^'^m for his magnificent career. 



CHAPTER IV. 

General Sherman's Romantic Marriage. — A 
Banker in California and New York. — Be- 
comes a Lawyer. 

Sherman applied for leave of absence from army 
duty, which was, of course, immediately granted. His 
first visit was to the mother whose poverty had com- 
pelled her to surrender him so many years before, to 
Mr. Ewing. She was then living at Mansfield, Ohio. 
All through these years, while he was in Florida and 
California, they had been in constant correspondence, 
and he contributed handsomely toward the support 
of the family. He returned to Washington, and on 
May I, 1850, he was married to his old playmate, 
Miss Ellen Boyle Ewing, the daughter of the man of 
whom he was the adopted child. 

The marriage ceremony was attended by a large 
and distinguished company. Daniel Webster, Henry 
Clay, Thomas H. Benton, President Taylor, and the 
entire Cabinet were among the guests. The cere- 
mony took place at the residence of Mr. Ewing, the 
old house subsequently owned by Francis P. Blair, on 
Pennsylvania avenue, opposite the old War Depart 
ment. The wedding-tour took the young officer — 
hen only thirty years old — and his bride to Baltimore, 

40 




ADMIRAL DAVID D. PORTER. 



A BANKER. 41 

New York, Niagara, and Ohio. They returned to 
Washington in July. 

Taylor's death followed in a few days, and Sherman 
attended the funeral as an aide-de camp at the request 
of the adjutant-general of the army. Sherman's rank 
at this time was only that of first lieutenant of the 
Third Artillery. In the following September he joined 
his command at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. He had not 
been there very long when Congress increased the 
commissary department by four new captains, and he 
was made one of them. He was ordered to St. Louis, 
where he relieved Captain A. J. Smith of the First 
Dragoons. His commission bore date September 27, 

1850. Sherman resided in St. Louis during the year 

1 85 1, and in the summer of 1852 his family went to 
Lancaster, but he remained at his post. In Septem- 
ber, 1852, he was ordered to New Orleans, where he 
remained until March, 1853. He then obtained six 
months' leave of absence, and resigned from the army 
September 6, 1853, to engage in the banking business 
in San Francisco. 

From Barracks to Banks. 

Sherman sent his family to Ohio, and started for 
California alone by way of Nicaragua. The captain 
of the vessel lost his reckoning, and at the end of 
eighteen days out the ship struck a reef north of San 
Francisco, the engines stopped, and, although it was 
four o'clock in the morning, the decks were soon 
crowded with terrified passengers. The sea was 
calm, and the ship, being already on the bottom, could 



42 GENERAL SSEBMAN. 

not sink. The passengers were soon taken on shore 
and huddled on the beach under a bluff. Sherman 
started off to make an examination of the country 
and find out, if possible, where they were. He learned 
that the ship had struck at Bantinas Creek, and that 
a schooner was only waiting for the tide to sail to San 
Francisco. Sherman sent back word to the captain 
that he would go to San Francisco on the schooner 
and send assistance. The schooner had not been 
many hours at sea, however, when she was struck by 
a squall which sent her over on her side. Sherman, 
among the others, found himself in the water, but 
they all managed to escape. He was picked up by a 
passing boat. Finally, he got to San Francisco, but 
if the weather had been stormy the chances are that 
he could never have reached shore. 
Bank Failure. 
After makine all the investio^ations he desired 
about the proposed banking business, he returned 
to New York about July, 1853, and proceeded to 
Lancaster, O., where his family was living. He ex- 
plained the offer that had been made, the prospects 
of success, and other matters connected with the enter- 
prise. Having completed arrangements, he resigned 
from the army, to take effect six months later. With 
his family he left New York in September for San 
Juan del Norte. He had then only one child, Lizzie, 
who at the time was less than a year old. They 
reached San Francisco safely on October 15. The ex- 
soldier now plunged into all the mysteries of banking. 



A BANKER. 43 

The banking-house of Page, Bacon & Co. soon 
became involved in trouble, and there was a run on 
*^he San Francisco branch. The failure, of course, 
involved all the other banks in the city, and the 
Sherman institution was no exception. This was in 
1855. When the doors of the Sherman house were 
opened one morning, in rushed the crowd. Several 
gentlemen asked if their money was safe, and on 
being assured that it was they went away satisfied. 
Before the day closed seventy-five thousand dollars 
in gold bullion were paid out, and the bank was kept 
open until the usual hour for closing, meeting all 
demands upon it. It still had a respectable amount 
left. The run was continued the next day, and finally 
it weathered the crisis and was left with a standincr of 
the very first class. Finally in 1855-56 business in 
California became depressed. A great many enter- 
prises failed. Foreign capital was withdrawn, and, on 
the suggestion of Sherman, Mr. Lucas gradually drew 
out of the business, settling all demands and giving 
due notice to depositors. The house closed in April, 
1857, having transacted its business in an honorable 
way from first to last. 

The Old "Vigilance" Days. 

Sherman bore a very prominent part in the disorders 
that arose in San Francisco about this time and which 
led to the establishment of the Vigilance Committee. 
But he was on the side of law and order, believing 
that the courts were abundantly able to purge the city 
of crime, and that all that wa? required was a vigorous 



44 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

execution of the law. The governor, Johnson, con- 
sulted him about the reorganization of the militia, and 
offered him a commission as major-general of the 
second division of militia, which embraced the city of 
San Francisco. Sherman accepted at first, but while 
volunteers were numerous enouorh there were no 
arms for them. In this emergency efforts were made 
to induce General John E. Wood to loan some of the 
Government rifles. He at first promised, but failed 
to keep his engagement. Sherman made many un- 
successful efforts to stop the high-handed action of the 
Vigilance Committee, but finally withdrew from the 
struggle and allowed things to take their course. 

A Banker in New York. 

After closing the bank, Sherman, on May i, 1857, 
left San Francisco with his family, by way of Panama, 
for New York. It had been arrano-ed that a branch 
bank of the St. Leu is house was to be established 
there, with Sherman in charge. Mr. Lucas, Major 
Turner, and he met in New York in July to make the 
necessary preparations. An office was rented at No. 
12 Wall street, furniture was bought, and a teller, 
bookkeeper, and porter hired. The new firm was to 
bear the name of Lucas, Turner & Co. The office 
was opened July 21, 1857, and at once began to 
receive accounts from the West and from California. 
Sherman went to live at No. 100 Prince street. 

The Metropolitan Bank and Bank of America were 
institutions at that time of good repute in New York, 
and with these he established business relations. For 



A BANKER. 45 

a time prosperity crowned his efforts and his financial 
success appeared to be assured. The struggles 
through which he had passed in years gone by, and 
the misfortunes which had attended some of his ven- 
• tures, seemed to be over. This, as has already been 
remarked, was in the year 1857, which was memor- 
able for the greatest financial panic our country ever 
saw. As a certain Friday which destroyed magnifi- 
cent fortunes in Wall street has been called " Black 
Friday," so 1857 might be called" the black year. 

Financial Disaster. 

Suddenly, like a thunderbolt falling from a clear 
sky, on the 21st of August the failure of the Ohio 
Life and Trust Company was announced; Wall street 
was instantly convulsed and the city was in a panic; 
with terrible swiftness the panic extended from New 
York to every part of the countr) . Men went to bed 
thinking they were rich, and wak^^d up to find they 
were poor. Colossal fortunes were swept away as 
the frail cottages in the valley of Johnstown were 
carried like chips before the awful flood. 

General Sherman says the panic was so much like 
similar ones he had witnessed in San Francisco that 
for a time he felt no alarm, considerine that he had 
nothing very valuable at stake. He was simply' 
amused, but the turn of affairs assumed a serious 
aspect, and affected him as it did all others in the 
community. Western stocks and securities shrank 
to almost worthless figures, so that the banks which 
Arid them and had borrowed money on them were 



V 

46 GENEEAL SHERMAN. 

forced to pay their indebtedness at once or substitute 
other collaterals of increased value. 

Startling News. 

The house with which General Sherman was con- 
nected was not indebted to parties in New York at 
all, but its correspondents in the West were deeply 
involved, and felt extremely anxious concerning their 
interests, and looked to General Sherman to protect 
them. Early in September the New York banks 
were threatened, having caught the general alarm, 
and grave fears were entertained for their safety. 

In the very midst of this panic came the news that 
the steamer Central America, formerly the George 
Law, with six hundred passengers and about one 
million six hundred thousand dollars of treasure, 
coming from Aspinwall, had foundered at sea off the 
coast of Georgia, and that about sixty of the passen- 
gers had been providentially picked up by a Swedish 
bark and brought into Savannah. The absolute loss 
of this treasure went to swell the confusion and panic 
of the day. 

All efforts to save the banks were unsuccessful; the 
whole country was in the grasp of financial failure. 
No man lost a single cent by the banking-house with 
which Sherman was connected, which speaks vol- 
umes for the integrity of those who managed its 
affairs. 

After helping to straighten matters out in New 
York and St. Louis, Sherman again went to San 
Francisco to see what he could do in the way of col- 



A BANKEK. 4? 

lectinor old debts due himself and the fii-m. He ad- 
vertised that the notes held would be sold at auction 
and. that the real estate would be sold. Having col- 
lected all that was possible to be collected, he sailed 
for home. He got back to Lancaster July 28, 1858, 
free in every way, but confronted with the serious 
problem of finding some means of supporting a wife 
and four children. 

A Kansas Lawyer. 

He conferred with Mr. Ewing and others as to 
what he should do — this man who was to be the great 
soldier of the Republic less than six years later. He 
wanted to be independent if he could. There were 
coal and salt mines belonorinor to Mr. Ewino- at 
Chauncey, O., but Sherman was not attracted toward 
that part of Ohio. Two of the Ewing boys were at 
Leavenworth, Kan., where they and their father had 
bought a good deal of land, some in the town and the 
greater portion back in the country. Mr. Ewing 
offered Sherman the manaorement of his interest in 
the speculation, and the boys were willing to give him 
an equal copartnership in the law firm. He accepted 
the offer, and was admitted to the bar, not by examina- 
tion, but on the ground of general intelligence. 

On the first day of the New Year, 1859, another 
partner was admitted into the firm, which became 
Sherman, Ewing & McCook. Business continued to 
grow, but the income was hardly large enough for the 
three partners, and Sherman consented to look out 
for something more permanent and profitable. Th^t 



48 GENEEAL SHERMAN. 

spring he undertook to open a farm on a large tract 
forty miles from Leavenworth for the benefit of Mn 
Ewlng's grand-nephew, Henry Clark, and his grand- 
niece, Mrs. Walker. There was only a little money 
in it, but it helped to pass away the time. 

Manag-er of a Military Academy. 

In June, 1859, Sherman sent a note to] Major D. 
C Buell, assistant adjutant-general, inquiring if there 
was a vacancy among the paymasters or if he could sug- 
gest any other military employment. Floyd was then 
Secretary of War. Buell sent Sherman the programme 
of a military college which was abcmt to be organized 
in Louisiana, and advised him to apply for the posi- 
tion of superintendent. Sherman at once addressed 
a letter to Governor R. C. Wickliffe at Baton Rouge, 
La. In July, 1859, Governor Wickliffe notified him 
that he had been elected superintendent of the pro- 
posed college, and asking him to come to Louisiana 
as soon as possible, as they were anxious to put the 
college into operation. 

" For this honorable position," says Sherman in 
telling the story of his life, " I was indebted to Majoi 
D. C. Buell and General G. Mason Graham. During 
the Civil War it was reported and charged that 1 
owed my position to the personal friendship of 
Generals Bragg and Beauregard, and that in taking 
up arms against the South I had been guilty of a 
breach of hospitality and friendship. I was not in- 
debted to General Bragg, because he himself told me 
that he was not even aware that I was an applicant. 



A BANKER. 4^ 

and had favored die selection of Major Jenkins, an- 
other West Point graduate. General Beauregard had 
nothingr whatever to do with the matter." 

Sherman reported to Governor Wickliffe, who by 
virtue of his position was the president of the board 
of supervisors of the new institudon, in the autumn of 
1859. The college buildings were near Alexandria, 
in the parish of Rapides. It was a large and hand- 
some house, surrounded by about four hundred acres 
of pine lands, with numerous springs. The institu- 
tion was opened with a good staff of professors 
January i, i860. A series of by-laws for its govern- 
ment had been drawn up and th^ title of the " Louis- 
iana Seminary of Learning and Military Academy " 
was given to it. The title grevi* out of the original 
grant by Congress of a certain township of public 
land, to be sold by the State and dedicated to the use 
of a "seminarvof learnino-." 

Sixty cadets appeared on the day of the opening, 
and everything started on pretty much the same lines 
as at West Point, but without uniforms or muskets. 
During the first term there were seventy- three cadets, 
of whom nearly sixty passed the examination in July, 
;86o. Defects were found in the act of incorporation, 
and the legislature, at the suggestion of Sherman, 
amended it. Handsome appropriations were made 
for the support of the cadets, the erection of new 
buildings and the purchase of scientific apparatus. 
The seminary was made a State arsenal, and was placed 
in a fair way toward efficiency and prosperity, 



CHAPTER V. 

Prophet and Patriot. — Advice to the War De- 
partment Treated as a Proof of Insanity. 

Sherman, however, could not be happy away from 
the tap of the drum. As stated, he was made president 
of the Louisiana State MiHtary Academy with a salary 
of five thousand dollars, and he stayed there until 
Louisiana's talk of secession roused his ire, and then 
penned the following sharp and patriotic letter: 

Jan. 1 8, 1861. 

Governor Thomas O. Moore, Baton Rouge, La. : 

Sir : As I occupy a ^2/^5/- military position under 
this State, I deem it proper to acquaint you that I 
accepted such position when Louisiana was a State in 
the Union, and when the motto of the seminary was 
inserted in marble over the main door: ''By the liber- 
ality of the General Government of the United 
States — the Union, Esto pei^petua!' Recent events 
foreshadow a great change, and it becomes all men 
to choose. If Louisiana withdraws from the Federal 
Union, I prefer to maintain my allegiance to the old 
Constitution as lono- as a fragment of it survives, and 
my longer stay here would be wrong in every sense 
of the word. In that event I beg you will send or 
appoint some authorized agent to take charge of the 

50 




GENERAL GEORGE B. McCLELLAN. 



52 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

arms and munitions of war here belonging to the 
State, or direct me what disposition should be made 
of them. And furthermore, as president of the board 
of supervisors I beg you to take immediate steps to 
relieve me as superintendent the moment the State 
determines to secede, for on no earthly account will I 
do any act or think any thought hostile to or in defi- 
ance of the old Government of the United States. 
With great respect, etc., 

W. T. Sherman. 

His resignation was accepted, and he removed to 
St. Louis. Pending the dreadful days of doubt be- 
tween the inauguration of President Lincoln and the 
firing upon Sumter, Sherman was at Washington, a 
close observer of affairs. He held a position as su- 
perintendent of a street railway in St. Louis at a 
salary of two thousand dollars, but his heart was in 
mightier things than transportation, and he was ready 
to obey the first call of duty. 

He Meets with a Cool Reception. 

It came in the spring and found Sherman waidng. 
He met the fate which so often overtakes enthusiastic 
souls. The Secretary of War received him coldly, 
saying that he thought the ebullition of feeling w^ould 
soon subside. Even President Lincoln did not then 
believe that the nation would be plunged into civil 

war. 

'^ Humph !" said Sherman in his blunt way ; "you 
niio-ht as well try to put out a fire with a squirt gun 



PKOPHET AND PATRIOT. 



53 



as expect to put down this rebellion with three 
months' troops." 

He refused to go to Ohio for the purpose of rais- 
ing three months' troops, declaring that the whole 
military power of the country should be called out at 




ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 

once to crush the rebellion in its incipiency. Well 
would it have been if his advice had been taken. It 
was worthy of consideration, for his residence in 
Louisiana had criven him an inklinor- of the tremend- 
ous feeling in the South — a feeling which the authori- 
ties at Washington did not fully appreciate. 



54 GENEHAl SHERMAN. 

Sherman's patriotic ardor was at last rewarded, and 
he was appointed by General McDowell ix colonel of 
the Thirteenth Infantry, regular army. At the battle 
of Bull Run he was in command of the Third brigade 
of the First division, and his command was the only 
one in that memorable defeat which retired from the 
field in good order. For his soldierly qualities In this 
battle he was promoted to the rank of brigadier- 
general of volunteers, and was ordered to join An- 
derson, the hero of Sumter, who was in command of 
the Department of the Ohio, with headquarters at 
Louisville. General Anderson's ill-health forced him 
to resign, and Sherman succeeded to the command. 

Good Advice Disregarded. 

The affairs of the department were in a bad way. 
Sherman applied for reinforcements. In reply to a 
question of Secretary Cameron as to the number of 
troops required for a successful advance, Sherman 
said that "to make a successful advance against the 
enemy — then strongly posted at all strategic points 
from the Mississippi to Cumberland Gap — would re- 
quire an army two hundred thousand strong." For 
this reply he was adjudged to be " crazy." Being 
thus in discredit with the War Department, he asked 
to be relieved. General Buell succeeded him, and he 
retired to the command of Benton Barracks, near St. 
Louis. 

Grant, who still had his spurs to win, stood by 
Sherman in this opinion, and the latter never forgot 
it. One day, shordy after the occupation of Savan- 



PROI^HET AND PATEIOT. 65 

nah by Sherman, a prominent civilian approached Te- 
cumseh and sought to win favor by disparaging Grant. 
"It won't do, sir," said Sherman; "it won't do at 
all. Grant is a great general. He stood by me when 
I was crazy, and I stood by him when he was drunk 
and now, by thunder, sir, we stand by each other." 

Not so Crazy as Others. 

Subsequent events proved that Sherman was again 
right and the authorities at Washington wrong. If 
the Confederates had made good use of their oppor- 
tunities, General Buckner might have made good his 
boast of investinor Louisville before winter. 

What hurt Sherman more than to be called crazy 
was to have the details of a private conversation with 
Secretary Cameron and General Thomas, in which he 
fully reported the condition of his troops, amply re- 
peated in the newspapers, thus giving the enemy in- 
valuable information regarding the weakness of his 
position. The enemy took advantage of this know- 
ledge, and Sherman was forced to employ strategy to 
hold his position. He recognized that he was in dis- 
favor with the War Department, and had the good 
sense to retire from a conflict which must have proved 
disastrous to him and to the men under his command. 
Sherman was always a man of rare patience, and it 
never stood him in better stead than in this instance. 

Saved the Day at Shiloh. 

His opportunity came in the following year, 1862, 
when he was early called Into the field and assigned 
to the command of the district of Cairo. In Febru- 



66 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

ary his headquarters were at Paducah, Ky., and he 
rendered General Grant invaluable assistance in for- 
warding troops and supplies to the latter, who was 
operating on the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. 
After the capture of Fort Donelson he was assigned 
to the command of the Fifth division of the Army of 
the Tennessee, Major-General Grant commanding. 

In the battle of Shiloh he first displayed the hidden 
merit which, up to that time, had only met with the 
ridicule of his superiors. 

General Grant, always generous in giving praise to 
those beneath him, paid this tribute to Sherman's 
work : 

" To General Sherman I was greatly Indebted for 
his promptness in forwarding to me, during the siege 
of Fort Donelson, reinforcements and supplies from 
Paducah. At the battle of Shiloh, on the last day, he 
held, with raw troops, the key-point of the landing. 
It is no disparagement to any other officer to say that 
I do not believe there was another division com- 
mander on the field who had the skill and experience 
to have done it. To his individual efforts I am in- 
debted for the success of that battle." 

Valor and Promotion. 

General Halleck, in his despatch to the Secretary 
of War recommending General Sherman for promo- 
tion, said of him : " It is the unanimous opinion here 
that Brigadier-General W. T. Sherman saved the for- 
tunes of the day on the 6th of April and contributed 
Jargely to the glorious victory of the 7th. He was in 



58 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

the thickest of the fight on both days, having three 
horses killed under him and beinor wounded twice. I 
respectfully request that he be made a major-general 
of volunteers, to date from the 6th instant." 

With such glorious and gallant tributes as these, 
who will deny to William Tecumseh Sherman the 
meed of his deserts ? The flaming torch of truth 
speaks from the battle-field. It is only when men are 
grown cold and selfish that the spirit of envy detracts 
from a man's true worth. 

On the recommendation of General Halleck, Gen- 
eral Sherman was promoted to be a major-general of 
volunteers, his rank dating from May i, 1862. He 
next took part in the operations against Corinth, and 
his troops were the first to enter the enemy's works 
upon the morning of May 30. 

Sherman's Plan of Campaig-n. 

The summer of 1862 was passed in completely over- 
running and subjecting that portion of Tennessee 
lying west of the Tennessee River. Sherman moved 
at the head of a column across the country toward 
Memphis. The city capitulated to the gunboats on 
June 6, and Sherman occupied it and assumed com- 
mand July 22. 

He found the city under a reign of terror, but his 
strong arm soon brought order out of chaos. The 
turbulent element was quelled and Union people in 
the city once more breathed free. 

An interesting glimpse into Sherman's scheme of 
campaign was given by him in a speech delivered in 



PHOPHET AND PATHTOT. 69 

St. Louis In the summer of 1865. *' Here in St. Louis, 
probably," he said, " began the great centre movement 
which terminated the war; a battle-field such as never- 
before was seen, extending from ocean to ocean al- 
most with the right wing and the left wing ; and from 
the centre here. I remember one evening up in the 
old Planters' House sitting with General Halleck and 
General Cullum, and we were talking about this, that, 
and the other. A map was on the table, and I was 
explaining the position of the troops of the enemy in 
Kentucky, when I came to this State. 

Halleck' s Question. 

" General Halleck knew well the position here, and 
I remember well the question he asked me — the ques- 
tion of the school-teacher to his child : ' Sherman, here 
is the line ; how will you break that line ? ' — * Physically, 
by a perpendicular force.' — ' Where is the perpendic- 
ular? ' — 'The line of the Tennessee River.' General 
Halleck is the author of that first beginning, and I 
give him credit for it with pleasure. Laying down 
his pencil upon the map, he said, * There is the line, 
and we must take it.' The capture of the forts on the 
Tennessee River by the troops led by Grant followed. 

"These were the grand strategic features of that first 
movement, and it succeeded perfectly. General Hal- 
leck's plan went farther — not to stop at his first line, 
which ran through Columbus, Bowling Green, crossing 
the river at Henry and Donelson, but to push on to 
the second line, which ran through Memphis and 
Charleston ; but troubles intervened at Nashville and 



60 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

delays followed ; opposition to the last movemeiit was 
made, and I myself was brought an actor on the scene. 
I remember our ascent on the Tennessee River; I 
have seen to-night captains of steamboats who first 
went with us there ; storms came and we did not 
reach the point we desired. At that time General 
C. F. Smith was in command, t^ was a man indeed. 
All the old officers remember him as a orallant and 
elegant officer, and had he lived probably some of us 
younger fellows would not have attained our present 
positions. 

"We Fought aud Held our Ground." 
''We followed the line — the second line— and then 
came the landinor of forces at Pittsburo- Landing. 
Whether it was a mistake in landing them on the 
west instead of the east bank it is not necessary now 
to discuss. I think it was not a mistake. There was 
gathered the first great army of the West, commen- 
cing with only twelve thousand, then twenty thousand, 
then thirty thousand, and we had about thirty-eight 
thousand in that battle, and all I claim for that is that 
it was a contest for manhood. There was no strategy. 
Grant was there and others of us, all young at that 
time and unknown men, but our enemy was old, and 
Sidney Johnson, whom all the officers remembered as 
a power among the old officers, high above Grant, 
myself, or anybody else, led the enemy on that battle- 
field, and I almost wonder how we conquered. But, 
as I remarked, it was a contest for manhood — man to 
man — soldier to soldier. We foueht and we held our 



62 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

ground, and therefore accounted ourselves victorious. 
From that time forward we had with us the prestige ; 
that battle was worth millions and millions to us by 
reason of the fact of the courage displayed by the 
brave soldiers on that occasion, and from that time to 
this I never heard of the first want of courage on the 
part of our Northern soldiers." 

Sherman counted the war virtually ended when 
Vicksburg was taken and "the Mississippi ran un- 
vexed to the sea ;" but the Confederates would not 
have it so, and there had to be more fighting. Jeffei 
son Davis had the Southerners well trained, and h» 
refused to ratify the work of the Union armies, being 
vexatiously obstinate. 

Movements against Vicksburg. 

In November, Sherman was assigned to the con 
mand of the right wing of the Army of the Tennes 
see, and conducted an expedition threatening the 
enemy's rear south of the Tallahatchie River, and 
enabled General Grant to occupy the position without 
a fight. In December he, having returned to Mem- 
phis, was assigned to the command of the Fifteenth 
army corps, still continuing, however, in the general 
command of the right wing of the army. In the 
middle of the same month he organized an expedi- 
tion composed of the Thirteenth and Fifteenth corps, 
and moved down the Mississippi on transports, with 
a view to an attack upon Vicksburg from the Yazoo 
River, near Chickasaw Bayou and Haines' Bluff. The 
surrender of Holly Springs, Miss., enabling the enemy 



PKOPHET AND PATRIOT. 63 

to concentrate at the point of attack, frustrated the 
efforts of the Union troops. 

The terrible fighting of December 27th, 28th, and 
29th settled the fact that the place could not be taken 
by storm, and the troops were withdrawn to consum- 
mate the glorious victory of Arkansas Post in Janu- 

1 




GRANT'S HEADQUARTERS NEAR VICKSBURG, 

ary, 1863. In this last action General Sherman was 
subordinate to General McClellan, having been as- 
signed by that officer to the command of the right 
wing of the temporary Army of the Mississippi. 
Upon the concentration of troops preparatory to 
further movements against Vicksburg, General Sher- 
man was stationed with his corps in the vicinity of 



64 GENE-RAL SHERMAK 

Young's Point. In March, 1863, he conducted the 
expedition up Steele's Bayou and released Admiral 
Porter's fleet of gunboats, which, having been cut off 
and invested by the enemy, was in imminent danger 
of being captured. This expedition was perhaps one 
of the most severe ever experienced by his troops. 
They penetrated through a country cut up by numer- 
ous and deep bayous and swamps and overgrown by 
immense forests of cottonwood and cypress. Sher- 
man, with his usual determination, was not to be 
thwarted, and pushed ahead and accomplished hig 
object. 



CHAPTER VIo 

Army of the Tennessee. — Sherman Co-operates 
with Grant. — Forward Movements. 

Upon the inauguration of General Grant's move- 
ment across the Peninsula to Grand Gulf and Bruins- 
burg, during April, 1863, General Sherman made a 
feint upon Haines' Bluff, on the Yazoo River. His 
demonstration (April 26th and 29th) was intended to 
hold the enemy about Vicksburg while the main army 
was securing a foothold on the eastern shore of the 
Mississippi below. Having successfully performed 
this duty, by means of rapid and forced marches he 
moved down the Louisiana side of the river, crossed 
at Grand Gulf, and immediately pushed forward and 
rejoined General Grant's main army. 

Sherman, with his corps, accompanied McPherson 
on his movement against Jackson, the capital of Mis- 
sissippi. In the battle of Jackson, Sherman took no 
part, in consequence of the rout of the enemy being 
effected by McPherson's corps alone. The day after 
the battle McPherson hurried toward Baker's Creek, 
while Sherman remained in Jackson some hours longer 
to complete the destruction of the enemy's stores and 
the railroad. He then moved on a line parallel with 
the route of march of McPherson's column, crossed 
5 65 



56 



GENERAL SHERMAN. 



the Big Black River and took possession of Walnut 
Hills, near Vicksburg, on May i8th. 

The occupation of this important position enabled 
General Grant to open communication with his depot 
of supplies on the Mississippi River, byway of Yazoo 




GENERAL ULYSSES S. GRANT. 

River, from Chickasaw Bayou. During the siege of 
Vicksburg, Sherman's corps held the left of General 
Grant's lines and co-operated in all the combined at- 
tacks of the centre and right. During the conference 
between the rebel commander Pemberton and Gen- 
eral Grant in regard to the terms of capitulation for 



ARMY 01 THE TENNESSEE. 6? 

the garrison and city of Vicksburg. Sherman was 
vigorously engaged in organizing an expedition at 
the Big Black River. The plan was to carry the "var 
into the enemy's country ; hence the preparations ^i 
this expedition. 




GENERAL JOE JOHNSTON. 



No sooner had Vicksburg surrendered than he re- 
ceived orders to throw his force across the river and 
move out into the country. Vicksburg was occupied 



o» GENERAL SHERMAN. 

on the morning of the 4th of July. The same after- 
noon troops were converging from all parts of the old 
lines, and Sherman's advance had already crossed the 
Big Black. 

Two days' march found Sherman investing Joe 
Johnston in Jackson. Before the beginning of 
August he engaged the enemy, and, defeating him 
severely, was about to close in upon his rear when 
the rebel commander very prudently withdrew. 

For his great service in the military operations of 
1863, Major-General Sherman was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general in the regular army, to date 
from July 4, 1863, and was confirmed bv the United 
States Senate February 29, 1864. 

Sliernian Succeeds Grant. 

Upon the assignment of General Grant to the 
command of the military division of the Mississippi, 
General Sherman succeeded, by authority of the 
President, to the command of the Department and 
Army of the Tennessee, to date from October 27, 
1863. After making some necessary changes in the 
disposition of the troops on the Mississippi River, 
Sherman concentrated portions of the Fifteenth and 
Sixteenth corps at Corinth, and in the month of No- 
vember moved, by way of Tuscumbia and Decatur, 
Ala., to join and participate with General Grant in 
his winter campaign against Chattanooga. General 
Sherman's forces moved up the north side of the 
Tennessee River, and during the nights of Novem- 
ber 23d and 24th established pontoon-bridges and 



ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE. 69 

effected a lodgment on the south side, between Citico 
Creek and the Chlckamauga River, 

After the development of the plans along other 
portions of the lines, on the 24th Sherman carried 
the eastern end of Missionary Ridge up to the tun- 
nel. On the next day the whole of Missionary 
Ridge, from Rossville to the Chickamauga, was car- 
ried after a series of desperate struggles. By the 
turning of the enemy's right and forcing it back 
upon Ringgold and Dalton, Sherman's forces were 
thrown between Bragg and Longstreet, completely 
severing the enemy's lines. No sooner was this end 
reached than Thomas and Hooker forced Brao^or into 
Georgia, while Sherman, with his own and Granger's 
forces, moved off to the succor of Knoxville. Burn- 
side, by a gallant defence of the position, held out 
against Longstreet, who upon the appearance of 
Sherman was obliged to raise the siege and effected 
his escape by withdrawing into Virginia. The enemy 
being defeated at every point, his army broken and 
his plans completely disarranged, and Grant's army 
in winter quarters, General Sherman personally left 
for Cairo, thence for Memphis, arriving in the begin- 
ning of January. After organizing a portion of the 
Sixteenth corps for the field, he despatched it upon 
transports to Vicksburg. 

Pushes on to Vicksburg. 

In the latter part of the month he joined it, and fin- 
ished the organization of a fine body of troops, com- 
posed of portions of the Sixteenth army corps, 



70 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Major-General S. A. Hurlbut commanding, and the 
Seventeenth army corps, Major-General James B. 
McPherson commanding. 

On the third of February the expeditionary army, 
commanded in person by Sherman, crossed the Big 
Black, and after continuous skirmishing along the 
route entered Meridian, Miss., February 14, 1864, 
driving Polk, with a portion of his army, toward 
Mobile, another portion toward Selma, and com- 
pletely cutting off Lovell from the main army, pur- 
suing him with cavalry northward toward Marion. 
Remaining in possession of Meridian four days, the 
railroads converging there were destroyed within 
a radius of twenty miles. The army then returned by 
a different route, reaching Canton, Miss., February 26. 

Turning over the command of his army to McPher- 
son, with instructions to devastate the country and 
then to continue the return march to Vicksburg, 
General Sherman, at eight o'clock the next morning, 
escorted by the Second Iowa Cavalry, pushed through 
in advance of the army, riding over sixty miles in 
twenty-four hours, and reached Vicksburg on the 
morning of February 28th. Remaining in the city but 
a few hours, he embarked on one of the boats of the 
Mississippi Marine brigade and left for New Orleans. 

At the expiration of eight days he returned to 
Vicksburg, having during his absence consulted with 
General Banks upon the Red River expedition, toward 
which he was to contribute a co-operating column. 
This force was immediately organized and equipped, 



ARMY OP THE TENNESSEE. 71 

and embarked in March for the mouth of Red River, 
and was commanded by Generals A. J. Smith and 
Thomas Kilby Smith, both veteran officers of large 
experience and ability. Sherman now left for 
Memphis. 

On to Atlanta. 

The promotion of General Grant to the rank of 
lieutenant-general and commander-in-chief of the 
armies of the United States opened a still higher pro- 
motion to General Sherman. By authority of the 
President, expressed in general orders dated March 
1 2th, he was assigned to the command of the military 
division of the Mississippi. On the 14th of March 
he received notification of his appointment while at 
Memphis. He immediately left for Nashville, and 
held a conference with General Grant upon the sub- 
ject of the spring operations. Between the two 
officers there was a full and complete understanding 
of the policy and plans for the ensuing campaign, 
which was designed to embrace a vast area of country. 
On the 25th, General Sherman commenced a tour of 
inspection of the various armies of his command, visit- 
ing Athens, Decatur, Huntsville, and Larkin's Ferry, 
Ala. ; Chattanooga, Loudon, and Knoxville, Tenn. 

In the course of his visit he held interviews with 
Major-General McPherson at Huntsville, Major-Gen- 
eral Thomas at Chattanooga and Major-General 
Schofield at Knoxville. With these officers he ar- 
ranged in general terms the lines of communication 
CO be guarded, the strength of the several columns 



72 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

and garrisons, and appointed the ist of May as the 
time for everything to be In readiness. While these 
commanders were carrying out their Instructions 
General Sherman returned to Nashville, giving his 
personal attention to the subject of supplies, organiz- 
ing a magnificent system of railroad communication 
by two routes from Nashville, and preparing the way 
for future operations. 

Three Great Armies. 

The storehouses and depots of Chattanooga soon 
groaned beneath the weight of abundance. The 
whole of East Tennessee and Northern Alabama 
contributed to the general store, while the whole 
North-west and West poured volumes of sustenance 
through the avenues of communication from Louis- 
ville. On the 27th of April the three great armies of 
his division were converging at Chattanooga. The 
1st of May witnessed over sixty thousand troops and 
one hundred and thirty guns forming the Army of 
the Cumberland, Major-General George H. Thomas 
commanding, encamped in the vicinity of Ringgold, Ga, 

McPherson, with a portion of Grant's old veteran 
and victorious battalions of the Army of the Tennes- 
see, numbering twenty-five thousand troops of all 
larms and ninety-six guns, lay at Gordon's Mill, on the 
historic Chickamauga. General Schofield, with over 
thirteen thousand troops and twenty-eight guns, con- 
stituting the Army of the Ohio, lay on the Georgia 
line, north of Dalton. In the aggregate these three 
armies formed a grand army of over ninety-eight 



ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE. 73 

thousand men and two hundred and fifty-four guns, 
under the supreme command of General Sherman. 
Preparing: for Attack. 

The enemy, superior in cavalry and with three 
corps of infantry and artillery, commanded by Hardee, 
Hood, and Polk, and all under the command of General 
Joseph E. Johnston, lay in and about Dalton. His 
position was covered by an inaccessible ridge known 
as the Rocky Face, through which ran Buzzard Roost 
Gap. The railroad and wagon-road following this 
pass the enemy had strongly defended by abattis and 
well-constructed fortifications. Batteries commanded 
it in its whole length, and especially from a ridge at its 
farther end, like a traverse directly across its debouch. 
To drive the enemy from this position by the front 
was impossible. After well reconnoitring the vicinity, 
but one practicable route by which to attack Johnsott 
was found, and that was by Snake Creek Gap, by 
which Resaca, a point on the enemy's railroad com- 
munication, eighteen miles below Dalton, could be 
reached. 

Accordingly, McPherson was instructed to move 
rapidly from his position at Gordon's Mill, by way of 
Ship's Gap, Villanow, and Snake Creek Gap, directly 
upon Resaca. During this movement Thomas was to 
make a strong feint attack in front, and Schofield was 
to press down from the north. Thomas occupied 
Tunnel Hill May 7, facing Buzzard Roost Gap, ex- 
periencing little opposition except fiom cavalry. Mc- 
PhersGn reached Snake Creek Gap May 8, surprising 



74 



GENERAL SHERMAN. 



a brlg-ade of the enemy while en route to occupy it. 
May 9, Schofield moved down from the north close 
on Daltoiio The same day Newton's division of the 




PICKETS ON DUTY. 



Fourth corps carried the ridge, Geary of the Twen- 
tieth corps crowding on for the summit. 

While this was going on at the front the head oi 
McPherson's column made its appearance near Resaca 
and took position confronting the enemy's works. 
May lo the Twentieth corps (Hooker) moved to join 



ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE, 76 

McPherson ; the Fourteenth corps (Palmer) followed ; 
the Fourth corps (Howard) commenced pounding 
Dalton from the front. Meanwhile, Schofield also 
hastened to join McPherson. May ii the whole 
army, with the exception of Howard's corps and some 
cavalry, was in motion for Snake Creek Gap. May 1 2, 
McPherson debouched from the gap on the main road, 
Kilpatrick with his cavalry in front. 

Thomas moved on McPherson's left, Schofield on 
Thomas' left. Kilpatrick drove the enemy within 
two miles of Resaca. Kilpatrick having been wound- 
ed, Colonel Murray took command, and, wheeling out 
of the road, McPherson's columns crowded impetu- 
ously by, and, driving the enemy's advance within the 
defences of Resaca, occupied a ridge of bold hills, his 
right resting on the Oostenaula, two miles below the 
railroad bridge, and his left abreast of the town. 
Thomas, on his left, facing Camp Creek, and Scho^ 
field, forcing his way through a dense forest, came in 
on the extreme left. 

The enemy had evacuated Dalton and was now 
concentrated at Resaca. Howard occupied Dalton 
and hung upon the enemy's rear. May 14 the battle 
of Resaca commenced: May 15 it continued. The 
same night the enemy was flying toward the Eto- 
wah. The whole army followed in pursuit. May 19 
Sherman held all of the country north of the Etowah 
and several crossings of that stream. May 23 the 
whole army was moving upon the flank of the ene- 
my's position in the Allatoona Mountains. May ;*5, 



76 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Hooker whipped the enemy near New Hope Church. 
On May 28, McPherson killed and wounded about 
five thousand of the enemy near Dallas. June 6 the 
enemy was in hasty retreat to his next position at 
Kenesaw Mountains. June 8, Blair arrived at Ack- 
wordi with the fresh troops of the Seventeenth corps. 
June II the sounds of Sherman's artillery reverbera- 
ted among the rugged contortions of Kenesaw. July 
3 the enemy was pressing for the Chattahoochee. The 
mountains and Marietta were occupied by our forces 
the same day. 

The Gallant McPlierson's Death. 

The enemy had a tete-du-pont and formidable works 
on the Chattahoochee at the railroad crossinor. Sher- 
man advanced boldly with a small force on the front. 
July 7, Schofield had possession of one of the enemy's 
pontoons and occupied the south side of the Chatta- 
hoochee. By July 9, Sherman held three crossings. 
Johnston abandoned his tete-du-pont, and there was no 
enemy north or west of the Chattahoochee July 10. 
July 17 the whole army was in motion across the 
Chattahoochee. July 18, Atlanta was cut off from the 
east. Rousseau, with an expeditionary cavalry force, 
was operating within the enemy's lines. July 20 all 
the armies closed in upon Atlanta. The same after- 
noon the enemy attacked Hooker and was driven 
into his intrenchments. On July 22, Johnston was 
relieved, and Hood, in command of the enemy, sud- 
denly attacked McPherson's extreme left with over- 
powering numbers. Giles A. Smith held the position 



i 



ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE. 77 

first attacked with a division of McPherson s troops. 
First he fought from one side of the parapet, when, 
being attacked in the rear, he fought from the other. 
McPherson's whole army soon became engaged. The 
battle was the most desperate of the campaign. Mc- 
Pherson was killed when the contest was the thickest. 
His last order saved the army. Logan succeeded to 
command. " McPherson and revenge ! " rang along 
the lines. The effect was electric, and victory closed 
in with the night. The battle footed up nine thousand 
of the enemy against four thousand of our own troops 
killed and wounded — a balance in our favor of five 
thousand dead and mangled bodies. 



CHAPTER VIL 

From Atlanta to the Sea.— Thrilling Story of 
One of the Greatest Feats in Military His- 
tory. 

After Vicksburg, Sherman was soon to be heard 
from among the mountains of Tennessee. Rose- 
crans, having encountered Bragg in the tremendous 
battle of Chickamauga, had fallen back into Chatta- 
nooga and was virtually under siege. Grant, sum- 
moned thither from Vicksburg to take command, 
hurried Sherman, who had succeeded to the com- 
mand of the Army of the Tennessee, to the rescue. 

Arriving at Chattanooga from the long march, 
Sherman took post on Grant's left at Tunnel Hill, 
and when all was ready engaged the enemy hotly ; 
while Thomas, with the Army of the Cumberland, 
'' forming on the plain below with the precision of 
parade," swept magnificently across Mission Ridge 
and drove Bragg back into Georgia. Meanwhile, 
Burnside had been besieged by Longtreet at 
Knoxville, and was in great stress. Without a 
pause for rest, Sherman was sent to his relief, but 
Bragg's disaster had broken up the siege, and Sher- 
man marched back to Chattanooga. Congress voted 
thanks to him and his men '' for their gallant and 
arduous services in marching to the relief of the 
7S 



FROM ATLANTA TO THE SEA. 



7^ 



Army of the Cumberland, and for their gallantry and 
heroism in the battle of Chattanooga, which con- 
tributed in a great degree to the success of oui urms 
in that glorious victory." 




fiENERAL GEORGE H. THOMAS- 

Early in 1864, General Sherman was invested with 
the command of the entire South-west, and on the 
19th of April he received his final instructions from 
General Grant for the movement against Atlanta. 



80 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Starting from Ringgold, in front of Chattanooga, 
with nearly one hundred thousand men, including 
Thomas's Army of the Cumberland, over sixty 
thousand strong, McPherson's army of the Ten- 
nessee, and Schofield's Army of the Ohio, Sherman 
drove back his opponent, the wary and skilful Gen- 
eral J. E. Johnston, in a series of remarkable move- 
ments, now fighting and now flanking him. Sherman 
came up with Johnston at Dalton, turned his position 
at Buzzard's Roost, assaulted him at Resaca, flanked 
him again and threw him back to Cassville and the 
Etowah, and fought him again at New Hope Church 
and on the heights of the Kenesaw, finally compel- 
ling him to fall back on Atlanta, with all of 
Northern Georgia at the mercy of the victorious 
invader. 

Thanks from President Lincoln. 

In the meantime Hood superseded Johnston, but 
he lost in quick succession the battles of Peach Tree 
Creek, Ezra Church, opposite Atlanta, and Jonesboro, 
twenty miles away, after which the victorious army 
entered the city, where Sherman received from Presi- 
dent Lincoln the thanks of the nation " for the dis- 
tinguished ability and perseverance displayed in 
the campaign in Georgia, which, under Divine favor, 
has resulted in the capture of Atlanta. The marches, 
battles, sieges, and other military operations that have 
signalized the campaign must render it famous in the 
annals of war." 

The occasion of this distinguished praise is found 



IFROM ATLA.NTA TO THE SEAo 81 

in Sherman's famous march and conquests, which we 
now proceed to descnbe„ 

There was Htde of the vivid interest then attached 
to the fiercely-contendlnor armies in Virginia in Sher» 
man's famous march to ihe sea. However, it was far 
more brilHant, showed greater mastery of the art of 
war, and was fraught with more important results than 
were dreamed of at the time. 

Illustrious Commanders. 

Sherman had met Grant at Nashville in the middle 
of March, and had accompanied him to Cincinnati 
during which time the plans of the campaign were 
matured. He was in command of the principal 
Western armies— the Army of the Tennessee, under 
McPherson ; the Army of the Cumberland, under 
Thomas ; and the Army of the Ohio, under Schofield. 
All were officers of the regular army and graduates 
of West Point. All had long served with the Western 
armies, and had received their promotion after dis- 
tinguished services. Thomas, older than his brother- 
generals, a Virginian by birth, had never faltered in 
his allegiance to the Union, and had quickly arrived 
at high command in the West. At the disastrous 
battle of Chickamauga he alone had achieved renown 
when others had suffered defeat and disgrace. Mc- 
Pherson had won each successive step of his promo- 
tion by brilliant services from Fort Donelson to Vicks- 
burg. Schofield, the youngest of the three and class- 
mate of McPherson and of his later Confederate 
opponent, Hood, had shown administrative capacity 



82 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

and military ability of a high order when in command 
of the Department of the Missouri. 

Such were the generals under Sherman's immediate 
command, In whom he had complete confidence and 
which tbey In turn fully reciprocated. 

The Confederate forces were also led by men edu- 
cated at West Point, and who had seen service in 
the regular army. General Joseph E. Johnston was 
in chief command, while Hardee, Hood, and Polk 
commanded the divisions under him. The entire Con- 
federate force throughout Tennessee, Northern Ala- 
bama, and Mississippi numbered about one hundred 
and eighty thousand, while the available force under 
Johnston at the outset of the great march numbered 
less than fifty thousand, with headquarters at Chatta- 
nooga. Sherman's force started with a total of ninety- 
eight thousand eighi hundred, which a month later 
was increased by Blair's corps to one hundred and 
twelve thousand eight hundred men. 

The Start for the Sea. 

Notwithstanding Johnston's Inferiority of force, the 
authorities at Richmond expected him to assume the 
offensive, and promised reinforcements as he should 
advance. Johnston wanted all his reinforcements first, 
and thus, at the very beginning of the campaign, there 
was neither harmony nor good feeling between him 
and President Davis. 

Meantime, the 5th of May came, and in accordance 
with Grant's general orders Sherman set his army In 
motion for Dalton, And now followed a campaign 



PROM ATLANTA TO THE SEA. oo 

which has had no parallel in modern wai*. It re- 
sembles more the old '' War of Positions " of the 
days of Gustavus Adolphus and Turenne, when both 
armies, protecting themselves on their fighting ground, 
sought for advantage in either outflanking the enemy 
or cutting off his supplies. From Dalton to Atlanta 
it was a campaign of siege and counter-siege the 
whole way. Sherman pressed forward on the prin- 
ciple of an advance against fortified positions. The 
whole country passed through was an interminable 
line of forts, connected by fifty miles of trenches, with 
abattis and finished batteries. Even the skirmishers 
learned to cover themselves by the simplest and best 
forms, such as rails or logs piled up to make a simple 
lunette, covered on the outside by earth thrown up. 

In all this work of throwing up intrenchments or 
making rifle-pits the men of both armies became ex- 
tremely skilful, because each man could realize its 
importance to himself. As soon as a brigade fancied 
a position it would set to work with a will, and would 
construct an impregnable position in a night. To 
lighten the labors of his men in this respect Sherman 
organized a pioneer corps of freedmen, two hun- 
dred of whom were assigned to every division, re- 
ceiving regular pay and rations. 

I Sherman's greatest problem was to supply his army, 
and it was a source of continual anxiety to him. The 
country was entirely impoverished, and he was de- 
pendent on the preservation of the railway, which he 
w^s obliged to rebuild as he advanced. The displace- 



B4 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

ment of a rail would hinder communication for a con- 
siderable time, while the frequent attacks made on the 
trains by the guerillas necessitated strong guards 
along the line. Nevertheless, the supplies came and 
Sherman moved steadily forward. 
Hard Figlitiug". 

On the 8th of May the hostile armies first came in 
contact at Dalton, where heavy skirmishing, followed 
by an unsuccessful assault under General Thomas 
against Rock Hill Ridge, convinced General Sherman 
at the start that direct attacks on intrenched positions 
could not yield good results. He then moved Mc- 
Pherson around by the right against Johnston's rear, 
and the latter was obliged to fall back upon Resaca, 
to fortifications already prepared there. On the 14th 
of May the Federal forces found nothing in their front 
at Dalton and moved on to Resaca. Here some hard 
fighting took place, in which Palmer's corps of 
Thomas's army and Judah's division of Schofield^s 
played a conspicuous part, but no serious impression 
could be made on the Confederate lines. Again Mc- 
Pherson moved around by the right, and again John- 
ston was obliged to retire, nor could he find a suitable 
place to make a stand until he reached the Etowah 
River, forty miles south of Resaca and ninety-six miles 
from Chattanooga. He was immediately followed by 
Sherman, who sent forward two cavalry divisions in 
pursuit, supported by a division of infantry, the main 
army advancing in parallel lines in three columns. 

Sherman's march was necessarily slow, because he 



PROM ATLANTA TO THE SEA. S5 

■was obliged to rebuild the railroads as he advanced. 
Johnston had crossed the Etowah River, and now 
held A strong position at Allatoona Pass, in the 
Etowah Mountains. Here and at New Hope, called 
by the soldiers " Hell Hole," there was very hard 
fighting, but again Sherman's flanking movement by 
the right proved successful, and Johnston on the 4th 
of June fell back to Marietta, and Allatoona was left 
in our possession. Before advancing farther Sherman 
finished the railroad up to Allatoona, and strongly 
fortified that place and made it a secondary base of 
supplies. His army, too, needed some rest after 
nearly a month of incessant fighting and fortifying. 

In the Georgia Mountains. 

On the 9th of June, Sherman again moved forward 
in the direction of Marietta. Johnston held an unas- 
sailable position in the mountain-ranges which under 
the names of Kenesaw, Pine Hill, and Lost Mountain 
divide the tributaries of the Etowah from those of the 
Chattahoochee. The conical summits of the chestnut- 
covered mountains were crowned wdth signal-stations, 
while along their sides and among the ravines breast- 
works and abattis completely barred the further 
•progress of the Federal troops. 

Here, at last, it seemed that Sherman's farther 
advance must be stayed. In person he reconnoitred 
the position, exposing himself fearlessly as he directed 
the firing of batteries for the purpose of drawing the 
fire of the enemy to ascertain the strength of the 
various positions. 



bb GENERAL SHERMAN. 

A series of engagements now ensued for the 
possession of these mountains, on one of which 
General Polk, while overlooking the action, was 
killed. Thus Louisiana lost its bishop and the Con- 
federates an able soldier. On the 27th of June, 
Sherman ordered a direct assault against the fortified 
position on the Kenesaw, but his troops were repulsed 
with ereat slaughter. Three thousand fell on that 
hardly-contested slope, while the defenders lost little 
more than five hundred. In his memoirs Sherman 
has justified this assault. "Failure as it was," he 
says, "and for which I assume the entire responsi- 
bility, I yet claim it produced good fruits, as it was 
demonstrated to General Johnston that I would 
assault, and that boldly." 

Johnston Driven Back. 

Satisfied that his former strategy was best adapted 
to the capabilities of his army, Sherman proceeded to 
turn the position he had failed to force, and, again 
extending his right, he threatened Johnston's com- 
munications with Atlanta. 

These operations were completed by the 3d of July, 
and Johnston was compelled to retire to the Chatta- 
hoochee River. Thomas and Schofield followed his 
retreat, passing through Atlanta and advancing rapidly 
with the hope of falling on the retiring army while 
crossinor the river. But the strenorth of the Confed- 
erate defences in front of the river forbade attack, 
and again Sherman resorted to his accustomed tactics 
of operating on the flanks. A succession of compli- 



I 



?ROM ATLANTA TO THE SEA. 87 

cated and well-timed movements of the three Federal 
armies, successfully executed, secured command of 
the Chattahoochee, and Johnston again retired and 
entered the defences of Atlanta. He had retreated 
over one hundred miles, but he had inflicted heavy 
losses on his enemy, and had compelled him to con- 
sume two months in making his advance. 

But his Fabian generalship by no means found 
favor with the Richmond Government. All through 
the campaign he had been constandy urged to take 
the offensive, to throw himself on Sherman's pro- 
longed line, and to force him to retreat. He believed 
his own policy to be best, and steadfastly adhered to it. 

General Hood in Command. 

It is said that he intended to try the issue of an 
offensive battle before the fortifications of Atlanta, 
and when Sherman should have the Chattahoochee in 
his rear ; but on the same day that the armies of the 
Ohio, the Cumberland, and the Tennessee poured 
over the bridges and across the fords of that river 
Johnston was superseded, and the command of the 
Western army conferred upon General Hood. He 
was to take the offensive, and brilliant results at his 
hand were confidently expected. 

Johnston undoubtedly deserves high praise for the 
conduct of the campaign, and General Grant has ap- 
proved of his policy and commended his ability. In- 
deed, It needs but little argument to show that he was 
right In refusing to rush wildly forward into Tennes- 
see to court such disaster as Hood afterward met 



88 GENERAL SHEKMAN, 

with. What he might have accomplished had he been 
opposed to a less wary and less able commander than 
Sherman, a commander who would have hurled his 
troops at impregnable breastworks as Grant did in 
Virginia, is mere matter of conjecture. As things 
actually were disposed, and under the circumstances 
in which he was placed, Johnston merits a place at 
least in the second rank of great generals. 

Before Atlanta at Last. 

Atlanta was very strongly intrenched in a con^plete 
circle about a mile and a half outside the city. Be- 
yond, there were advanced intrefichments which must 
be taken before a close siege could be commenced. 
But Hood did not intend to abide a siege. As the 
three Federal armies converged on Atlanta he moved 
out on the 20th of July and attacked the Army of the 
Cumberland most furiously. Hooker's corps and 
Newton's and Johnston's divisions were the principal 
ones engaged in this contest. After a fierce struggle 
the Confederates were repulsed and retired to their 
intrenchments, leaving their dead and wounded on 
the field. It was in this battle that General Gresham, 
now judge of the United States Circuit Court, was 
very severely wounded. 

But Hood did not intend to abandon offensive op- 
erations. On the night of the 21st he moved out 
again to make an attack on the left of the Federal 
line. About noon of the 2 2d the battle commenced 
with an assault by Hardee upon Blair's corps, which 
he pressed heavily. Our left was turned, and it was 



'from ATLANTA TO THE SEAc ^^ 

with great difficulty that an immense wagon-train was 
saved. Sherman and his able lieutenants proved 
fully equal to the emergency in the end, and, though 
the fighting was at first very much in favor of the 
Confederates, before night fell they were driven back 
into the city. It was during this battle that the brave 
McPherson was killed. This was the battle of At- 
lanta, and on the score of having captured thirteen 
guns and some prisoners Hood claimed a great 
victory. 

Disastrous Victory. 

But, nevertheless, Sherman held his ground, and 
prepared by new combinations to press forward his 
operations against the city. Hood had suffered the 
severest losses, and such victories would prove as 
disastrous as defeats. For the next six weeks he 
kept mainly on the defensive. To carry the city by 
an assault was beyond the power of the invading 
army, and to approach it by regular siege and invest- 
ment equally impossible. 

Sherman's only resource was either to destroy or 
occupy the great railway arteries which brought sup 
plies to the army and to the people. The work was 
tedious and the lines to be maintained were very 
long, but slowly and surely through the months of 
July and August the work went on. Several exten- 
sive cavalry raids were organized. One of these, 
under General Stonem--.^ numbering about one 
thousand men, was captured, and the others did 
not accomplish nearly so much as was expected. It 



90 GENERAL SfiERMAN. 

remained then for the infantry to carry out more 
slowly the plan of separating Hood's army from its 
base of supplies. 

Daring- Cavalrj^ Movements. 

Nor was the Confederate cavalry idle. General 
Wheeler moved upon the railroad north of Resaca 
and destroyed it nearly up to Dalton, cutting Sher- 
man off from communication with the North for sev- 
eral days. But neither raids nor assaults availed to 
retard Sherman's movements to seize all the com- 
munications leading to Atlanta. Many sharp engage- 
ments took place, but Sherman never loosened a grip 
once firmly taken. 

Finally, on August 25, he commenced his last and 
final flank movement, by which he swung his whole 
army, except one corps, on Hood's communications 
south of Atlanta, compelling him to leave his in- 
trenchments and to fiofht a decisive battle or to 
retreat. To do this Sherman had to cut loose from 
his own communications, and to depend for subsist- 
ence upon such stores as he could carry or gather 
from the country. It was bold strategy, but its suc- 
cess proved that the details had been carefully studied 
out, and that it was a fittino- conclusion to the cam- 
paign of Atlanta. All the movements of the various 
corps were made Avith precision and accomplished as 
ordered. 

On August 30 and 31 sharp engagements occurred 
with the Confederates under Hardee at Jonesboro, 
twenty miles south of Atlanta. On September 1, 



PROM ATLANTA TO THE SEA. 91 

Sherman had complete possession of the Macon 
railroad. During diat night our army heard great 
explosions in the direction of Adanta and Jonesboro. 
Hood had found himself compelled to yield the city 
at last. He blew up his military works, and fell back 
southward, toward Macon. On the following morning 
General Slocum, who had remained with his corps 
north of the city, marched in and took possession. 

The campaign had lasted four months, and is one 
of the most memorable of the war. The aggregate 
loss from the force in killed, wounded, and missing 
amounted to 31,687 men. During the same period 
the loss inflicted on the Confederate army amounted 
to 34,779 men. 

This campaign abundantly proved Sherman's com- 
manding genius for war. He could execute as well 
as conceive. He understood the discipline of armies 
in its fullest extent. He knew how to select and em- 
ploy his officers. 

Why He did Not g-o to Aug-usta. 

The question, "Why didn't General Sherman go to 
Augusta instead of to Savannah when he made the 
great march through Georgia ? " has been often asked 
and commented upon. General Sherman himself an- 
swered it two years ago. " The march to the sea from 
Atlanta," said he, " was resolved on after Hood had 
got well on his way to Nashville. I then detached to 
General Thomas a force sufficient to whip Hood, 
which he, In December, 1864, very handsomely and 
conclusively did. Still, I had left a very respectable 



92 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

army and resolved to join Grant at Richmond. The 
distance was one thousand miles, and prudence die- i 
tated a base at Savannah or Port Royal. Our enemy 
had garrisons at Macon and Augusta. I figured on 
both, and passed between to Savannah. Then, start- 
ing northward, the same problem presented itself in 
Augusta and Charleston. I figured on both, but 
passed between. 

" I did not want to drive out their p^arrisons ahead 
of me at the crossings of the Santee, Catawba, Pedee, 
Cape Fear, etc. The moment I passed Columbia the 
factories, powder-mills, and the old stuff accumulated 
at Augusta were lost to the only two Confederate 
armies left — Lee's and Hood's. So, if you have a 
military mind, you will see I made a better use of 
Augusta than if I had captured it with its stores, for 
which I had no use. I used Augusta twice as a buffer; 
its garrison was just where it helped me. 

"Sherman's Bummers." 

" If the people of Augusta think I sligiited them in 
the winter of 1864-65 by reason of personal friend- 
ship formed in 1844, they are mistaken, or if they 
think I made a mistake in strategy, let them say so, 
and with the President's consent I think I can send a 
detachment of one hundred thousand or so of 'Sher- 
man's bummers' and their descendants, who will finish 
up the job without charging Uncle Sam a cent. The 
truth is, these incidents come back to me in a humor- 
ous vein. Of course the Civil War should have ended 
with Vicksburg and Gettysburg. Every sensible man 



FROM ATLANTA TO THE SEA. 93 

on earth must have then seen there could be but one 
result. The leaders of the South took good care not 
to 'die in the last ditch,' and left brave men like 
Walker, Adams, Pat Cleburne, etc., to do that." 

After resting at Savannah and refitting his army, 
he moved northward February i. Columbia was oc- 
cupied on the 1 7th ; Cheraw, March 3d ; Fayetteville, 
March 1 1 th ; the battle of Averysboro was fought 
March i6th; that of Bentonville, March 19th, 20th; 
Goldsboro was occupied March 22d; Raleigh, April 
13th; and April i8th, at Durham Station. 

By marching through the heart of South Carolina 
instead of skirting the sea, Sherman pierced the State 
in its most vital part. It was the boast of Davis and 
Breckenridge that the sea was not necessary to the 
South. Their strength lay inland. Sherman marched 
inland, shutting up one Confederate general in Au- 
gusta, another in Branchville, a third in Charleston, 
and a fourth in Columbia. These generals never 
knew where the blow would fall, and it never fell 
where they thought it likely to. As Sherman moved 
up northward, leaving Charleston on the right, Beau- 
regard was confident that he would have to assault 
Branchville, a great railway-centre and a post from 
which he could equally menace Charleston and Au- 
gusta. Branchville was accordingly strengthened 
with guns and occupied in force. But Sherman cut 
the railway-lines and compelled the enemy to abandon 
their works and guns. Branchville passed and 
Columbia gained, Charleston fell. 



94 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Sherman accepted the surrender of Johnston's 
army on a " basis of agreement " which was rejected 
by the Government, but on the 26th received the 
surrender on the terms accorded to Lee by Grant. 
Resuming his march, Washington was reached May 
24, 1865, where, after the grand review, his army 
was dissolved. On the 27th of June, 1865, he was 
appointed to command the mihtary division of the 
Mississippi ; was promoted to be heutenant-general 
July 25, 1866, and August 11 assigned to command 
the military division of the Missouri. On the acces- 
sion of General Grant to the Presidency he became 
general (March 4, 1869). ^^ 1871-72 he made an 
extended tour in Europe and the East. In October,. 
1874, the headquarters of the army were removed 
from Washington to St. Louis, but in April, 1876, 
were re-established at Washington. He published 
in 1875 Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman, by Him- 
self, 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Important Letter of General Sherman. — The 
Country Deluded in the Early Part of the 
War. — Strange Charge of Lunacy. 

A LETTER written by General Sherman while he was 
at Memphis to his brother, Senator John Sherman, 
shows how accurately he understood the gravity of 
the situation, and how crazy they were who pro- 
nounced him wild and visionary. The story was 
actually circulated that he was out of his mind, and 
so fully was it believed that for a brief period his 
command was taken away from him. The country 
soon discovered that no man was more sane on war 
questions than he was. The letter is as follows : 

Memphis, Tenn,, Aug, 13, 1862. 

My Dear Brother : I have not written to you for 
so long that I suppose you think I have dropped the 
correspondence. For six weeks I was marching along 
the road from Corinth to Memphis, mending roads, 
building bridges, and all sorts of work. At last I got 
here, and found the city contributing gold, arms, pow- 
der, salt, and everything the enemy wanted. It was 
a smart trick on their part thus to give up Memphis, 
that the desire of gain to our Northern merchants 
should supply them with the things needed in war. I 



96 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Stopped this at once, and declared gold, silver. Treas- 
ury notes, and salt as much contraband of war as 
powder. I have one man under sentence of death 
for smuggling arms across the lines, and hope Mr. 
Lincoln will approve it. 

But the mercenary spirit of our people is too 
much, and my orders are reversed and I am ordered 
to encourage the trade in cotton, and all orders pro- 
hibiting gold, silver, and notes to be paid for it are 
annulled by orders from Washington. Grant 
promptly ratified my order, and all military men 
here saw at once that gold spent for cotton went 
to the purchase of arms and munitions of war. But 
what are the lives of our soldiers to the profits of the 
merchants ? 

Great Call for Men. 

After a whole year of bungling the country has 
at last discovered that we want more men. All knew 
it last fall as well as now, but it was not popular. 
Now one million three hundred thousand men are 
required, when seven hundred thousand were deemed 
absurd before. It will take time to work up these 
raw recruits, and they will reach us in October, when 
we should be in Jackson, Meridian, and Vicksburg.^ 
Still, I must not growl. I have purposely put backj 
and have no right to criticise, save that I am glad the 
papers have at last found out we are at war and hav( 
a formidable enemy to combat. 

Of course I approve the Confiscation Act, an( 
would be willing to revolutionize the Government s( 



STKANGE CHARGE OF LUNACY. 97 

as to amend that article of the Constitution which 
forbids the forfeiture of land to the heirs. My full 
belief is we must colonize the country de novo, begin- 
ning with Kentucky and Tennessee, and should re- 
move four million of our people at once south of the 
Ohio River, taking the farms and plantations of the 
rebels. I deplore the war as much as ever, but if 
the thing has to be done let the means be adequate. 
Don't expect to overrun such a country or subdue 
such a people In one, two, or five years. It is the 
task of half a century. Although our army is thus 
far south, it cannot stir from our garrisons. Our 
men are killed or captured within sight of our lines. 
I have two divisions here — mine and Hurlbut's, 
about thirteen thousand men — am building a strong 
fort, and think this Is to be one of the depots and 
bases of operations for future movements. 

Too Many Heads. 

The loss of Halleck is almost fatal. We have no 
one to replace him. Instead of having one head, we 
have five or six, all Independent of each other. I ex- 
pect our enemies will mass their troops and fall upon 
our detachment?^ before new reinforcements come. I 
cannot learn 7h^l there are any large bodies of men 
near us here. There are detachments at Holly 
Springs and Senatobia, the present termini of the 
railroads from the South, and all the people of the 
country are armed as guerillas. Curtis is at Helena, 
eighty miles south, and Grant at Corinth, Bragg*s 
army from Tripoli has moved to Chattanooga, and 

7 



98 GENEKAL SHERMAK 

proposes to march on Nashville, Lexington, and 
Cincinnati. They will have about seventy-five thou- 
sand men. 

Buell is near Huntsville with about thirty thousand, 
and I suppose detachments of the new levies can be 
put in Kentucky from Ohio and Indiana in time. The 
weather is very hot, and Bragg can't move his forces 
very fast; but I fear he will give trouble. My own 
opinion is, we ought not to venture too much into the 
interior until the river is safely in our possession, 
when we could land at any point and strike inland. 
To attempt to hold all the South would demand an 
army too large even to think of. We must colonize 
and settle as we go south, for in Missouri there is as 
much strife as ever. Enemies must be killed or trans- 
ported to some other country. 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. T. Sherman. 

From the outset Sherman looked for a great war, 
and he regarded President Lincoln's first call for 
seventy-five thousand men in April, 1861, as trifling 
with a serious matter. To him the Secessionists were 
not merely an armed mob to be put down by a few 
holiday soldiers. Very early in the war he did not 
hesitate to give his views ofificlal expression. Made a 
bricradier-eeneral of volunteers, he was assio^ned to 
the Department of the Cumberland, under General 
Roben: Anderson, whom he soon succeeded, General 
Anderson's health havino- failed. 



STKANGE CHARGE OF LUNACY. 99 

He soon astounded the Washington optimists, who 
were going to put down the revolt in sixty days, by 
declaring that to retake the Mississippi Valley would 
require two hundred thousand men. It was expected 
by the Government that all the men needed to keep 
Kentucky in the Union could be raised in that State, 
but for that work alone Sherman declared that sixty 




GENERAL JOHN A. LOGAN. 

thousand would be needed. The country was dis 
posed to look upon this sagacity as lunacy, and tli(s. 
Government shared in the public distrust of Sherman, 
as was shown by the fact that he was relieved of his 
command on the 12th of November by General Buell, 
and ordered to report to General Halleck, by whom 
he was assigned to the command of Benton Barracks. 
I This singular proceeding was brought about by Mr. 



100 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Cameron, Secretary of War, mentioning- to General 
Thomas what he called Sherman's insane request for 
two hundred thousand men. Some newspaper-man 
got hold of it, and the news was trumpeted abroad 
that Sherman was •' insane, crazy," etc. The occasion 
of Mn Cameron's remark was the following letter: 

Headquarters Department of the Cumberland, ■ 
Louisvr.LE, Kentucky, October 22, 1861. ^ 

To General L. Thomas, Adjutant- General, Washing- 
ton, D. C. : 

Sm: On my arrival at Camp Dick Robinson, I 
found General Thomas had stationed a Kentucky 
regiment at Rock Casde Hill, beyond a river of the 
same name, and had sent an Ohio and an Indiana regi- 
ment forward in support. He was embarrassed for 
transportation, and I authorized him to hire teams and 
to move his whole force nearer to his advance-guard, 
so as to support it, as he had information of the ap- 
proach of Zollicoffer toward London. I have just 
heard from him that he had sent forward General I 
Schoepf with Colonel Wolford's cavalry, Colonel 
Steadman's Ohio regiment, and a battery of artillery, 
followed on a succeeding day by a Tennessee brigade. 
He had still two Kentucky regiments, the Thirty- j 
eighth Ohio, and another battery of artillery, with 
which he was to follow yesterday. This force, if con- 
centrated, should be strong enough for the purpose; 
at all events, it is all he had or I could give him. 

\ explained to you fully, when here, the supposed 



STRANGE CHARGE OF LUNACY. 101 

position of our adversaries, among whom was a force 
in the valley of Big Sandy, supposed to be advancing 
on Paris, Kentucky. General Nelson at Maysville 
was instructed to collect all the men he could, and 
Colonel Gill's regiment of Ohio volunteers. Colonel 
Harris was already in position at Olympian Springs, 
and a regiment lay at Lexington, which I ordered to 
his support. This leaves the line of Thomas's opera- 
tions exposed, but I cannot help it. I explained so 
fully to yourself and the Secretary of War the con- 
dition of thinors that I can add nothintr new until 
further developments. You know my views, that this 
great centre of our field is too weak, far too weak, 
and I have begged and implored till I dare not say 
more. 

Buckner still is beyond Green River. He sent a 
detachment of his men, variously estimated at from 
two to four thousand, toward Greensburg. General 
Ward, with about one thousand men, retreated to 
Campbellsburg, where he called to his assistance some 
partially-formed regiments to the number of about 
two thousand. The enemy did not advance, and Gen- 
eral Ward was at last dates at Campbellsburg. The 
officers charged with raising regiments must of neces- 
sity be near their homes to collect men, and for this 
reason are out of position ; but at or near Greens- 
burg and Lebanon I desire to assemble as large a 
force of the Kentucky volunteers as possible. 

This organization is necessarily Irregular, but the 
necessity is so great that I must have them, and 



102 GENERAL SHEBMAK 

therefore have issued to them arms and clothing dur- 
ing the process of formation. This has faciHtated 
their enhstment ; but inasmuch as the Legislature has 
provided money for organizing the Kentucky volun- 
teers, and entrusted its disbursement to a board of 
loyal gentlemen, I have endeavored to co-operate with 
them to hasten the formation of these corps. 

The great difficulty is, and has been, that as vol- 
unteers offer we have not arms and clothing to give 
them. The arms sent us are, as you cilready know, 
European muskets of uncouth pattern, ivhich the vol- 
imteers will not touch. 

General McCook has now three brigades — John- 
son's, Wood's, and Rousseau's. Negley's brigade ar- 
rived to-day, and will be sent out at once. The Min- 
nesota regiment has also arrived, and will be sent for- 
ward. Hazzard's regiment of Indiana troops I have 
ordered to the mouth of Salt Creek, an important 
point on the turnpike-road leading to Elizabethtown. 

I again repeat that our force here is out of all pro- 
portion to the importance of the position. Our defeat 
would be disastrous to the nation, and to expect of 
new men, who never bore arms, to do miracles, is 
not right. 

I am, with much respect, yours truly, 
W. T. Sherman, 

Brigadier- General commanding. 

This letter was characteristic of its author — saga- 
cious, honest, outspoken, and right to the point 



STRANGE CHARGE OP LUNACY. 103 

Sherman knew the magnitude of the fight the country 
had on hand ; he wished others to know it too. 

The Facts in the Case. 

It is important to the unsuUied fame of General 
Sherman that the pubHc should have a plain state- 
ment of the facts concerning this remarkable episode 
in his history. In an interview with Mr. Cameron he 
urged the necessity of raising more troops, expressing 
views similar to those stated in his letter to Adjutant- 
General Thomas. Cameron was astonished at the 
demand for troops, and exclaimed, " Where are they 
to come from ? " Sherman supposed his conversation 
with Cameron was confidential, and had occasion to 
complain afterward that it was made public and was 
used to his disadvantage. 

After the war was over General Thomas J. Wood, 
then in command of the district of Vicksburg, prepared 
a statement addressed to the public, describing the in- 
terview with the Secretary of War, which he calls a 
" council of war." Sherman did not then deem it 
necessary to renew a matter which had been swept 
into oblivion by the v^ar itself ; but, as it is evidence by 
an eye-witness, it is worthy of insertion here. 

Statement of General Wood. 

" On the nth of October, 1861, the writer, who had 
been personally on mustering duty in Indiana, was 
appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers and 
ordered to report to General Sherman, then in com- 
mand of the Department of the Cumberland, with his 
headquarters at Louisville, having succeeded General 



104 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Robert Anderson, When the writer was about leav- 
ing IndianapoHs to proceed to Louisville, Mr. Cameron, 
returning from his famous visit of inspection to Gen- 
eral Fremont's department at St. Louis, Missouri, 
arrived at Indianapolis, and announced his intention 
to visit General Sherman. 

"The writer was invited to accompany the party to 
Louisville. Taking the early morning train from In- 
dianapolis to Louisville on the i6th of October, 1861, 
the party arrived in Jeffersonville shortly after mid- 
day. General Sherman met the party ir Jeffersonville, 
and accompanied it to the Gait House in Louisville, the 
hotel at which he was stopping. 

Behind Closed Doors. 

" During the afternoon General Sherman inforhied 
the writer that a council of war was to be held im- 
mediately in his private room in the hotel, and desired 
him to be present at the council. General Sherman 
and the writer proceeded directly to the room. The 
writer entered the room first, and observed in It Mr. 
Cameron, Adjutant-General L. Thomas, and some 
other persons, all of whose names he did not know, 
but whom he recognized as beine of Mr. Cameron's 
party. The name of one of the party the writer had 
learned, which he remembers as Wilkinson or Wil- 
kerson, and who he understood was a writer for the 
New York Tribune newspaper. The Hon. James 
Guthrie was also in the room, having been invited, on 
account of his eminent position as a citizen of Ken- 
tucky, his high civic reputation, and his well-known 



STRANGE CHARGE OF LUNACY. 105 

devotion to the Union, to meet the Secretary of War 
in the council. When General Sherman entered 
the room he closed the door and turned the key in 
the lock. 

" Before entering on the business of the meet- 
ing. General Sherman remarked substantially: * Mr. 
Cameron, we have met here to discuss matters and 
interchange views which should be known only by 
persons high in the confidence of the Government. 
There are persons present whom I do not know, and 
I desire to know, before opening the business of the 
council, whether they are persons who may be prop- 
erly allowed to hear the views which I have to submit 
to you.' Mr. Cameron eplied, with some little testi- 
ness of manner, that the persons referred to belonged 
to his party, and there was no objection to their 
knowing whatever might be communicated to him on 
a matter so important. 

The Forces Insuflftcient. 

"Certainly the legitimate and natural conclusion 
from this remark of Mr. Cameron's was that what- 
ever views might be submitted by General Sherman 
would be considered under the protection of the seal 
of secrecy, and would not be divulged to the public 
till all apprehension of injurious consequences from 
such disclosure had passed. And it may be remarked, 
further, that justice to General Sherman required that 
if, at any future time, his conclusions as to the amount 
of force necessary to conduct the operations com- 
mitted to his charge should be made public, the 



106 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

grounds on which his conclusions were based should 
be made public at the same time, that there might be 
no misapprehension. 

" Mr. Cameron then asked General Sherman what 
his plans were. To this General Sherman replied 
that he had no plans ; that no sufficient force had 
been placed at his disposition with which to devise 
any plan of operations ; that before a commanding 
general could project a plan of campaign he must 
know what amount of force he would have to operate 
with. 

" The general added that he had views which he 
would be happy to submit for the consideration of the 
Secretary. Mr. Cameron desired to hear General 
Sherman's views. 

Sliernian Speaks for Kentucky. 

" General Sherman began by giving his opinion of 
the people of Kentucky and the then condition of the 
State. He remarked that he believed a very large 
majority of the people of Kentucky were thoroughly 
devoted to the Union, and loyal to the Government, 
and that the Unionists embraced almost all the older 
and more substantial men in the State ; but, unfor- 
tunately, there was no organization nor arms among 
the Union men ; that the rebel minority, thoroughly 
vindictive in its sentiments, was organized and armed 
(this having been done in advance by their leaders), 
and, beyond the reach of the Federal forces, overawed 
and prevented the Union men from organizing ; that, 
in his opinion, if Federal protection w^ere extended 



STRANGE CHARGE OF LUNACY. 107 

throughout the State to the Union men, a large force 
could be raised for the service of the Government. 

*•' General Sherman said that the information in his 
possession indicated an intention, on the part of the 
rebels, of a general and grand advance toward the 
Ohio River. He further expressed the opinion that 
if such advance should be made and not checked, the 
rebel force would be swollen by at least twenty thou- 
sand recruits from the disloyalists in Kentucky. His 
low computation of the organized rebel soldiers then 
in Kentucky fixed the strength at about thirty-five 
thousand. Add twenty thousand for reinforcements 
gained in Kentucky, to say nothing of troops drawn 
from other rebel States, and the effective rebel force 
in the State, at a low estimate, would be fifty-five 
thousand men. 

Difliculties Ahead, 

" General Sherman explained forcibly how largely 
the difficulties of suppressing the rebellion would be 
enhanced if the rebels should be allowed to plant 
themselves firmly, with strong fortifications, at com- 
manding points on the Ohio River. It would be facile 
for them to carry the war thence into the loyal States 
north of the river. 

*'To resist an advance of the rebels. General Sher- 
man stated that he did not have at that time in Ken- 
tucky more than some twelve to fourteen thousand 
effective men. The bulk of this force was posted at 
Camp Nolin, on the Louisville and Nashville railway, 
fifty miles south of Louisville. A part of it was in 



108 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Eastern Kentucky, under General George H. Thoma?, 
and a very small force was in the lower valley of 
Green River. 

" General Sherman next presented a r^esunie of the 
information in his possession as to the number of the 
rebel troops in Kentucky. Commencing with the 
force at Columbus, Kentucky, the reports varied, 
giving the strength from ten to twenty thousand. It 
was commanded by Lieutenant-General Polk. Gen- 
eral Sherman fixed it at the lowest estimate, say, ten 
thousand. The force at Bowling Green, commanded 
by General A. S. Johnston, supported by Hardee, 
Buckner, and others, was variously estimated at from 
eighteen to thirty thousand. General Sherman esti- 
mated this force at the lowest figures given to it by 
his information — eighteen thousand. 

The Enemy lias the Advaiitag-e. 

"He explained that for purposes of defence these 
two forces ought, owing to the facility with which 
troops might be transportv^d from one to the other 
by the network of railroads in Middle and West 
Tennessee, to be considered almost as one. General 
Sherman remarked also on the facility with which 
reinforcements could be transported by railroad to 
Bowling Green from the other rebellious States. 

" The third organized body of rebel troops was in 
Eastern Kentucky, under General Zollicoffer — esti- 
mated, according to the most reliable information, at 
six thousand men. This force threatened a descent, 
if unrestrained, on the Blue-grass region of Kentucky, 



STKANGE CHARGE OF LUNACY. 109 

including the cities of Lexington and Frankfort, the 
capital of the State, and, if successful in its primary 
movements, as it would gather head as it advanced, 
might endanger the safety of Cincinnati. 

" This disposition of the force had been made for 
the double purpose of watching and checking the 
rebels and protecting the raising and organization 
of troops among the Union men of Kentucky. 

Defensive Operations Useless. 

''Having explained the situation from the defer.- 
sive point of view, General Sherman proceeded to 
consider it from the offensive standpoint. The Gov- 
ernment had undertaken to suppress the rebellion ; 
the onus facieiidi, therefore, lested on the Govern- 
ment. The rebellion could never be put down, the 
authority of the paramount Government asserted, 
and the union of the States declared perpetual by 
force of arms, by maintaining the defensive; to ac- 
complish these grand desiderata it was absolutely 
necessary the Government should adopt and main- 
tain until the rebellion was crushed the offensive. 

"For the purpose of expelling the rebels from 
Kentucky, General Sherman said that at least sixty 
thousand soldiers were necessary. Considering that 
the means of accomplishment must always be propor- 
tioned to the end to be achieved, and bearing in mind 
the array of rebel force then in Kentucky, every sen- 
sible man must admit that the estimate of the force 
given by General Sherman for driving the rebels out 
of the State and re-establishing and maintaining the 



110 GENEKAL SHERMAK 

authority of the Government was a very low one. 
The truth is, that before the rebels were driven from 
Kentucky many more than sixty thousand soldiers 
were sent into the State. 

Number of Troops Required. 

"Ascendine from the consideration of the narrow 
question of the political and military situation in 
Kentucky, and the extent of force necessary to re- 
deem the State from rebel thraldom, forecasting in 
his sagacious intellect the grand and daring opera- 
tions which three years afterward he realized in a 
campaign, taken in its entirety, without a parallel in 
modern times, General Sherman expressed the 
opinion that to carry the war to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico and destroy all armed opposition to the Govern- 
ment in the entire Mississippi Valley, at least two 
hundred thousand troops were absolutely requisite. 

*' So soon as General Sherman had concluded the 
expression of his views Mr. Cameron asked, with 
much warmth and apparent irritation, ' Where do you 
suppose. General Sherman, all this force is to come 
from ? ' General Sherman replied that he did not 
know — that it was not his duty to raise, organize, and 
put the necessary military force into the field ; that 
duty pertained to the War Department. His duty 
was to organize campaigns and command the troops 
after they had been put into the field. 

Sherman's Views Indorsed. 

"At this point of the proceedings General Sher- 
man suggested that it might be agreeable to the Sec- 



STRANGE CHARGE OF LUNACY. Ill 

retary to hear the views of Mr. Guthrie. Thus ap- 
pealed to, Mr. Guthrie said he did not consider 
himself, being a civilian, competent to give an 
opinion as to the extent of force necessary to carry 
the war to the Gulf of Mexico ; but, being well in- 
formed of the condition of things in Kentucky, he 
indorsed fully General Sherman's opinion of the 
force required to drive the rebels out of the State. 

" The foregoing is a circumstantial account of the 
deliberations of the council that were of any im- 
portance. 

'' A good deal of desultory conversation followed 
on immaterial matters, and some orders were issued 
by telegraph by the Secretary of War for small re- 
inforcements to be sent to Kentucky immediately 
from Pennsylvania and Indiana. 

"A short time after the council was held — the ex- 
act time is not now remembered by the writer — an 
imperfect narrative of it appeared in the New York 
Tidbune. This account announced to the public the 
conclusions uttered by General Sherman in the 
council, without giving the reasons on which his con- 
clusions were based. The unfairness of this course 
to General Sherman needs no comment. All military 
men were shocked by the gross breach of faith which 
had been committed. 

"Th. J. Wood, Major- General Volunteers. 
"ViCKSBURG, Mississippi, y^z<;^z/j/ 24, 1866." 

General Wood's account of w^hat passed between 
Mr. Cameron and General Sherman shows how base- 



112 GENERAL ^ERMAN. 

less were the grounds upon which Sherman was judged 
to be incompetent and crazy. No man comprehended 
the appalHng situation more fully than he did. Events 
immediately transpiring proved the correctness of his 
judgment. He knew the magnitude of the great 
Southern uprising; his keen eye saw the hosts mar 
shalling for the fray. To be deceived and ignore facts 
plain and undeniable was lunacy: the lunacy was not 
his. He was nervous, excited, terribly in earnest ; his 
soul was up in arms. To-day we know what solemn 
occasion he had for believing that the " unpleasant- 
ness" was something more than a bubble soon to 
burst. 

He was relieved of his command for a short time, 
but his country called; her voice was imperative; the 
grandest man in the field — in many respects the 
grandest — must come to the front. He came, and 
brilliant history in illuminated letters has recorded his 
deeds. 



CHAPTER IX. 

After the War. — Not a Candidate for the Presi- 
dency. — Sketch of the Hero. — Life in New 
York. 

Preliminary to the disbandment of the national 
armies they passed in review before President John- 
son and Cabinet and Lieutenant-General Grant — the 
Army of the Potomac on May 23d, and General Sher- 
man's army on the 24th. Sherman was particularly 
observed and honored. From June 27, 1865, to 
March 3, 1869, he was in command of the military 
Division of the Mississippi, with headquarters at 
St. Louis, embracing the Departments of the Ohio, 
Missouri, and Arkansas. 

Upon the appointment of Grant as general of the 
army on July 25, 1866, Sherman was promoted to be 
lieutenant-ofeneral, and when Grant became President 
of the United States, March 4, 1869, Sherman suc- 
ceeded him as general, with headquarters at Wash- 
ington. From November 10, 1871, to September 17, 
1872, he made a professional tour in Europe, and was 
everywhere received with the honors due to his dis- 
tinguished rank and service. At his own request, and 
in order to make Sheridan general-in-chief, he was 
placed on the retired list, with full pay and emolu- 
ments, on February 8, 1884. 

8 113 



114 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Upon Sherman's retirement from the active list, 
President Arthur issued an order in which he said: 
"The announcement of the severance from the com- 
mand of the army of one who has been for so many 
years its distinguished chief can but awaken in the 
minds, not only of the army, but of the people of the 
United States, mingled emotions of regret and grati- 
tude — regret at the withdrawal from active military 
service of an officer whose lofty sense of duty has 
been a model for all soldiers since he first entered the 
army, in July, 1840, and gratitude, freshly awakened, 
for the services of incalculable value rendered by him 
in the war for the Union, which his great military 
genius and daring did so much to end. The President 
deems this a fitting occasion to give expression to the 
gratitude felt toward General Sherman by his fellow- 
citizens, and to hope that Providence may grant him 
many years of health and happiness in the relief from 
the active duties of his profession." 

General Sherman received many honors, among 
which may be mentioned the degree of LL.D. from 
Dartmouth, Yale, Harvard, Princeton, and other uni- 
versities, and membership in the Board of Regents of 
the Smithsonian Institution, 1871 to 1883. 

Slierinan and Blaine. 

Every reader will peruse with interest the following^ 
written by General Sherman for the North American 
Review of December, 1888: 

In the year of our Lord, 1884, there was to be a 
sharp contest for the nomination in Chicago for a 



I 



AFTEK THE WAR. 115 

Presidential candidate of the Republican party. The 
press and the people generally believed that Blaine 
wanted it, and everybody turned to him as the man 
best qualified to execute the policy to accomplish the 
result aimed at. Still, abnegating himself, he wrote 
to me from Washington this letter : 

Confidential t strictly and absolutely se. 

Washington, D. C, May 25, 1884. 

My Dear General: 

This letter requires no answer. After reading it 
file it away in your most secret drawer or give it to 
the flames. 

At the approaching convention at Chicago it is 
more than possible — it is, indeed, not improbable — 
that you may be nominated for the Presidency. If 
so, you must stand your hand, accept the responsi- 
bility, and assume the duties of the place to which you 
will surely be chosen if a candidate. 

You must not look upon it as the work of the poli- 
ticians. If it comes to you it will come as the ground- 
swell of popular demand, and you can no more refuse 
than you could have refused to obey an order when 
you were a lieutenant in the army. If it come to 
you at all, it will come as a call of patriotism. It 
would in such an event injure your great fame as 
much to decline it as it would for you to seek it. 
Your historic record, full as it is, would be rendered 
still more glorious by such an administration as you 
would be able to give the country. Do not say a 



116 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

word in advance of die convendon, no matter who 
may ask you. You are with your friends who will 
jealously guard your honor and renown. Your 
friend, James G. Blaine. 

Sherman's Remarkable Answer. 

To which I replied : 

912 Garrison Ave,, St. Louis, Mo. | 
May. 28, i88d. j 

Hon. James G. Blaine, Washington, D. C. : 

My Dear Friend: I have received your letter of 
the 25th; shall construe it as absolutely confidential, 
not intimating even to any member of my family that 
I have heard from you ; and, though you may not 
expect an answer, I hope you will not construe one 
as unwarranted. I have a great many letters from 
all points of the compass to a similar effect, one or 
two of which I have answered frankly, but the great 
mass are unanswered. 

I ought not to submit myself to the cheap ridicule 
of declining what is not offered, but it is only fair to 
the many really able men who rightfully aspire to the 
high honor of being President of the United States to 
let them know that I am not, and must not be con- 
strued as, a rival. In every man's life occurs an 
epoch when he must choose his own career, and 
when he may not throw^ off the responsibility or 
tamely place his destiny in the hands of friends. 
Mine occurred in Louisiana when, in 1861, alone in 
the midst of a people blinded by supposed wrongs, 
I resolved to stand by the Union as long as a frag- 



AFTER THE WAR. 117 

ment of it survived on which to cling. Since then, 
through faction, tempest, war, and peace, my career 
has been all my family and friends could ask. 

We are now in a good house of our own choice, 
with reasonable provisions for old age, surrounded 
by kind and admiring friends, in a community where 
Catholicism is held in respect and veneration, and 
where my children will naturally grow up in contact 
with an industrious and frugal people. You have 
known and appreciated Mrs. Sherman from child- 
hood, have also known each and all the members of 
my family, and can understand without an explanation 
from me how their thouo^hts and feelings should and 
ought to influence my action. But I will not even 
throw off on them the responsibility. 

I will not in any event entertain or accept a nomi- 
nation as a candidate for President by the Chicago 
Republican Convention or any other convention, for 
reasons personal to myself. I claim that the Civil 
War, in which I simply did a man's fair share of work, 
so perfectly accomplished peace that military men have 
an absolute rieht to rest, and to demand that the men 
who have been schooled in the arts and practice of 
peace shall now do their work equally well. 

Any Senator can step from his chair at the Capitol 
into the White House and fulfil the office of President 
with more skill and success than a Grant, Sherman, or 
Sheridan, who were soldiers by education and nature, 
who filled well their office when the country was in 
danger, but were not schooled in the practice by 



118 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

which civil communities are and should be governed. 
I claim that our experience since 1865 demonstrates 
the truth of this my proposition. Therefore I say 
that patriotism does not demand of me what I con- 
strue as a sacrifice of judgment, of inclination, and 
of self-interest. 

I have my personal affairs in a state of absolute 
safety and comfort. I owe no man a cent, have no 
expensive habits, envy no man his wealth or power, 
no complications or indirect liabilities, and would ac- 
count myself a fool, a madman, an ass, to embark 
anew at sixty-five years of age in a career that may 
become at any moment tempest-tossed by perfidy, the 
defalcation, the dishonesty, or neglect of any single 
one of a hundred thousand subordinates utterly un- 
known to the President of the United States, not to 
say the eternal worriment of a vast host of impecu- 
nious friends and old military subordinates. Even as 
it is I am tortured by the charitable appeals of poor, 
distressed pensioners, but as President these would 
be multiplied beyond human endurance. J 

I remember well the experience of Generals Jack- 
son, Harrison, Taylor, Grant, Hayes, and Garfield, all 
elected because of their military services, and am 
warned, not encouraged, by their sad experiences. 

The civilians of the United States should and must 
buffet with this thankless office, and leave us old 
soldiers to enjoy the peace we fought for and think 
we earned. With profound respect, your friend, 

W. T. Shermak. 



AFTEH THE WAR. 119 

These letters prove absolutely that Mr. Blaine, 
though qualified, waived to me personally a nomina- 
tion which the world still believes he then coveted for 
himself. 

For copies of these letters I believe I have been 
importuned a thousand times, but as a soldier I claim 
the privilege of unmasking my batteries when I 
please. 

In giving to the North American Review at this 
late day these letters, which thus far have remained 
hidden in my private files, I commit no breach of con- 
fidence, and to put at rest a matter of constant inquiry 
referred to in my letter of May 28, 1884, I here record 
that my immediate family are strongly Catholic. I am 
not and cannot be. That is all the public has a right 
to know ; nor do I wish to be construed as departing 
from a resolve made forty years ago never to embark 
in politics. The brightest and best youth of our land 
have been drawn into that maelstrom, and their 
wrecked fortunes strew the beach of the ocean of 
time. My memory, even in its short time, brings up 
names of victims by the hundreds, if not thousands. 

W. T. Sherman. 

Nothing could swerve the general from his purpose 
to avoid a public life. He had won his fame, and was 
satisfied. At this time, when his name was promi- 
nently mentioned for the Presidency, and when he 
might have got the nomination, he said to a particular 
friend, speaking about it: "I wouldn't be devilled by 



120 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

that horde of Congressmen if I could be President for 
life." 

Sketch of the General. 

Those three heroes, Grant, Sheridan, and Sherman, 
after the war lived for many years at the National 
Capital and became identified with its society. It was 
here that they were the best known and appreciated. 
General Sherman came in closer touch with society 
at large than the other two generals. He was fonder 
of general company and was more ready to become 
acquainted with strangers. Grant was companionable 
only with his intimates. The same could be said of 
Sheridan. He was even more retiring than Grant. 
He detested going out in general society, while 
society was the atmosphere which General Sherman 
needed in order to live. 

The latter was fond of gatherings of any kind. He 
loved to be the centre of a bright, cheerful group. He 
had sympathies which reached out in every direction. 
While he had strong likes and dislikes, he had few 
prejudices. Like all of the leading men who fought 
in the Union army, he had more sympathy for the 
South than any of the Northern politicians. Yet he 
believed that sterner measures should have been em- 
ployed during the period of reconstruction. 

As a friend to the South he believed that It w^ould 
have been better If the laws had been more rigidly 
enforced by the Federal authority, and if the States 
had not recovered local self-control so early. They 
should have received back their old rights only when 



AFTER THE WAR. 121 

they had given the most solemn guarantee to enforce 
the laws passed for the protection of the rights of the 
colored people. Even then this authority should have 
been granted only temporarily, and only made per- 
manent when it was clear that the State was going to 
act throughout in good faith. 

A Masterly Intellect. 

General Sherman had more brilliant intellectual 
qualities than his two great associates. In this we do 
not speak of him as a soldier, but as a man. His 
position as a soldier has been long ago determined by 
the first military critics of the world. The intellectual 
advantage that he had over his associates was in his 
readiness of expression. He was an easy and elegant 
writer upon almost any topic of the day. 

He was also a ready speaker. He had a directness 
of style and a blunt eloquence which always captivated 
an audience. He was so direct and so honest as to 
produce with the simplest phrases the profoundest im- 
pression. He was one of the most upright of men. 
He was patriotic to the verge of passion. No one 
who has been in the public life of this country was 
ever more devoted to its highest and best interests. 
Upon this subject he was always eloquent. 

His character was noted for its strong quality of 
common sense. At the height of his popularity as 
a general of the army he was never tempted for a 
moment by any of the flattering offers of the politicians 
to permit his great name to be used in politics. He 
said often that this was the mistake which Grant made. 



122 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

When Grant came out of the war he was at the highest 
pinnacle of success. When he resigned from the 
army and became President, General Sherman always 
said he began a career of misfortune. 

Ambition Satisfied. 

General Sherman would often say to the politi- 
cians: "I am a soldier out and out. For that I am 
trained, and for that career I am fitted. I have to-day 
arrived at the climax of my ambition. I am general 
of the army, and at its head. I desire nothing more. 
I do not propose to risk my name and fame in the 
field of partisan politics. I want to leave my reputa- 
tion free from tarnish to my children." 

From this resolution General Sherman never 
swerved. He was never more sorely tempted than 
during the period of the Chicago Convention which 
nominated Mr. Blaine. The politicians then came 
to him and said : " With your name we can carry 
the convention." 

The combination which came to the general was a 
strong one. It controlled certainly enough votes to 
have tempted any man with Presidential ambitions, 
but General Sherman said " No " from the first. 
The committee which called on him told him fiady 
and frankly that they should not consider his refusal, 
but that they should go ahead and use their own 
judgment. It was then that the general sat down 
and dictated that brusque letter which ex-Senator 
Henderson caused to be read to the convention, and 
which showed clearly to every one that no possible 



AFTEB THE WAU. 123 

combination of circumstances could force General 
Sherman to accept a nomination. 

**Go Ahead!" 

The general was hot-tempered. He despised petty 
technicalities. When he was in the War Department 
the bureau people fretted him with the endless red 
tape which of necessity came to him when he took 
charge of the great army machine. He would often 
write orders for the direction of affairs In the West 
which would be in direct conflict with the civil law. 
Once, when his attention was called to this by the 
adjutant-general in some particular order issued by 
the general concerning Indian territory, the general 
replied to the assertion that this was against the law, 
"So much the worse for the law. Go ahead ! " 

It was only with difficulty that he was coaxed into 
changing the order. While he was imperious and 
high-tempered, he was withal one of the kindest- 
hearted and most just of men. He would apologize 
for any hasty word with the earnest vigor of a manly 
man convicted of having made a mistake. The 
bureau people apparently took great pleasure in 
fretting the general, and two or three of them, 
whom It is needless to name now, were responsible 
for the celebrated controversy he had with the Secre- 
tary of War under Hayes. 

«*A Plain, Blunt Man." 

General Sherman could not reconcile himself to 
the fact that a civilian Secretary of War should be 
his superior in purely military matters. It was no 



124 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

wonder that he held this view. Mr. McCrary, who 
was Secretary of War at that time, was a respectable 
ex-member of Congress from Iowa. He knew no 
more about military matters than any one who had 
always been occupied with civil affairs. When he 
came into the Department the small bureau people 
who loved to fret General Sherman were continually 
forcing the secretary to show his authority. Sherman 
would say: "What does this Iowa chap mean by 
always interfering?" He was too blunt and out- 
spoken to get along. He was too impatient to be 
diplomatic, and so he challenged outright the authority 
of the secretary. Technically, the Secretary of War 
was correct, and the President was obliged to sustain 
him. 

If Mr. McCrary had been a greater man, he would 
undoubtedly have seen some way to avoid a con- 
troversy with this distinguished general. Any right- 
minded secretary would have been only too glad to 
give General Sherman full sway. Mr. McCrary, how- 
ever, was of the type, dogged and dull, which is as 
relentless as fate in adhering to some small technical 
right, and consequently the breach between him and 
the general was made complete when the President 
sustained the secretar}'. General Sherman never 
called on him after that. He made one appeal to the 
President, and that was to be permitted to remove 
the headquarters of the army to St. Louis. This 
permission was given him, to the great despair of his 
staff officers. He packed up the whole establishment 



AFTER THE WAR. 125 

and for the first time since the close of the war the 
headquarters of the army were in another place than 
at the Capital. 

After several years of exile in St. Louis, where 
he was unhappy and discontented, General Sherman 
was persuaded to bring back the headquarters of the 
army with him, but only after Mr. McCrary had 
retired. Conflicts have always existed since the war 
between the general of the army and the Secretary 
of War. But no one ever made such an energetic 
protest as General Sherman. 

Personal Appearance. 

General Sherman was of a tall and spare figure. 
He had what is called an iron constitution. He never 
showed signs of fatigue, and was tireless in going 
about seeking amusement and entertainment when 
not engaged in the performance of his duties. At 
the War Department he was a close worker. He 
had great energy and great decision of character. 
He could transact business rapidly. He had keen 
intuitions and formed impressions as rapidly as a 
woman. He was a strange combination of iron self- 
control and passionate emotional capabilities. 

The general was over six feet in height. He was 

broad-shouldered. There ^ as a ereat resemblance 

<_> 

between him and his brothe , Senator John Sherman. 
General Sherman had all the ruoreedness of feature 
of a man who lived out of doors, while the Senator's 
features are refined by indoor life and the study of 
books, The general had a broad forehead, dark eyes 



126 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

deeply set, a large Roman nose, a face marked and 
seamed in its upper part and hidden in the lower part 
by a short, gray beard and mustache. He had a deep 
voice. He was fond of young people. He loved to 
go to the theatre. 

He rarely prepared himself for any speech-making. 
Nearly all of his remarks were off-hand, the ideas of 
which were suggested to him through the stimulus of 
the occasion. He was fond of attending Grand Army 
gatherings. At their meetings, called camp-fires, he 
used to appear at his best. Surrounded by his old 
associates, he would recount in a most spirited and 
entertaining manner stories and experiences of his 
campaigns. He was a man of extreme simplicity of 
manners, thoroughly devoid of any pretence. He 
was a manly man. He was in sympathetic touch with 
the plain people. He knew all parts of this country 
well. He was especially interested in the West and 
its development. 

Graphic Pictures of the War. 

One of the most important chapters of his life after 
the war was the writing of his memoirs. He wrote 
this book too soon after the war for his own personal 
comfort. He had to speak of the actors in the War 
of the Rebellion while the greater number of them 
were still living. He wrote as plainly concerning 
them as if they had been dead and buried. His blunt 
criticisms brought out many protests. But in the end 
these memoirs will live as one of the most correct 
pictures of the period through which he passed, Th^ 



AFTEE THE WAK. 127 

books written by the three great generals form a 
splendid basis for an estimate of their characters. 
Sherman Is more brilliant, more slashing, and enter- 
taining. This is his character. 

Very Gallant. 

He had the reputation of being one of the most 
gallant men in the army. His gallantry, however, 
was kindly and commendable throughout his whole 
long life. His great name was never touched by 
scandal. He had a fatherly, kindly air which made a 
welcome for him in every house in Washington. His 
favorite companion in Washington days was General 
Van Vliet. Arm in arm they used to go about from 
one house to another, greeted everywhere with the 
smiles and bright looks of the young ladies of Wash- 
ino-ton, who vied with each other in strewinof social 
roses in the path of this most distinguished and most 
charmlnof veteran. 

The resolution and strong purpose and grim gravity 
exhibited by his features In repose would Indicate to 
the stranger a lack of the softer and more humane 
qualities, but when he was animated In social conver- 
sation such an estimate was changed at once, and in 
his bright and sympathizing smile one was reminded 
of Richard's words : 

" Grim-visaged War has smoothed his wrinkled front." 

His association with his friends and comrades was 
always exceedingly cordial, and his affection for those 
allied to him as tender as that of a woman, Jn May, 



128 OEIS EBA L SHERMAN. 

1888, when he presided for the last time at a dinner 
of the Loyal Legion, he declined a re-election, and 
when he arose, at two o'clock in the morning, to say 
good-bye, an almost death-like stillness prevailed. 

A Pathetic Farewell. 

The general spoke with feeling of the extraordinary, 
scene. He said it was delightful to see such a body of 
men togther, so strong physically and mentally, and to 
hear such speeches. He was sure no European country 
could produce such a gathering, yet he had seen sim- 
ilar meetings all over this land, from Maine to Puget's 
Sound, even in New Orleans and in Atlanta. The 
lessons of patriotism and loyalty to the flag inculcated 
here he begged companions to carry home with them 
and teach them to their children and grandchildren ; 
and with this he said farewell, asking the commandery 
to join in singing " America." 

General Sherman had to fight some battles after 
the war, and was attacked repeatedly and in many 
ways. But he always seemed to take a grim satis- 
faction in the blows both given and received, and it 
was never said of him that he ran away from his 
enemy. 

In November, 1871, he obtained leave of absence 
for twelve months, and travelled extensively in the 
East and in Europe, being received everywhere with 
many honors. The Khedive of Egypt caused a 
good deal of comment by sending to the general's 
daughter Minnie a valuable present of diamonds. 

The general's family consisted of his wife, Ellen 



AFTEE THE WAR 129 

Boyle Ewing, and six children, two sons and four 
daughters. He was married, as already stated, in 
1850, when thirty years of age, and his active mil- 
itary life, which began ten years later, involved the 
necessary separation from his family a great portion 
of the time until the close of the war. This was not 
according to his liking, but he was too good a patriot 
and soldier to grumble or find fault while battles 
were to be fought and won. On his retirement he 
removed from Washington to St. Louis, where he 
had resided at the breaking out of the war. Here he 
intended to spend the remainder of his life, but two 
years later was induced by his daughter, Mrs. Fitch, 
to move to New York, where he continued to reside 
until his death. 

Hoviseliold Circle. 
The first two or three years of his residence in 
New York he spent with his wife at the Fifth Avenue 
Hotel, but, preferring home to hotel life, he removed 
in the latter part of 1888 to a modest house on Sev- 
enty-first street, where he passed his closing years. 
Here his wife died of heart disease November 28, 
1888, at the age of sixty-four. After her death his 
two unmarried daughters, Lizzie and Rachel, pre- 
sided over the affairs of his household. His other 
children are Thomas Ewing Sherman, a Catholic 
priest; Tecumseh Sherman, a member of the bar in 
New York City ; Elenor M., the wife of Lieutenant 
Thackara of the navy ; and Mrs. T. W. Fitch of 
Pittsburg. 



130 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

Mrs. Sherman was a devout Catholic, who trained 
her children in her own faith, and through whose 
influence her eldest son became a member of the 
priesthood. His choice of a religious life was a great 
disappointment to his father, who had marked out for 
him a brilliant career in another channel. General 
Sherman was too good a father to oppose his son's 
choice, while regretting it, as he was too good a hus- 
band to oppose his wife, although not a Catholic him- 
self. His own religious faith is best expressed in his 
own reverent words on one occasion when asked the 
question. " I believe in God the Almighty ; that is as 
far as I have got," said the grim-visaged soldier. 

Army Treasures. 

At his home in New York his closing years were 
far from idle. An early riser, methodical in his habits 
and work, after a light breakfast he was accustomed 
to resort at once to the library on the parlor floor of 
his house. It contained a comparatively large collec 
tion of books, not entirely of a military character. 
There were few men who were better posted on the 
literary and historical records of this and other lands. 
A large amount of the space in his library was taken 
up by the maps which were drawn by himself and his 
generals during the Civil War. 

He had the original copies of the maps, and there 
was scarcely a day when he was not called upon to 
settle by reference some disputes as to a military 
manoeuvre made by himself or some other general. 
These maps were his hobby, and very valuable they 



AFTER THE WAR 131 

are, too, viewed from any standpoint. Then, too, he 
had an enormous correspondence, made up largely 
cf uivitations to speak before Grand Army posts and 
to contribute to all sorts of periodicals. He passed 
through the evening of his life in a calm and quiet 
manner, beloved and honored by the whole country, 
and blessed with a fuller share of happiness than falls 
to the lot of most men. 

In the summer of 1878 a great disappointment fell 

upon the general. His eldest son, Thomas Ewing 

Sherman, named after the kind foster-father and the 

idol of his father, whom the general had hoped to 

make a soldier, but finding this impossible had fitted 

for the study of the law, decided after long hesitation 

' to devote his life to the priesthood. This decision 

'almost broke the general's heart, and he refused to 

'lend the slightest countenance to the step. 

In a letter dated June i, 1878, from young Sherman 
to his friend Samuel Elbers of St. Louis, which was 
published with his consent, he stated what he pro- 
posed to do and besought his father's friends not to 
question the latter about it. 

' "Father," the young man wrote, **gave me a com- 
plete education for the Bar at Georgetown College 
and the Scientific School at Yale. On me rests the 
entire responsibility for taking this step. I go with- 
out his sanction, approval, or consent." 
' At the same time he expressed his sorrow for caus- 
ng such grief and disappointment to the father whom 
le loved. The greatest cross of General Sherman's 



132 GENEEAL SHERMAK 

was that no son of his followed him into the army. 
That has always been his first and greatest love. 

General Sherman showed his belief in a future life 
in a letter which he wrote on his return from burying 
his wife. " I expec ed to go first," he wrote, " as I am 
much older and have been more severely tried, but it 
was not to be. But I expect to resume my place at 
her side some day." 



ii 



CHAPTER X. 

Reminiscences of the Renowned Commander. 
— Ardent Friendship for Grant. — Interesting 
Facts and Anecdotes. 

Like all men of strong and intense American per- 
sonality, General Sherman had some peculiarities 
that were quite his own. Akin to Grant's taciturnity 
I was Sherman's brusqueness. He was not exactly 
' discourteous (though none held in greater contempt 
the ceremonial insincerities of what is called polite 
life), but he had the bluntness of the soldier to ex- 
cess. If anything was said that did not meet with 
his approval, he was quick to say so in most forcible 
terms, and he did not care how it was taken. Even 
in private life he was the fighter, and it was this ag- 
j gressiveness and pugnacity of his nature and his 
I way of hitting out straight from the shoulder that got 
him into so many disputes in St. Louis about seem- 
ing trifles, and led him to finally shake the dust of 
the city from his feet for ever. 

If he did not like people he did not hesitate to tell 
them so, and he was very quick and decided in his 
likes and dislikes. Very often it took strangers some 
time to get accustomed to him, he was so thoroughly 
sincere and free from the stereotyped convention- 
alities. Like many another great soldier, he was for- 



134 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

cible in his language and found strong expletives 
convenient to express his feelings. These usually 
came thick and fast whenever politics was broached, 
though it was the subject he did not like. He had 
an odd antipathy to Congressmen, and as a class 
spoke of them in terms far from complimentary. 

In February, 1862, Grant was assigned to the 
command of the new military District of West Ten- 
nessee, with '' limits not defined." At the same time 
Sherman, who was then a brigadier-general, was put 
in command of the District of Cairo. They had 
both been at West Point together, but Sherman had 
been graduated three years earlier, and up to 1862 
no intimacy had existed between them. Fortune, in 
fact, had set them thousands of miles apart, and be- 
sides there was a considerable difference in their 
wordly condition. Grant was then, as a rule, very 
poor, while Sherman, if not rich, was at least com- 
fortable. 

Congratulating" Grant. 

The first official intercourse of the two men who 
were destined to win the highest renown in the army 
took place during the siege of Fort Donelson, when 
Sherman sent troops and supplies to Grant with ex 
traordinary rapidity. Sherman was then the senior, 
but he wrote to Grant : *' I will do everything in my 
power to hurry forward your reinforcements and sup- 
plies, and if I could be of service myself would gladly 
come, without making any question of rank with your- 
self or General Smith." There was not a particle of 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 135 

envy in Sherman's nature, and he never intrigued for 
place or position. 

When Donelson fell, Sherman was one of the first 
to congratulate General Grant on his success. " I 
feel under many obligations to you," wrote General 
Grant in reply, " for the kind terms of your letter, and 
hope that should an opportunity occur you will earn 
for yourself that promotion which you are kind enough 
to say belongs to me. I care nothing for promotion 
so long as our arms are successful and no political 
appointments are made." Many years passed before 
the pleasant relations that existed then between the 
two soldiers were disclosed. The war had gone into 
history, but when at length the story was told the 
country could understand for the first time why it was 
there was victory in the West and so much disaster in 
the East. 

"This," says Badeau in \kv^ Military History of U, 
S. Grant, " was the beginning of a friendship destined 
thereafter never to flag ; to stand the test of apparent 
rivalry and public censure ; to remain firm under 
trials such as few friendships were ever subjected to; 
to become warmer as often as it was sought to be in- 
terrupted, and in hours of extraordinary anxiety and 
responsibility and care to afford a solace and a sup- 
port that were never lacking when the need arose." 

Noble Words from Grant. 

Early in 1864, General Grant was made lieutenant- 
general and assumed command of all the armies of 
^^ United States. Immediately on receiving this 



136 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

promotion, with characteristic generosity he wrote as 
follows to Sherman : 

"While I have been eminently successful in this 
war, in at least gaining the confidence of the public, 
no one feels more than I how much of this success is 
due to the energy, skill, and the harmonious putting 
forth of that energy and skill, of those whom it has 
been my good fortune to have occupying subordinate 
positions under me. 

" There are many officers to whom these remarks 
are applicable to a greater or less degree, propor- 
tionate to their ability as soldiers ; but what I want is 
to express my thanks to you and McPherson as the 
men to whom, above all others, I feel indebted for 
whatever I have had of success. How far your 
advice and suggestions have been of assistance you 
know. How far your execution of whatever has 
been given you to do entitles you to the reward I am 
receiving you cannot know as well as I do. I feel all 
the gratitude this letter would express, giving it the 
most flattering construction." 

The reply of General Sherman to what he well 
called a "characteristic and more than kind" letter is 
worth quoting in part, to show the relations which 
existed between these two eminent soldiers fighting 
in a common cause. 

'*I repeat, you do General McPherson and myself 
too much honor. At Belmont you manifested your 
traits, neither of us being near; at Donelson also you 
illustrated your whole character. I was not near, and 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 137 

General McPherson was in too subordinate a capacity 
to influence you. 

" Until you had won Donelson, I confess I was 
almost cowed by the terrible array of anarchical 
elements that presented themselves at every point; 
but that victory admitted the ray of light which I have 
followed ever since. 

*' I believe you are as brave, patriotic, and just as 
the great prototype Washington ; as unselfish, kind- 
hearted, and honest as a man should be ; but the 
chief characteristic in your nature is the simple faith 
in success you have always manifested, which I can 
liken to nothing else than the faith a Christian has in 
his Saviour." 

Among General Sherman's photographs was a cen- 
tral group of three pictures. The middle one of these 
was a full-length likeness of Ulysses S. Grant stand- 
ing in an easy pose, with the left hand thrust into the 
breast of a fatigue coat and the right deep down in 
the trousers pocket. To the left of this was a picture 
of Phil Sheridan in full uniform, and to the right was 
a picture of General Sherman himself, also in full 
uniform. He was especially fond of these pictures 
of Grant and Sheridan. He was wont to say that he 
knew of no other likeness of Grant that showed so 
clearly the repose of the man. It had been taken at 
the close of the war, when Grant was down to fight- 
ing weight, as the general expressed it, and before he 
had become fleshy and taken on the heavy look that 
appears in some of his later pictures. The picture 



138 GENEEAL ^HERMAN. 

of Sheridan had been selected by General Sheridan 
out of many hundreds, and on this account General 
Sherman preferred it to all others. He used to say 
that he loved these pictures because they recalled to 
him the men as he had known them best. These pho- 
tographs were among his valuable treasures. 

Porter's Description of Sherman. 

Admiral Porter got down to Memphis, where Sher- 
man was awaiting him, in a week or ten days, and 
sent word to Sherman that he would call on him. 
Admiral Porter, in one of his books, gives a racy 
account of the meeting and a good portrait of Sher- 
man. They had never before met. "Thinking," says 
the admiral, " that Sherman would be dressed in full 
feather, I put on my uniform coat, the splendor of 
which rivalled that of a drum-major. Sherman, hear- 
ing that I was indifferent to appearances and generally 
dressed in working clothes, thought he would not 
annoy me by fixing up, and so kept on his blue flannel 
suit, and we met, both a little surprised at the appear- 
ance of the other. 

"'Halloo, Porter!' said the general, 'I am glad to 
see you ; you got here sooner than I expected, but 
we'll get off to-night.' (They were preparing for the 
second attack on Vicksburg.) ' Devilish cold, isn't it? 
Sit down and warm up.' And he stirred up the coal 
in the grate. — ' Here, captain,' to one of his aides, 
* tell General Blair to get his men on board at once. 
Tell the quartermaster to report as soon as he has 
six hundred thousand rations embarked.' — ' Here 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 130 

Dick,' to his servant, 'put me up some shirts and 
underclothes in a bag, and don't bother me with a 
trunk and traps enough for a regiment.' — ' Here, 
captain,' to another aide, ' tell the steamboat captains 
to have steam up at six o'clock, and to lay in plenty 
of fuel, for I'm not going to stop every few hours to 
cut wood. Tell the officer in charge of embarkation 
to allow no picking and choosing of boats — the gen- 
erals in command must take what is given them. 
There ! that will do. — Glad to see you, Porter ; how's 
Grant ?' " 

Could not Perforin Impossibilities. 
The embarkation took place December 19, the boats 
steaming down to Helena. The failure of that expe- 
dition is a matter of history. The obstacles and mis- 
haps were too great for even Sherman to overcome, 
and he retired, surrendering the command to McCler- 
nand, who had been personally appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln. " My relief on the heels of a failure," 
says Sherman, " raised the usual cry at the North of 
'repulse, failure, and bungling.' There was no bung- 
ling on my part, for I never worked harder or with 
more intensity of purpose in my life, and General 
Grant, long after, in his report of the operations of 
the siege of Vicksburg, gave us all full credit for the 
skill of the movement and described the almost im- 
pregnable nature of the ground ; and, although in my 
official reports I assumed the whole responsibility, I 
have ever felt that had General Morgan promptly and 
skilfully sustained the lead of Frank Blair's brigade 



140 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

on that day, we should have broken the rebel line and 
effected a lodgment on the hills behind Vicksburg." 

Sherman's wonderful faculty for comprehending 
topographical details, developed, of course, by his war 
experience, often astonished those with whom he was 
well acquainted. He would go for a drive where he 
had never been before, and startle those around him 
bv tellino- them where this and that road started, the 
length of stream, what was planted before growth ap- 
peared, and even telling what would be encountered 
ahead that was not in sight. All this he did by his 
keen observation, his wonderful intuition and reason- 
ing powers, and the experience he had given to such 
matters for a Hfetime. He said himself once, in 
speaking of his march to the sea, that he already 
knew before he started some of the States better than 
anybody who lived in them. 

liiving" Over Old Campaigns. 

General Sherman's house was a war-ofhce in mini- 
ature. In his basement he had a big office fitted up 
with war maps and documents of tremendous value, 
including duplicates of those in use at Washington. 
Here he passed many happy hours, living over the old 
campaigns with the maps before his eyes, and plan- 
ning how he might have done otherwise if he had it 
all to do over again, and what the result of this or 
that movement would have been. 

The office was a rendezvous for military men when 
they were in New York, who always were certain of 
meetinor with a warm welcome, and it was much fre- 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 141 

quented by historical writers in search of material and 
documentary evidence. 

A friend, in speaking of the general, said : " The 
old fighter is peculiar in one respect. The girl that 
opens his door for visitors never has to go and ask 
him if he is in. At the first she tells one that ' the 
general is in,' or he is not. That settles it. If he is 
in he will see you. If you are a bore, as a good many 
of his callers are, look out for squalls, and under any 
circumstances it is not well to be prolix. General 
Sherman likes one to get to the point at once. If the 
visitor is not able to do this, he is likely to be inter- 
rupted. 

*' There is one sort of a caller who is always received 
with warmth, and that is one of General Sherman's 
old soldiers, or his 'boys,' as he calls them. Just how 
much assistance General Sherman gives to old and 
unfortunate soldiers it would be hard to say. No one 
but himself knows, and he won't tell. But these are 
among the more numerous of the visitors at his house. 
Besides them there are all sorts and conditions of 
callers at his house." 

The California Drummer. 

General Sherman had a wonderful memory. This 
was illustrated by an incident that occurred in Phila- 
delphia. He was visiting his daughter, and while 
sitting at the open window smoking one midsummer 
night he saw the policeman pass, and as the patrol- 
man halted a moment the general was noticed to give 
him a keen glance and utter an exclamation. 



142 GENEEAL SHERMAN. 

The next evening he told some one that when the 
policeman on the beat passed again to say he wanted 
to speak to him. When the officer entered he 
straightened up and gave General Sherman the re- 
gular military salute. 

"Ah, ha!" said the general, *' I thought so. Now, 
where was it I saw you before ? Do you know me ? " 

"Oh yes," said the bearded patrolman, "I knew 
you when you were a lieutenant. I was your drum- 
mer in California." 

" Ha, ha, I thought so ; and wait a bit. So you 
were that little drummer-boy, and your name — your 
name's Hutchinson." 

Sure enough, the general of the United States 
army, who had seen thousands of drummers, had 
recognized in a passing policeman the drummer-boy 
who was with his company in the Mexican War. 

Dates, names, figures, and the greatest intricacy of 
details could not escape General Sherman's marvel- 
lous memory. He remembered them all, and could 
call them up after the lapse of many years. He 
remembered everything about California just before 
and at the time it was admitted to the Union as 
though it had been yesterday. He was in command 
of a portion of the United States forces there then. 

Sherman's Hiimoroiis Side. 

The men who served with or under General Sher- 
man in any of his numerous and brilliant campaigns 
are now telling anecdotes illustrative of that wonderful 
personality that has made so deep an impress upon 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 143 

American history during the third of a century past. 
It was in the presence of his old army friends, when 
the civiHan world was shut out, that he was at his 
best, and the flow of his spirits ran unchecked and 
joke and story ran into each other, sometimes at the 
expense of his neighbor and as often at the expense 
of himself. No conceit gave him more amusement 
than that his friend General Howard was a convivial 
spirit, given to the bowl and kindred pursuits, whereas 
the hero of the one arm is the most temperate of 
men. It was this fact that gave point to the joke, and 
Sherman was never more happy than when he could 
corner Howard at one of their little Loyal Legion 
dinners and lecture him upon the errors of his ways. 

That Seidlitz Powder. 

Perhaps Sherman never forgot a great practical 
joke which Howard unconsciously played upon him 
back in the days when the Union army was resting 
upon its arms at Goldsborough. Sherman paid a visit 
to Howard's tent, where neither wine nor anything 
more invigorating than cold water was kept. As luck 
would have it. Dr. James Moore, the medical director, 
dropped into Howard's tent. Here was a man Sher- 
man could depend upon in an emergency like this. 

Sherman gave Moore a wink when Howard's back 
was turned and said, " Doctor, have you a seidlitz 
powder in your quarters ? I don't feel just right, and 
I know one would do me good." Moore had not sup- 
plemented a liberal college education by several years 
in the army in vain. He was equal to any drug clerk 



144 GENERAL ^HERMAN. 

of New York in his knowledge of the meaning of a 
wink. 

*'A seidlitz powder, general? Certainly. Come 
right over to my quarters and I can fix you out imme 
diately." 

General Howard sprang to his feet, "That won't 
be necessary, doctor," said he. " I have plenty of 
powders here, and good ones, too. I will get the gen- 
eral one." 

Sherman had little desire and less need for a seid- 
litz just then, and he followed Howard to his feet. 
" Never mind," said he, " I can get along very well 
without it." 

" No trouble at all," Howard answered, as he began 
to get the powder and the glasses ready. Sherman 
turned to Moore for relief, but that gentleman was 
busy in examining the landscape as an aid to keeping 
his face straight. 

When that was accomplished he turned about and 
gravely said: "By the way, general, I don't believe I 
have one about the premises, and you had better 
take the one Howard has prepared." Moore was 
something of a joker himself, and knew a joke when 
he saw one. 

Sherman was a soldier to the backbone and would 
not retreat in the face of an enemy. When Howard 
came up with the glasses he bravely took them and 
swallowed the foaming stuff But he never again 
complained of needing medicine when in Howard's 
tent. 



INCIDENTS XN HIS LIFE. 145 

A Joke on the General. 

A joke as good, but of a different character, was 
that almost unconsciously perpetrated on Sherman by 
an Indian chief. Out at Fort Bayard there lay for a 
long time an old cannon of no use to any one, but 
which had greatly taken the fancy of an old Apache 
chief. He daily asked the commander for it, but was 
put off with the excuse that it belonged to the Gov- 
ernment and could not be given away. One day Gen- 
eral Sherman arrived at the fort, and the request of 
the chief was referred to him. He examined the can- 
non, saw that it was worthless, and told the Indian he 
might have it. Then, putting on a grave air, he said 
to the chief: "I am afraid you want that gun so that 
you can turn it on my soldiers and kill them." 

"Umph! no," was the unexpected reply. "Can- 
non kill cowboys. Kill soldiers with club." 

General Hickenlooper of Ohio tells a story illus- 
trating Sherman's dry wit, rather at the expense of 
General Corse. In the fight at Allatoona a rifle-ball 
took Corse alongside the head, making a slight wound 
that, at the time, was thought to be a great deal more 
dangerous than it really was. When the word reached 
Sherman it had been greatly magnified, and he was 
informed that Corse's ear and cheek were gone, but 
that he would still hold his position and fight it out. 

Meanwhile, Corse had tied up his head and gone on 
with the business he had been sent there to do. As 
soon as possible Sherman hurried over, full of anxiety 
as to the amount of damage done his officer. Nothing 

10 



146 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

would do but that the bandage must come off, so that 
he might judge of the damage for himself. The sur- 
geon carefully took off the cloths and revealed a slight 
gash across the face and a hole through the ear. 
Sherman looked for a moment and then dryly said : 
" Why, Corse, they came mighty near missing you, 
didn't they !" 

** Going just Where I Please.'* 

Many are the stories told of that march to the sea, 
and occasionally the general would tell one himself. 
Here is one of his own narration : On one occasion he 
had halted for rest on the piazza of a house by the 
roadside, when it came into the mind of an old Con- 
federate who was present that he might pick up a bit 
of valuable information by a little careful quizzing. 
He knew by Sherman's dress that he was an officer, 
but had no suspicion as to his rank. When he heard 
a staff officer use the title of " General" he turned 
to Sherman in surprise and said: "Are you a gen- 
eral?" 

"Yes, sir," was the response. 

" What is your name ?" 

" Sherman." 

" Sherman ! You don't mean General Sherman ?" 

"That's who I mean." 

" How many men have you got ?" 

" Oh, over a million." 

"Well, general, there's just one question I'd like to 
ask, if you have no objection." 

" Go ahead." 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 147 

" Where are youns agoing to go when you go away 
from here ?" 

" Well, that's a pretty stiff question to ask an entire 
stranger under these circumstances, but if you will 
give me your word to keep it a secret I don't mind 
telling you." 

" I will keep it a secret ; don't have no fear of me." 

" But there is a great risk, you know. What if I 
should tell you my plans, and they should get over to 
the enemy?" 

" I tell you there is no fear of me." 

"You are quite sure I can trust you ?" 

"As your own brother." 

The general slowly climbed into his saddle and 
leaned over to the expectant Confederate, who was 
all eyes and ears for the precious information : " I 
will tell you where I am going. I am going — just 
where I please." And he did, and there was not 
enough power in the South to stop him. 

The Brave Drummer-Boy. 

Sherman never forgot that little drummer-boy who 
came to him in the hot fight at the rear of Vicksburg, 
and when it came in his power he had the youngster 
appointed to the Naval Academy at Annapolis. The 
troops were in the heat of the engagement when 
Sherman heard a shrill, childish voice calling out to 
him that one of the regiments was out of ammuni 
tion, and that the men would have to abandon their 
position unless he sent to their relief. He looked 
down, and cnere by the side of his horse was a mite 



148 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

of a boy with the blood running from a wound in his 

leg. 

" All right, my boy," said the general ; " I'll send 
them all they need, but as you seem to be badly hurt, 
you had better go and find a surgeon and let him fix 
you up." 

The boy saluted and started to the rear, while 
Sherman prepared to give the required order for the 
needed ammunition. But he once more heard the 
piping voice shouting back at him : " General, calibre 
fifty-eight, calibre fifty-eight." Glancing back, he 
saw the litde fellow, all unconscious of his wound, 
running aeain toward him to tell of the character of 
the ammunition needed, as another size would have 
been of no use and left the men as badly off as be- 
fore. Sherman never could speak too highly of the 
little fellow's pluck ; he asked him his name, compli- 
mented him, and promised to keep an eye upon him; 
which he did. He often related the story, and always 
with praises for the little soldier's bravery. 

A good story is told of one who was on Kenesaw 
Mountain during Sherman's advance. A group of 
Confederates lay in the shade of a tree overlooking 
the Union camps about Big Shanty. One soldier 
remarked to his fellows : *' Well, the Yanks will have 
to git up and git now, for I heard General Johnston 
himself say that General Wheeler had blown up 
the tunnel near Dalton, and that the Yanks would 
have to retreat because they could get no more 
rations." 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 149 

"Oh, ! " said a listener. "Don't you know 

that old Sherman carries a duplicate tunnel along?" 

One day, looking back, the men saw a line of 
bridges in their rear in flames. 

" Guess, Charley," said a trooper, " Uncle Billy has 
set the river on fire." 

Charley's reply was, " Well, if he has, I reckon it's 
all right." 

A Capital Host. 

General Sherman was always a most delightful 
host. His welcome was cordial and hospitable, and 
the guests felt at once at ease while realizing the 
honor and the privilege of the association. As a 
raconteitr he was admirable. He had lived so long, 
had seen so much, and had done so much, that the 
least suggestion brought forth from him stories that 
were both instructive and entertaining. On his 
seventieth birthday, which he celebrated by a little 
dinner in his home on the evening of February 8, 
1890, he said: "Yes, I am seventy years old to-day, 
the time allotted for man to live, but 1 can truly say 
that I have not felt better at any time within ten 
years. Seventy years is a long time, and it seems 
a great while since I was a boy. Still, I can recall 
incidents that happened when I was not more than 
four years of age." His memory was astonishing 
in detail and his mind was wonderful in vigor. He 
could recall the minutiae of incidents almost from 
infancy and throughout his eventful career. 

The partiality of the grizzled old war-hero for 



150 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

ladies' society is well known, and at school reunions 
and many such occasions his friendly and cordial 
notice of many a rosy miss who had never seen him 
before is familiarly remembered. 

His love for the theatre was prodigious. He was 
deeply interested in all that pertained to the stage, 
and he valued certain actors and actresses as his 
dearest friends. He used to tell how he had come to 
New York when he was sixteen years old, and had 
then visited the old Park Theatre, on Park Row, 
between Beekman and Ann streets. In those days, 
he said, there were great star actors, but the general 
average of theatrical people was not high, and the 
possibility of an actress being received in social circles 
was not considered. He gloried in the change that 
had taken place in the interim, and it was a delight 
to him to recognize the fact that many of our actresses 
to-day might grace any parlor with their presence. 
He maintained that it was the duty of all public men 
to foster and encourage an institution so worthy as 
the stage. 

Opinion of Dinners. 

In attending public dinners, of which he averaged 
far more than any other man of his age. General 
Sherman was very particular as to what he ate. He 
confined himself on such occasions to the plainest 
dishes, and was wont to drink only a little sauterne 
or sherry. He never touched champagne, and had 
no use for the heavier wines. Of all things, he 
abhorred what he called those mixed-up French 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 151 

dishes which might be anything or nothing. " Half 
the time," he used to say, '* these concoctions are only 
turkey or chicken hash fixed up with some kind of 
sauce and called a croquette or something of the kind. 
I have no use for them." He had his own theories 
about dining both in private and in public. 

He disliked exceedingly the prevalent custom of 
late dinners. He declared that all private dinners 
should be given at such an hour as to enable the 
diners to attend the theatre afterward. His great 
love for the theatre probably had more to do with 
this position than his dislike for late dinners. He also 
advocated plain food for public dinners, and deplored 
the costliness of modern banquets, declaring that it 
was absurd to pay twenty-five dollars a plate for a 
dinner. Most people could not eat such dinners, and 
those that could paid the penalty of sickness for their 
rashness. Fond as General Sherman was of public 
banquets, he loved his home better. He was hap- 
piest when he could gather about him a choice circle 
of intimate friends and entertain them in his own 
house. 

Birthday iEpisode. 

When he attained his seventieth birthday the Union 
League Club proposed to honor the event by a ban- 
quet to him in its club-house. He thanked them for 
the kindness intended, but refused on the ground that 
he had arranged and preferred a little dinner in his 
own dining-room, which could seat but sixteen people. 
And so he told the members of the Union League 



152 GENEKAL SHERMAI5. 

that they would have to postpone theii proposed ban- 
quet or else abandon it altogether. He was going to 
dine at home that night, and with him he would have 
his brother John, the United States Senator from 
Ohio, and General Schotield, General Howard, and 
General Slocum, who had been his three division 
commanders at the close of the war. It afforded 
General Sherman the greatest happiness that these 
three distinguished soldiers should be with him that 
night, and all in excellent health. Mr. Depew was 
very anxious to have General Sherman come around 
to the Union League Club that night after the dinner 
in his own house, but the general replied to this sug- 
gestion : "How can I do that, Chauncey ? I can't 
hurry up my guests in order to go to somebody else's 
entertainment. You will have to give up this Union 
League scheme of yours." And so Mr. Depew sub- 
mitted gracefully to the inevitable, but a month later 
a grand banquet was given by the Union League in 
honor of General Sherman's birthday, and at this ban- 
quet were present many of the most noted men in 
the United States, all eager to honor the old chieftain. 

The General's **Fad." 

Thousands of his friends have interesting stories to 
tell of Sherman. So democratic were his manners, 
and so easy for all sincere travellers was the road to 
his heart, that of his friends and admirers, numerous 
as they were, each feel as if he had in his particular 
custody some bit of history or anecdote of the great 
commander which the world could not afford to lose. 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 153 

The general's fondness for kissing pretty girls was 
the subject for stories innumerable. How that fond- 
ness, which may have been latent in his earlier career, 
for all we know, developed with him into a fad in the 
satisfaction of which his efforts were untiring, and, it 
must be confessed, exceedingly popular, is not gen- 
erally known. Here are the facts as related by 
himself: 

"Some time after Grant was elected President I 
went to call on him at the White House. I had been 
struck with the number and speed of his horses, and 
with the delight it seemed to give him to be in their 
company. So I said to him, ' General, fine horses 
seem to have become a fad with you.' 

" 'Well, Sherman,' said he, *we all must have our 
fads these days. It seems to have become the fash- 
ionable thing. I have all my life been intensely fond 
of good horseflesh. In my youth I hadn't the means 
to indulge this fancy. Later in life I had not the 
time. Now, when for the first time I have both the 
money and the leisure, I am indulging it and enjoying 
it to the full.' 

Kissing- the Pretty Girls. 

" 'Well, general,' said I, 'I suppose I'll have to be 
getting a fad myself I never have had one, and if I 
have one now I don't know it. Let me see — let me 
see : what shall it be ? I have it ! You may drive 
your fast horses, and I will kiss all the pretty girls. 
Ha ! ha ! that shall be my fad.' " 

General Sherman was some years afterward a 



164 ©ENERAl. SHERMAN. 

guest at Congress Hall, Saratoo^a, where a well- 
known lady was a conspicuous ficrure with her dia- 
monds and her costumes. Not the least interesting 
of her possessions was a very charming daughter 
about fifteen years of age, just blushing into the first 
beauty of maidenhood, and as plump and as fasci- 
nating a little creature as the eye might light upon 
in a long day. There was a children's ball that 
evening at Congress Hall, and General Sherman, 
who seemed to be in an excellent humor, strolled 
into the ball-room about the time the music struck 
up, in company with the wife of the gentleman who 
is the authority for these incidents. 

Rebuffed by a Little Maid. 

There were scores and scores of pretty young 
misses ranged around the walls and waiting for the 
dance. As General Sherman, on the arm of his fair 
companion, promenaded past this array of juvenile 
pulchritude, a smile of unmistakable satisfaction came 
to his face, and his eye wandered from one bud to 
another with intense and respectful appreciation. 
When he reached the young lady referred to, after 
having bestowed a series of rattling salutations on 
the most attractive little maids, he interrupted his 
triumphal progress and reached out his arms to 
salute her tempting lips, but she would none of it. 

"Thank you, sir," she said with a profound 
courtesy. "I cannot kiss any one without my 
mother's permission.'* 

The general was delighted. '* My dear young 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 165 

friend," he said, with a cordial laugh, "you are quite 
right ; but allow me to say that I must insist upon 
your continuing to keep this excellent rule of con- 
duct. Promise me now that never, as long as you 
live, will you kiss any man who is not specially 
designated and approved of by your mother." 
Whether she did or did not make the promise is 
not a matter of history, but the incident was an 
exceedingly diverting one to all who witnessed it. 

Florida Experiences. 

General Sherman and General Carleton, the father 
of Henry Guy Carleton, were lieutenants together in 
the army under General Harney, the famous Indian 
fighter, down in the Seminole War. General Sher- 
man's experiences at that time in Florida were a 
fruitful source of anecdote in his after life. One story 
in particular he told with great gusto of an interview 
between himself and a very respectable-looking young 
white man taken prisoner by the troops from the 
ranks of ''Billy Bowlegs's " disreputable followers. 
He said it showed how accident made or marred a 
career. 

"I said to this young man," General Sherman used 
to say, " that it was difficult for me to understand how 
he got into such bad company." 

"Lieutenant," said he, '' I am here as the victim of 
one of the most unfortunate accidents that ever hap- 
pened. My father and mother are excellent citizens 
of the State of Kentucky, where on the farm near 
Paris I spent a happy boyhood. The bright dreams 



156 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

of my youth were clouded over by an untoward en- 
counter with a jackass. That whole region in which 
we live was infested by those half-wild 'jacks' which 
had been Imported into the State by thousands. Ken- 
tucky was the great mule-producer among the States, 
and when the old discarded jacks were turned out 
worthless we boys used to lasso them and ride them 
out into the woods on our expeditions after chestnuts 
and walnuts. 

" One day I secured the raggedest, longest-eared, 
and deepest-voiced brute you ever saw, and hid him in 
the smoke-house, intending to start off before day the 
next morning on a nutting expedition. Now, I had a 
maiden aunt who lived in the family who had a strong 
and earnest conviction of the existence of a personal 
devil. The Evil One was to her just such an awful 
creature as Bunyan showed his to be in his Pilgrhn s 
Progress. Down on a farm in Kentucky people get 
up before day, anyway, and when my aunt went out 
to the smoke-house the next mo:.nJng to get some 
bacon to fry for breakfast, it was still pitch dark. 

His Sataiuc Majesty. 

"As she opened the smoke-house door, she said after- 
ward, she saw the horrible face of the arch enemy 
himself popped suddenly out at her through the dark- 
ness, set off by two long and hideous 'horns.' No 
sooner had the jack spied my respected relative than 
he broke forth into a series of the most diabolic, ear- 
piercing, nerve-tearing hee-haws that ever desolated 
the stillness of a country landscepe, My aunt went 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 157 

off into a succession of fits, and when she came to she 
swore by all that was holy that she had seen the devil. 
I had slept calmly through the whole disturbance, but 
the offence was promptly laid at my door, and, enter- 
ing my room while 1 was yet asleep, my father wore 
out a leather strap on me. 

" But for this apparently trivial incident I might to- 
day be a respected citizen of the great State which raises 
pretty girls, blue grass, mules, and bourbon, for, smart- 
ing, under a sense of wrong and the lively application 
of the strap, I put two shirts into a handkerchief, and 
without waiting to say good-bye, made a bee-line South. 
I never stopped until I got into the Florida swamps, 
where I have just been taken prisoner." 

"Old Bill." 

This was a favorite story of General Sherman's, as 
showing how a man's whole career could be swerved 
by a trifling incident. There is another story which 
he used to tell to his intimates which illustrates the 
serious side of his mind, and betrays by a touch the 
gende and affectionate nature which became toward 
the end of his life his most marked characteristic. 

" When I went back to Washington," he used to 
say, " after the war was over and took part in the grand 
review, I was struck during the first day by the dis- 
order and confusion in the procession caused by the 
antics of some of the fiery chargers ridden by the 
officers. On the first day the Army of the Potomac 
filed by. Many gallant troopers had changed off their 
old war-horses, and that day for the first time rode 



158 GENEEAL SHERMAN. 

animals unaccustomed to such surroundings. Th^ 
immense masses of humanity, the blare of the bands, 
and the glitter of the landscape in general frightened 
these beasts, so that they interfered seriously with the 
general effect of the spectacle. The morning of the; 
next day, when the Army of the Tennessee was ta 
march by in review, my old body-servant came to me 
and said : 

" * General, what horse do you want to ride to- 
day?'" 

'-Old Bill,' said I. 

" ' Why, general,' said my servant, * Old Bill isn't 
the kind of a horse you'd want to ride to-day, sure.< 
Why, he's got no life and spirit about him, and won't 
make any show at all.' 

" Now," continued the general, " that was the very 
reason why I wanted to ride old Bill. I knew there 
was no nonsense in him. In fact, he might have been 
called sheepish. A cannonade itself would not have 
excited him, and I was looking out for my own com- 
fort, not for display. So that morning I got on the 
old charger and rode quietly along through that im- 
pressive scene. The old fellow never phazed and ex- 
hibited about as much style as a plough-horse. But 
we got through very comfortably. 

" After passing about one hundred yards beyond 
the grand stand I rode old Bill to the sidewalk and 
dismounted. He was led away, where I do not know, 
and I have never seen the old fellow since. I never 
knew what they did with him, and it has always been 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 159 

a genuine sorrow to me that I hadn't been able to 
keep him near me during the rest of our Hves." 
His Versatility. 

Colonel L. M. Dayton, who came on from Cincin- 
nati to attend General Sherman's funeral, was eight 
years on his staff, serving with him during the entirx:^ 
war and for nearly five years afterward. The intimacy 
of the relations which Colonel Dayton in such a posi- 
tion necessarily sustained to the great commander 
gave him a peculiar insight into the operations of his 
mind. He tells the following story of an incident 
which could have happened in the military experience 
of no other o-eneral durino- the war, and which illus- 
trates admirably the boldness of Sherman's military 
operations and the extraordinary foresight with which 
he planned out a campaign even beyond what might 
seem to many its objective point. 
1 "What amazed me most," said Colonel Dayton, 
I "was the versatility of that extraordinary soldier. 
1 I cannot help but believe that as a general he was 
greater than any other the war produced. He 
I planned a campaign to its uttermost limit before 
j he began active operations. For instance, in the 
\ Vicksburg campaign, while General Grant might 
not have figured out his movements beyond the 
actual capture of that city itself, General Sherman 
in his place would have outlined clearly what he 
would do with his men after the siege and what 
disposition he would make of the baggage and 
siege-guns. 



160 GENERAL SHEKMA^. 

" When we started out from Atlanta on the march 
to the sea, nobody knew what our objective point 
on the Atlantic coast was, except a few members of 
the staff and the authorities at Washington. Every- 
body else simply knew that we were going to march 
across Georgia to the coast. When General Sherman 
reached Savannah — which of course was all alongf 
known to the authorities as our objective point — 
he was greatly surprised to find that a gunboat 
had been despatched down the coast to meet him 
there. 

"I Won't do Anything of the Kind." 

"The captain of this gunboat had succeeded in i 
ascending Ossabaw Sound and the Ogeechee River, , 
which lies just back of Savannah, and made instant t 
communication with the general. An important i 
official document which had been brought down in i 
this way was handed to General Sherman in my , 
presence. When he received it he got excited and ] 
seemed vexed about something. I noticed his color i| 
rising and a look of irritation in his eye, as well as 
the nervous motion of the left arm which character- 
ized him when anything annoyed him. It seemed, 
for instance, as if he was pushing something away 
from him. 

"'Come here, Dayton,' said he; and we went into 
the inner room of the building where he made his 
headquarters. As soon as we got inside I could see 
that he was greatly opposed to the suggestions that 
had apparently been contained in the document. 



^^mm 








INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 161 

*I won't do It/ he would say to himself several times 
over — ' I won't do anything of the kind.' 

''The document was an official order from Secre- 
tary Stanton, approved by General Grant, for General 
Sherman to wait with his army at Savannah for trans- 
ports which had been sent down the coast to convey 
them by sea to the mouth of the James, and then to 
ascend that river to co-operate with Grant. General 
Sherman had all along Intended to march his army up 
the coast across the country, and he sat down at once 
and wrote a letter to General Grant explaining to 
him why he was opposed to taking a sea-voyage with 
his men ; how he thought such an experience would 
demoralize them with sea-sickness, confinement in 
close quarters and lack of exercise; and how he had 
decided to take all the responsibility and march them 
up by land in accordance with his original plans. 
He said he would be at Goldsboro, N. C., on the 
2 1st day of March, 1865, and that If any other orders 
were sent to him there, they would reach him 
promptly. So closely did he calculate that on the 23d 
of March he was In possession of Goldsboro. 

" As Sherman had at that time practically an army 
of a hundred thousand men, which could easily anni- 
hilate any opposition he might meet with on his march, 
the wisdom of his course was at once apparent to the 
authorities, and no attempt was made to interfere 
with his execution of his plans. As a matter of fact 
he did encounter Joe Johnston on the way up the 
coast and defeated him at Bentonvllle. That, I believe, 
u 



162 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

was his last battle. No other general would have 
dared to do what Sherman did in this instance. The 
boldness of his military genius and his keen insight 
into the future were admirably illustrated by it. 

How He met Jennie Lind. 

" It was in Florence," he said ; " I received a card to 
a miisicale, as they called it, and Jennie Lind sent me 
with this card a note saying how much she would feel 
honored, and all that. So I went. 

" Lord ! but it was awful ! 

"They lived on the top floor of an old palace. 
Jennie Lind looked like a washwoman, and Gold- 
schmidt, her husband, was a little black, weazened 
fellow. There was a daughter, too, I remember. She 
was freckled mighty bad ! 

" It was an awful time. The refreshments were 
ice-cream and jumbles. I got away as soon as I could 
— it made my heart ache to remember that woman so 
different and see her now so contented with the change. 
I'd have jumped out of a four-story window to have 
escaped. 

" She was a good woman, too," he went on musingly. 
"They were very poor at this time. She had spent 
all the money she had made in America in Swedish 
charities. I think she might better have kept some of 
it, anyhow." 

Hated to be Photographed. 

" My ! how I hate to be photographed," the general 
exclaimed one day, ''because in pictures by that pro- 
cess I always look stern ; don't like to look stern, My 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 16S 

Tiood is pleasant and friendly to all, though I have 
3een told that when I'm in a fight I look like the very 
levil. That is because my nature is one that concen- 
rates itself, heart and soul, fire and will, into one ter 
•ible focus. No half measures for me. I take aftei 
ny mother in that." 

He tells of a Speech by Grant. 

The following characteristic anecdote of General 
jrant was told, and illustrated with exquisite humor, 
)y General Sherman at a little dinner: 

"Grant and I were at Nashville, Tenn., after the 
)attle of Chattanooga. Our quarters were in the same 
)uildine. 

" One day Grant came into the room that I used for 
n office. I was very busy, surrounded with papers, 
luster-rolls, plans, specifications, etc., etc. When I 
:>oked up from my work I saw he seemed a good 
eal bothered, and, after standinor around a while 
>ith his shoulders thrown up and his hands deep 
own in his trousers pockets, he said : 

" ' Look here, there are some men here from Galena.' 

" ' Well ?' I said. 

"Looking more uncomfortable every minute, he 
.^ent on: 

; " ' They've got a sword they want to give me ;' and, 
)oking over his shoulder and jerking his thumb in 
1 the same direction, he added : 

'* 'Will you come in? ' 

" He looked quite frightened at the idea of going 
) face them alone, so I put some weights on my 



164 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

several piles of papers to keep them from blowing ; 
around, and went into the next room, followed by 
Grant, who by this time looked as he might if he'd 
been going to be court-martialled. There we found 
the mayor and some members of the board of coun- 
cilmen of Galena. On a table in the middle of the : 
room was a handsome rosewood box containing a ; 
magnificent gold-hilted sword, with all the appoint-; 
ments equally splendid. 

Grant ^Nonplussed. 

"The mayor stepped forward and delivered what, 
was evidently a carefully prepared speech, setting: 
forth that the citizens of Galena had sent him to pre-; 
sent to General Grant the accompanying sword, not* 
as a testimonial to his greatness as a soldier, but as a; 
slight proof of their love and esteem for him as a; 
man and their pride in him as a fellow-citizen. 

"After delivering the speech the mayor produced 
a large parchment scroll, to which was attached by a 
long blue ribbon a red seal as big as a pancake, and 
on which was inscribed a set of complimentary reso- 
lutions. These he proceeded to read to us, not omit- 
ting a single ' whereas ' or ' hereunto.' And after 
finishing the reading he rolled it up and with great 
solemnity and ceremony handed it to Grant. 

" General Grant took it, looked ruefully at It, and 
held it as if it burnt him. Mrs. Grant, who had been 
standing beside her husband, quietly took it from 
him, and there was dead silence for several minutes. 
Then Grant, sinking his head lower on his chest 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 165 

and hunching his shoulders up higher and looking 
thoroughly miserable, began hunting In his pockets, 
diving first in one and then In another, and at last 
said: 'Gentlemen, I knew you were coming here to 
give me this sword, and so I prepared a short 
speech ; ' and with a look of relief he drew from his 
trousers pocket a crooked, crumpled piece of paper 
and handed it to the mayor of Galena, adding, ' and, 
gentlemen, here it is! ' " 

The Geueral and Mrs. Cleveland. 

To those who appreciated General Sherman's 
genial nature It Is superfluous to say that he regarded 
his extensive acquaintance with the "ladies of the 
White House" with peculiar gratification. This he 
specially referred to on one occasion when he had 
been introduced to Mrs. Cleveland, then but a short 
time a bride. The general said : 

"The other day, when I was In Washington, I 
received a note from Mrs. Endlcott telllnor me that 

o 

the President and Mrs. Cleveland were to dine at her 
house that evening, and begging me to join them. I 
wrote her a very polite reply — said I had two or three 
engagements I must keep, but if Mrs. Endlcott would 
reserve me a place I would slip in quietly and take up 
my dinner at the point at which I arrived. 

"When I got there they were at the table, and I 
found that the seat at Mr. Endlcott's left had been 
reserved for me, Mrs. Cleveland being on his right. 
Well, we just shoved Endlcott to one side, and sailed 
jin and had a good time. After a while the ladies left 



166 GENEBAL SHERMAN. 

US, and then after a little we went into Endicott*s 
room for a smoke. Then, about 11.30, we went up 
to the ladies. It was rather late, and very soon Mrs. 
Cleveland made a move to go, and of course several 
gentlemen surrounded her, helping her with her 
wraps; and she turned to me and said very quietly,, 
* General, I am very glad to have met you, and I want, 
you to come and see me.' I smiled and said, * You 
know that such an invitation is a command.' And^ 
she smiled back and said, ' When will you come ? 
To-morrow? Shall we say one o'clock?' Well, I 
went, and she came in to meet me plainly and simply 
dressed, and was just sweet and girlish — but bright!: 
and shrewd ! 

The Finest L*ady at the White House. 

"She wanted to know all about the ladies that have 
presided in the White House. I have known 'em 
all since Jackson's time, and she made me tell her^ 
about them. I consider Harriet Lane, Buchanan's 
niece, the finest lady that ever did the honors of the 
White House, though she was cold and impassive ; 
but her tact and suavity of manner were perfect. I 
believe Mrs. Cleveland has taken Harriet Lane for 
her model, and she is as clever and sweet a lady as 
Miss Lane was. 

''The sweetest woman I ever met presiding there 
was Kitty Taylor, General Taylor's daughter, after- 
ward Mrs. Dr. Dandridofe. But none of them was 
brighter and more beautiful than Mrs. Cleveland." 

Youth and beauty General Sherman loved — indeed, 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 167 

I think the only subject on which I ever heard him 
speak with deep regret, says a friend, was that of lost 
youth. One day he remarked, " Ah, how I envy the 
young their hopes and dreams and aspirations ! I 
envy the beggar on the street if he is young — who 
can tell what lies before him ? Yes, yes, I know, but 
there's no fun in looking back; it's an old story^ 
you've heard it over and over again, but the future 
may hold all sorts of surprises. I went into my club 
the other night, and a young fellow came over to me 
and said, ' General, I am very proud and happy to 
meet you ; you've been a landmark to me all my life. 
I've read about you in history.' Lord ! he looked at 
me with reverence and bowed down before me, and it 
was all I could do to be civil to him. Read about me 
in his history, indeed ! as if I were Moses !" 

At the time of the death of General Sheridan he 
was lamenting the rapid thinning of the ranks of his 
contemporaries, and, shaking his head, said sadly^ 
" There we go, one after another. Grant and Sheri- 
dan, and soon, I suppose, I shall join the procession. 
Well, that will be the last of the race — there will b^ 
no generals left when I'm gone." 

Excuses for Swearing^. 

On one occasion when visiting his sister, Mrs. 
Ewing, General Sherman met four or five clergymen, 
and his patience was rather severely tried by their 
religious discussions, and what seemed to him their 
intolerant and one-sided views. One of them chal- 
lenged him to offer any excuse for swearing, meeting 



168 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

him with the clinching statement that there could be 
no redemption for blasphemers. 

"Were you," inquired the young soldier, *' ever at 
sea in a heavy gale, with spars creaking and sails flap- 
ping, and the crew cowardly and incompetent?" 

" No." 

" Did you ever," he continued gravely, " try to drive 
a five-team ox-cart across the prairie ?" 

" No." 

"Then," said Captain Sherman, " you know nothing 
of temptations to blasphemy — you know nothing about 
extenuating circumstances for blasphemers — you are 
not competent to judge?" 

Proud of his Mother. 

General Sherman was proud of tracing his powers 
of endurance to his mother, to whom he also fre- 
quently ascribed the heritage of other soldierly cha- 
racteristics. 

"She married very young," said the general, "her 
husband, who was not very much older, being a lawyer 
with hope and ambition for his patrimony and all the 
world before him where to choose. He chose Ohio, 
leaving his young wife in Jersey City while he made 
a home for her in what was then a far country, though 
now comparatively near. 

" Soon as he had made a home for her she went to 
him. She rode on horseback, with her young baby in 
her arms, from Jersey City to Ohio, the journey oc- 
cupying twenty-three days ! What would a New 
York bride say to such a journey as that ? I'm afraid 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 169 

she'd want to wait until her husband had made money 
enough to have a railroad built for her." 

His Methodical Brother. 

" Curious," said the general one day, *' to note the 
differences in the family ! I've got a brother out in 
Wisconsin — cashier in a bank — most methodical man 
that ever lived — eats and sleeps by rule. He couldn't 
live in one of these New York palaces. He lives in 
a nice frame house, and has for twenty years and 
more gone and come from his office every day at pre- 
cisely the same hour. The people in the town set 
their watches by him, and if he were five minutes late 
there wouldn't be a correct timepiece within a mile. 
He has sat on one seat in his office and hung his coat 
on one peg for twenty years, and if anybody gets in 
before him and gets off a joke on him by using that 
peg, it sours his temper for the whole day." 

General Sherman's '* Idolized Soldier-Boy." 

WilHe Sherman, when about nine years of age, 
went down to Mississippi, where he became a com- 
rade and favorite of the Thirteenth regulars, who 
formed General Sherman's personal escort. On the 
way up the river, after the Vicksburg campaign, he 
became ill. October 3, 1863, the brave little fellow 
died. October 4, he had a military funeral at Mem- 
phis ; at midnight came a letter of thanks from the 
general to Captain Smith, commanding battalion, one 
of the most touching letters ever written. In the 
spring of 1867 the body was removed to St. Louis 
and buried in Calvary Cemetery. A beautiful marble 



170 GF.NERAL SHERMAN. 

monument was erected by the officers and soldiers 

of the battaUon. 

The above facts suggested the following poem, 

a copy of which was sent to the general at his home 

in New York. In the battalion the boy was fondly 

called : 

"Sergeant Willie." 

The Thirteenth Regulars, as brave 
A regiment as ever gave 
Their blood to solder sundered lands, 
Of prompt obedience to commands. 

Had once a sergeant of the line, 

A little fellow aged nine, 

Called " Sergeant Willie," Sherman's boy, 

His father's pride, his mother's joy. 

He — born a soldier — loved the camp; 
Of future prowess bore the stamp; 
While clinging yet to mother's hand 
Had all the air of high command. 

The Thirteenth treads to muffled drum; 
To some one in its ranks has come 
The soldier's fate — to some one small, 
Is seen by hearse and little pall. 

" Who lies so bravely 'neath the stars, 
That wraps a form too young for wars?" 

«' Our * Sergeant Willie,' Sherman's boy. 
His father's pride, his mother's joy." 

"Battalion, halt!" — Battalion, weep. 
Your dearest comrade sleeps the sleep 
That knows no waking : — Dry your tears, 
The brave have e'en in death no fears. 

Whate'er was mortal, free from guilt, 
Rests in the tomb affection built: 
His soul has joined the ranks above, 
And found a Heavenly Father's love. 

George Mortom. 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 171 

With military promptitude, the following character- 
istic letter of acknowledgment was duly sent : 

75 West 7ist St., New York, Sept. 9, 1889. 

G. H. McCabe, Esq., Philadelphia, Pa. : 

My Dear Sir: Please accept for yourself, the 
sender, and for Mr. Morton, the author of the poem 
"Sergeant Willie," a copy of which is just received, 
my heartfelt and grateful thanks. The same, I assure 
you, will be preserved in my archives, together with 
many other encomiums, mainly from the hands of 
members of the old Thirteenth, to which regiment he 
was in life so thoroughly devoted. 

Very truly yours, 

W. T. Sherman, General. 

The general's habits of life were simple. He had a 
keen sense of the beauty of Nature, and never was 
happier than when his camp was pitched in some forest 
of lofty pines, where the wind sang through the tree- 
tops in melodious measure and the feet were buried 
in the soft carpeting of spindles. He was the last one 
to complain when the table fare was reduced to beef 
and "hard tack," and, in truth, he rather enjoyed 
poverty of food as one of the conditions of a soldier's 
life. He apologized to his guest, the Secretary of 
War, one day at Savannah because certain luxuries, 
such as canned fruits and jellies, had found their way 
to his table. 

" This," he remarked, " Is the consequence of coming 



172 GENERAL SHEKMAN. 

into houses and cities. The only place to live, Mr. 
Secretary, is out of doors in the woods." 

This simplicity of taste, which was so perfectly 
natural to the general, served well in the campaigns of 
the war. It is easily seen that in making long marches 
the most fatal clog to successful operations is exces- 
sive transportation, and the tendency of the army was 
constantly to accretion ; but Sherman reduced bag- 
gage-trains to the minimum, and himself shared the 
privations of the common soldier. 

Unselfish Patriotism. 

General Sherman's patriotism was a vital force. 
He gave himself and all that he had to the national 
cause. Personal considerations never influenced him. 
Doubtless he was ambitious, but it was impossible to 
discern any selfish or unworthy motive either in his 
words or deeds. We do not believe it possible for a 
man more absolutely to subordinate himself and his 
personal interests than he did. His patriotism was as 
pure as the faith of a child, and before it family and 
social influences were powerless. His relatives were 
the last persons to receive from his hand preferment 
or promotion. In answer to the request of one nearly 
allied to him that he would give his son a posidon on 
his stafl", the general's reply was curt and unmis- 
takable : 

" Let him enter the ranks as a soldier and carry a 
musket a few years." 

In all of his pleasant and peaceful old age General 
Sherman realized fully the necessary infirmities of in- 



INCIDENTS IN HIS LIFE. 173 

creasing years and the probability that death might 
remove him at any time. The contemplation of death 
had no terrors for him. His position in this matter is 
best expressed in the reply which he made on his 
seventieth birthday to a conventional wish that he 
might have many happy returns of the day. He said 
then, with a full appreciation of the insecurity of life 
as well as of the fact that his race was nearly run, '' I 
am too old to hope for many returns of the day. And 
then life is so uncertain. Death seems to come now- 
a-days without almost any warning, but many a man 
has sprung up in readiness when I have had the 
trumpets sounded, and I am still a soldier. When 
Gabriel sounds his trumpet I shall be ready." 

He was, of course, long past the years when a man 
can expect vigorous health, and he often spoke about 
death, and said he did not expect to be much longer 
on the scene of active affairs. He frequently prefaced 
remarks about the future by saying, '' If I live " and 
"If I am here." Indeed, for a number of years, espe- 
cially since the death of his wife, his mind assumed a 
melancholy mood. The deaths of Hancock, Sheridan, 
and Grant, with whom he was intimately associated, 
were to him profound shocks, and had an effect differ- 
ent to the philosophical way in which they were 
regarded by others. 

For some time his hearing had been failing and he 
had become quite deaf. This troubled him very much, 
as his senses had been phenomenally keen. It pained 
him when he could no longer hear the birds sing in 



174 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

the Spring or the sparrows twittering in the city, and 
friends had to be exceedingly careful not to talk be- 
fore him about things he could not hear. It such a 
thing occurred he was likely to get up and leave the 

room. 

The Greatest Soldier. 

, How should the greatest soldier die ? 

! The winds and seas and hills reply: 

At peace ! The horrid front of War 
Smoothed by a smile from every scar; 
His sword and spear beat into hooks 
To prune his vines; among his books; 
His armor rusting on the wall; 
Friends thicker than the leaves that fall 
In Vallombrosa; with a sigh 
Of sweet content — thus let him die. 

Where should the greatest soldier lie? 
The winds and seas and hills reply: 
No granite base nor marble pile, 
Nor fretted arch nor vaulted aisle, 
Nor storied urn nor sculptured stone, 
Is worthy, now that he is gone. 

In every heart where freedom swells. 
In every soul where honor dwells. 
Till children in their turn impart 
Each memory of soul and heart 
To others, who still love to hear 
The name of him whom all hold dears 
There, of the nation's love possessed, 
In peace and honor let him rest. 



BOOK 11. 

GENERAL SHERMAN'S GREAT 
MARCHES AND BATTLES. 

CHAPTER XI. 

Sherman at the Battle of Bull Run. — His 
Graphic Account of the Bloody Conflict. 

In the Civil War, General Sherman came into 
the military service of the United States as colo- 
nel of the Thirteenth regular infantry. At Bull 
Run his rank was that of colonel commanding 
brigade. 

The reader will be interested in his own graphic 
description of the part he acted in the first great on- 
slaught of the war (July 21st, 1861), which is 
herewith given in his own words : 

My brigade was composed of the Thirteenth New 
York Volunteers, Colonel Quinby ; Sixty-ninth New 
York, Colonel Corcoran ; Seventy-ninth New York, 
Colonel Cameron ; Second Wisconsin, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Peck ; and Company E, Third Artillery, under 
command of Captain R. B. Ayres, Fifth Artillery. We 
left our camp near Centreville, pursuant to orders, 
at half-past 2 a. m., taking place in the column of 
Assistant- Adjutant General Baird, next to the brigade 
of General Schenck, and proceeded as far as the 

176 



176 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

halt, before the enemy's position, near the stone 
bridge across Bull Run. Here the brigade was de- 
ployed in line along the skirt of timber to the right of 
the Warrenton road, and remained quietly in position 
till after lo a. m. The enemy remained very quiet, 
but about that time we saw a rebel regiment leave its 
cover in our front and proceed in double-quick time 
on the road toward Sudley Springs, by which we 
knew the columns of Colonels Hunter and Heintzel- 
man were approaching. 

The Enemy in Sight. 
About the same time we observed in motion a large 
mass of the enemy below and on the other side of 
the stone bridge. I directed Captain Ayres to take 
position with his battery near our right and to open fire 
on this mass; but Baird had previously detached the 
two rifle-guns belonging to this battery, and, finding 
that the smooth-bore guns did not reach the enemy's 
position, we ceased firing, and I sent a request that 
Baird would send to me the thirty-pounder rifle-gun 
attached to Captain Carlisle's battery. At the same 
time I shifted the New York Sixty-ninth to the extreme 
right of the brigade. Thus we remained till we heard 
the musketry-fire across Bull Run, showing that the 
head of Colonel Hunter's column was engaged. 
This firing was brisk, and showed that Hunter was 
driving before him the enemy, till about noon, when 
it became certain the enemy had come to a stand, and 
that our forces on the other side of Bull Run were 
all engaged, artillery and infantry. 




MA.TOR-OENF.RAL JAMES B, M'PHERSON 



SHERMAN AT BULL RUN. 177 

Here Baird sent me the order to cross over with 
the whole brigade to the assistance of Colonel Hunter. 
Early in the day, when reconnoitring the ground, I 
had seen a horseman descend from a bluff in our front, 
cross the stream, and show himself in the open field 
on this side, and, inferring that we could cross over 
at the same point, I sent forward a company as skir- 
mishers, and followed with the whole brigade, the New 
York Sixty-ninth leading. 

Hag-gerty Shot from his Horse. 

We found no difficulty in crossing over, and met 
with no opposition in ascending the steep bluff oppo- 
site with our infantry, but it was impossible to the 
artillery, and I sent word back to Captain Ayres to 
follow if possible, otherwise to use his discretion. 
Captain Ayres did not cross Bull Run, but remained 
on that side with the rest of the division. Advancing 
slowly and cautiously with the head of the column, to 
give time for the regiments in succession to close up 
their ranks, we first encountered a party of the enemy 
retreating along a cluster of pines; Lieutenant-Colonel 
Haggerty, of the Sixty-ninth, without orders, rode out 
alone and endeavored to intercept their retreat. One 
of the enemy, in full view, at short range, shot Hag- 
gerty, and he fell dead from his horse. 

The Sixty-ninth opened fire on this part}^ which 
was returned; but, determined to effect our junction 
with Hunter's division, I ordered this fire to cease, 
and we proceeded with caution toward the field where 
we then plainly saw our forces engaged. Displaying 

}2 



17a GENERAL SHERMAN. 

our colors conspicuously at the head of our column, 
we succeeded in attracting the attention of our friends, 
and soon formed the brigade in the rear of Colonel 
Porters. 

Here I learned that Colonel Hunter was disabled ] 
by a severe wound, and that General McDowell was ^ 
on the field. I sought him out, and received his ■ 
orders to join in pursuit of the enemy, who was falling i 
back to the left of the road by which the army had I 
approached from Sudley Springs. Placing Colonel 1 
Quinby's regiment of rifles in front, in column by /• 
division, I directed the other regiments to follow in i! 
line of battle, in the order of the Wisconsin Second, ,j 
New York Seventy-ninth, and New York Sixty-ninth. ; 

Quinby's Brave Advance. 

Quinby's regiment advanced steadily down the hill 1 
and up the ridge, from which he opened fire upon the ^j 
enemy, who had made another stand on ground very ;! 
favorable to him, and the regiment continued ad- , 
vancing as the enemy gave way, till the head of the 
column reached the point near which Rickett's battery 
was so severely cut up, The other regiments de- 
scended the hill in line of battle under a severe 
cannonade, and, the ground affording comparative 
shelter from the enemy's artillery, they changed di- 
rection by the right flank, and followed the road before 
mentioned. At the point where this road crosses the 
bridgG to our left front the ground was swept by a 
most severe fire of artillery, rifles, and musketry, and 
we saw, in succession, several regiments driven from 



180 GENERAL SHEEMAN. 

it ; among them the Zouaves and battalion of marines. f 
Before reaching the crest of this hill the roadway wasi' 
worn deep enough to afford shelter, and I kept the 
several regiments in it as long as possible ; but when 
the Wisconsin Second was abreast of the enemy, byi 
order of Major Wadsworth, of General McDowell's' 
staff, I ordered it to leave the roadway by the left flank,i 
and to attack the enemy. 

Wisconsin Second Repulsed. 

This regiment ascended to the brow of the hllli 
steadily, received the severe fire of the enemy, re-e 
turned it with spirit, and advanced, delivering its fire 
This regiment is uniformed in gray cloth, almost iden-[ 
tical with that of the great bulk of the Secession) 
army, and when the regiment fell into confusion andi 
retreated toward the road, there was a universal cry- 
that they were being fired on by our own men, Thei 
regiment rallied again, passed the brow of the hill a 
second time, but was again repulsed in disorder. By 
this time the New York Seventy-ninth had closed up, 
and in like manner it was ordered to cross the browol 
the hill and drive the enemy from cover. 

It was impossible to get a good view of this ground. 
In it there was one battery of artillery, which poured 
an incessant fire upon our advancing column, and the 
ground was very irregular, with small clusters of pines 
affording shelter, of which the enemy took good ad-i 
vantage. The fire of rifles and musketry was very 
severe. The Seventy- ninth, headed by Its colonel, 
Cameron, charged across the hill, and for a short time 

ii 



SHERMAN AT BULL UVU. 181 

the contest was severe ; they ralHed several times 
under fire, but finally broke and gained the cover of 
the hill. 

This left the field open to the New York Sixty- 
ninth, Colonel Corcoran, who in his turn led his regi- 
ment over the crest, and had in full open view the 
ground so severely contested ; the fire was very 
severe, and the roar of cannon, musketry, and rifles 
incessant ; it was manifest the enemy was here in 
great force, far superior to us at that point. The 
Sixty-ninth held the ground for some time, but finally 
fell back in disorder. 

Federals thrown into Confusion. 

All this time Quinby's regiment occupied another 
ridge to our left, overlooking the same field of action 
and similarly engaged. Here, about half-past 3 p. m., 
began the scene of confusion and disorder that cha- 
racterized the remainder of the day. Up to that time 
all had kept their places, and seemed perfectly cool 
and used to the shell and shot that fell, comparatively 
harmless, all around us ; but the short exposure to an 
intense fire of small-arms at close range had killed 
many, wounded more, and had produced disorder in all 
of the battalions that had attempted to encounter it. 
Men fell away from their ranks, talking and in great 
confusion. 

Colonel Cameron had been mortally wounded, was 
carried to an ambulance, and reported dying. Many 
other officers were reported dead or missing, and 
imany of the wounded were making their way, with 



182 GENERAL SHERMAI^. 

more or less assistance, to the buildings used as hos 
pitals on the ridge to the west. 

We succeeded in partially re-forming the regiments, 
but it was manifest that they would not stand, and I 
directed Colonel Corcoran to move along the ridge to 
the rear, near the position where he had first formed 
the brigade. General McDowell was there in person, 
and used all possible efforts to reassure the men. By 
the active exertions of Colonel Corcoran we formed 
an irregular square against the cavalry which were 
then seen to issue from the position from which we 
had been driven, and we beo^an our retreat toward the 
same ford of Bull Run by which we had approached 
the field of battle. 

Retreat toward Centreville. 

There was no positive order to retreat, although 
for an hour it had been going on by the operation of 
the men themselves. The ranks were thin and irreg- 
ular, and we found a stream of people strung from 
the hospital across Bull Run and far toward Centre- 
ville. 

After putting in motion the irregular square in 
person, I pushed forward to find Captain Ayres's 
battery at the crossing of Bull Run. I sought it at its 
last position, before the brigade had crossed over, but 
it was not there ; then passing through the woods 
where, in the morning, we had first formed line, we 
approached the blacksmith's shop, but there found a 
detachment of the Secession cavalry, and thence made 
a circuit, avoiding Cub Run Bridge, into Centreville, 



SHERMAN AT BULL BUN. 183 

where I found General McDowell, and from him 
understood that it was his purpose to rally the forces 
and make a stand at Centreville. 

But about nine o'clock at night I received from 
General Tyler, in person, the order to continue the 
retreat to the Potomac. This retreat was by night 
and disorderly in the extreme. The men of different 
regiments mingled together, and some reached the 
river at Arlington, some at Long Bridge, and the 
greater part returned to their former camp at or near 
Fort Corcoran. I reached this point at noon the next 
day, and found a miscellaneous crowd crossing over 
the aqueduct and ferries. Conceiving this to be 
demoralizing, I at once commanded the guard to be 
increased and all persDns attempting to pass over 
to be stopped. This soon produced its effect; men 
sought their proper companies and regiments. Com- 
parative order was restored, and all were posted to 
the best advantacre. 

I Our loss was heavy, and occurred chiefly at the 
point near where Rickett's battery was destroyed. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Haggerty was killed about noon, 
before we had effected a junction with Colonel Hunter's 
division. Colonel Cameron was mortally wounded 

i leading his regiment in the charge, and Colonel 

, Corcoran has been missing since the cavalry charge 

\ near the building used as a hospital. 

i Lieutenants Piper and McQuesten, of my personal 
staff, were under fire all day, and carried orders to 
and fro with as much coolness as on parade. Lieu* 



184 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

tenant Bagley of the New York Sixty-ninth, a volunteer 
aide, asked leave to serve with his company during the 
action, and was among those reported missing. I 
had intelligence that he was a prisoner and slightly 
wounded. 

" Colonel Coon of Wisconsin, a volunteer aide, also 
rendered good service during the day." 

Lincoln's Humorous Reply. 

They were all back near Georgetown by July 23d, 
and made preparations to defend their position against 
the Confederates, who they were certain were at 
their heels. Sherman about this time had trouble with 
some of his ninety-day men, who wanted to return 
home. Mr. Lincoln visited the camp one day, when 
one of the officers stepped up to the President's car- 
riage, in which Sherman was seated with him, and 
said : " Mr. President I have a cause of erievance. 
This morning I went to speak to Colonel Sherman, 
and he threatened to shoot me." Mr. Lincoln repeated 
interrogatively the words, ''Threatened to shoot 
you ? " — " Yes, sir, he threatened to shoot me." Mr. 
Lincoln looked at him and then at Sherman, and 
bending his tall, spare form toward the officer, said to 
him in a loud stage-whisper, that could be easily heard 
at some distance, " Well, if I were you, and he threat- 
ened to shoot, I would not trust him, for I believe he 
would do it." The officer disappeared amid the 
laughter of all who were around. 

During the anxious August days after the battle of 
Bull Run, while Sherman was drilling and disciplining 




GENERAL SHERMAN AT THE OUTBREAK OF THE WAR. 



18( 



186 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

the raw regiments under him and getting ready to do 
his part in repulsing the attack that was almost hourly 
expected, he received a note from General Robert An- 
derson asking him to call on him in Washington. 
Anderson explained that the Administration was be- 
coming alarmed about Kentucky, where matters were 
rapidly approaching a grave crisis. The Legislature 
was in session, and was ready, as soon as supported 
by the General Government, to take measures that 
would keep the State in the Union. It had been de- 
termined, therefore, to organize a new military depart- 
ment, to be known as the Department of the Cum- 
berland, and to embrace Kentucky, Tennessee, etc. 

Critical Situation in Kentucky. 

Anderson said he had been offered the command, 
had accepted it, and wanted help. The President 
agreed that he should select four of the brigadiers, 
and he wanted Sherman to be one of them and to be 
his right-hand man. Anderson had been the captain 
of Sherman's company In the old Fort Moultrie, and 
knew his splendid abilities as a soldier. The other 
brigadiers selected for the new department by Ander- 
son were Thomas, D. C. Buell, and Burnslde. Sher- 
man always wanted to go West, and he was rejoiced 
to be given the chance to go with Anderson, whom he 
so much admired and esteemed. 

The situation in Kentucky at this time was exceed- 
ingly critical. The State was threatened with invasion 
by two forces — one from the direction of Nashville, 
under the command of Albert Sidney Johnston and 



SaMMAN AT BULL IttlN. 187 

Buckner, and the other from tlie direction of the 
Cumberland Gap, under the command of Generals 
Crittenden and ZoUIcoffer. Anderson saw that the 
force at his disposal was not sufficient to fight these 
two columns, and he sent Sherman to Indianapolis 
and Springfield to confer with the governors of Indiana 
and Illinois and ascertain what assistance they could 
give. Sherman found Governor Morton busily en- 
gaged equipping regiments and sending them East 
to McClellan or to Fremont in Missouri. These two 
generals were then looked upon as the great soldiers 
who were to put an end to the war and restore the 
Union. Governor Yates in Illinois was as active as 
Morton, but the new troops were all going to Fre- 
mont or McClellan. 

Sherman was not very successful in obtaining help 
for Kentucky, and he resolved to go to St. Louis and 
lay the situation before Fremont in person. When 
he succeeded in obtaining admission to Fremont, 
which was a work of no small difficulty, owing to the 
number of guards with whom he surrounded himself, 
the Western commander was courteous enough, but 
Sherman could do nothinof with him In furtherance of 
his mission. He returned to Louisville. The city 
was In the greatest state of excitement. The Legis- 
lature had resolved to adhere to the Union, and John- 
ston had invaded the State, advancing as far as 
Bowling Green, which he began to fortify. Buckner 
was despatched by him with a division toward Louis- 
ville. Zollicoffer entered the State and advanced as 



188 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

far as Somerset. Columbus was In possession of Gen- 
erals Polks and Pillow, and General Grant, on the 
other side, had moved from Cairo to Paducah. 

In a few hours the news came that Buckner was 
rapidly marching on Louisville. All the troops An- 
derson had to oppose him were Rousseau's division 
and a few home-guards in Louisville. Sherman was 
sent out with Rousseau's force to seize Muldraugh's 
Hill, back of Elizabethtown. As fast as troops reached 
Louisville they were sent to Sherman, and toward the 
beginning of October he had a division of two brigades. 
Anderson in Louisville was rapidily breaking down 
under mental strain and worry, and relinquished the 
command. Sherman, as senior, had to fill his place, 
but he did not desire to serve except in a subordinate 
capacity. The War Department replied that Briga- 
dier-General Buell would soon arrive from California 
to relieve him. Sherman in the mean time went 
vigorously to work raising troops, but it was not an 
easy matter. The young men, as a rule, sympathized 
with the South, and the old men wanted to stay at 
home and defend their property. He succeeded, 
however, in materially strengthening General George 
H. Thomas and Brigadier-General A. D. McCook, 
commanding respectively at Camp Dick Robinson and 
Elizabethtown. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Events preceding the Battle of Shiloh. — 
Rapid Movements in the Cumberland Val- 
ley and South-west. — Capture of Island 
No. 10. 

The fall of Fort Donelson, February i6, 1862, 
completely broke up the line of defence stretching 
from Bowling Green to Columbus — a line of defence 
which the Confederates fondly imagined to be in- 
vulnerable. It carried the whole Union front forward 
two hundred miles. It had the immediate effect of 
driving the insurgents completely out of Kentucky. 
It threw them back into the centre of Tennessee, and 
brought the capital of that State under Union au- 
thority. It practically unbound both the Cumberland 
and Tennessee rivers — an immense gain to the Union 
commanders, as they fully appreciated the great ad- 
vantage of gunboats on those inland rivers. 

There can now be no doubt in any mind at all 
familiar with the subject that the Union victories at 
Forts Henry and Donelson were rendered compar- 
atively easy by the bad management of the Confed- 
erate commander-in-chief Had General Johnston, 
in place of attaching so much importance to the pro- 
tection of the two forts on the Tennessee and the 
Cumberland respectively, concentrated his various 

m 




190 



BEFORE THE BATTLE OF SHILOH. 



191 



armies and forced either Grant or Biiell or both to 
risk the chances of battle in the open ground, the 
result might have been very different. Johnston saw 
this himself when it was too late, and in a remarkable 
letter addressed from Murfreesboro to Jefferson 
Davis, he said, '' If I join this corps to the forces of 
General Beauregard, then those who are declaiming 
against me will be without an argument." It was the 
best he could do under the circumstances. 

Bowling Green had been evacuated before Fort 
Donelson fell; for, beheving it to be untenable, John. 




NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE. 

i5ton had moved on toward the south. Nashville was 
:hrown into a perfect panic by the report of the 
:apture of Donelson, and as Johnston had declared 



192 



GENERAL SHERMAN. 




MAJ.-GEN. D. C. BUELL. 



that he fought for that city while endeavoring to save 
this fort on the Cumberland, the capital of Tennessee 
fell an easy prey to the troops of General Buell. Six 
days after the capture of Nashville, General Halleck t 

telegraphed to General Mc- 
Clellan from St. Louis, "Co- 
lumbus, the Gibraltar of the ■ 
West, is ours and Kentucky ) 
is free. Thanks to the bril- 
liant strategy of the campaign i 
by which the enemy's centre ( 
was pierced at Forts Henry j 
and Donelson, his wings iso- • 
lated from each other and ( 
turned, compelling thus the i 
evacuation of his stronghold of Bowling Green first, l 
and now Columbus." 

Driven from all these strongholds, it became neces- ^ 
sary for the Confederates to select some defensive 
position farther to the south. In obedience to in- 
structions from Richmond, Polk fell back some miles, 
still clinging to the shores of the Mississippi, and es- 
tablished himself at Island No. lo and at New Madrid. 
Attack on Island ^NTo. lO. 
These places, although fortified with great strength, 
Island No. lo particularly having had the special at- 
tention of General Beauregard and being deemed the 
most impregnable of all the posts on the Mississippi, 
the Confederates were compelled in succession tc 
evacuate, The attack on Island No, lo reflected the 




COMMODORE FARRAGUT, 




BEFOKE THE BATTLE OF SHILOH. 193 

highest credit on the skill of the Union commanders 
and on the bravery of the Union troops. It was not 
until a canal had been cut across 
Donaldson's Point, between Is- 
land No. 8 and New Madrid, that 
the Nationals had any hope of 
dislodging the enemy. 

The canal was twelve miles 
long and fifty feet wide, and 
nineteen days were consumed 
in cutting it from point to point 

1 1 • ' ♦ U1 r ^l- ADMIRAL FOOTE. 

and makmg it navigable for the 

largest of the gunboats. Commander Foote reported 
to his Government that Island No. lo was "harder to 
conquer than Columbus, its shores being lined with 
forts, each fort commanding the one above it." 

Beauregard telegraphed to Richmond that the 
National guns had *' thrown three thousand shells 
and burned fifty tons of gunpowder," his batteries 
being uninjured and only one man killed. The canal 
made a complete change in the situation„ New 
Madrid had been evacuated on the I2th of March, 
and on the 8th of April, four days after the com- 
pletion of the canal, Island No. lo had ceased to be 
a Confederate stronghold. 

Federal Victory. 

The defenders of the batteries had fled in con- 
fusion, but they were pursued by Pope and compelled 
to surrender. The garrison on the island, learning 
what had taken place, and believing the situation to 



1^ 



GENERAL 8HEKMAN. 



be hopeless, sent a flag of truce to Commander Foote, 
offering to surrender. The immediate fruits of victory 
were some seven thousand prisoners, including three 
generals and two hundred and seventy field and 
company officers, one hundred heavy siege-guns, 
twenty-four pieces of field artillery, a large quantity 
of ammunition, several thousand stands of small-arms, 
with tents, horses, and wagons innumerable. ''No 
single battle-field has yet afforded to the North such 
visible fruits of victory as have been gathered at 
Island No. lo." Such was the language used by the 




ISLAND NO. 10. 



high officials at Richmond. The Mississippi was now 
open as far south as Fort Pillow. 

While these events were following each other in 
rapid succession in Middle Tennessee and Western 
Kentucky, successes of a scarcely less substantia^ 
kind were attending the National arms in Arkansas, 
in the grand movement, conducted by Curtis, SigeL 



BEFORE THE BATTLE OF SHILOH. 



195 



nnd others, down the Mississippi Valley toward the 
Gulf. Early in February the Confederate general 
Price had been compelled to retreat from Missouri 
into Arkansas. 

The Old Flag" in Arkansas. 

On the 1 8th of that month he was closely followed 

by the Nationals under General Samuel R. Curtis of 

iowa. On the same day joy 

was created throuehout the 
<_> 

Union by a telegram sent by 
General Halleck to General 
McClellan. "The flag of the 
Union," said Halleck, " is float- 
ing in Arkansas. The army of 
the South-west is doing its duty 
nobly." Curtis foresaw, how- 
, ever, that he was certain soon 
to be taken at a disadvantage, 

las the Confederates in retreating had really been 
^falling back upon reinforcements. He therefore took 
post upon Sugar Creek. His entire force consisted 
of twelve thousand five hundred men, with forty-nine 
guns. The enemy, under General Earl Van Dorn, 
a dashing Confederate officer, was at least twenty 
thousand strong. 

On the morning of the 7th of March the two 
Armies came into collision, and fierce fighting con- 
in ued throughout the day. 

There had been much previous manoeuvring, and 
n consequence of a skillful and successful flank 




MAj.-GLN. H. W. HALLECK. 



196 



G-ENERAL SHERIilAN. 



movement made by Van Dorn, Curtis was compelled, 
almost at the last moment, to change his front. 
Carr's Division Driven Back. 
When the struggle began the First and Second 
divisions, under Sigel and Asboth, were on the 
left, the Third, under Davis, was in the centre, and 
Carr's Fourth division formed the right. The line ex- 
tended between three and four 
miles, from Sugar Creek to 
Elkhorn Tavern. On the op- 
posite side of a ravine called 
Cross-Timber Hollow the Con- 
federate line was stretched out ; 
before them, with Price on the ; 
right, Mcintosh In the centre, ,' 
and McCulloch on the left. 
The attack fell heavily upon 
Carr's division, which during the course of the day , 
was driven back nearly a mile, but was not disor- ' 
ganlzed. 

An attempt was made by McCulloch, by a move- 
ment of his force to the left, to join Van Dorn and 
Price In their attack on Curtis's right. To arrest 
this movement, Sigel pushed forward three pieces 
of artillery, with a body of cavalry to protect and 
support them. The cavalry were immediately over- 
whelmed and the guns captured. Davis hurried to 
the assistance of Sigel ; a desperate struggle followed, 
victory oscillating like a pendulum, the Nationals and 
Confederates recoiling and recovering alternately ; ul- 




GEN. STERLING PRICE. 




BEFORE THE BATTLE OF SHILOH. 197 

timately, however, the Confederate right was broken 
and routed, and among those left on the field were 
Generals McCulloch and Mcintosh, mortally wounded. 
At the close of the fighting on 
the 7th, Price was on the Fay 
etteville road, in Curtis's rear. 
Van Dorn had his headquar- 
ters at Elkhorn Tavern. On the 
right the National army had been 
defeated ; it was cut off from its 
line of communication ; its pro- 
visions were all but exhausted, major-general f. sigel. 
The Confederates, however, had 

been defeated on their right and nearly driven from 
the field During the night the Confederates united 
their forces on the ground held by their left wing. A 
change was also effected in the National line, Davis 
taking the right, Carr the centre, and Sigel the left. 

A Federal Victory. 

At sunrise the battle was resumed, Sigel opening 
a heavy cannonade and advancing round the enemy's 
right, Davis at the same time turning the enemy's left. 
It was a daring and skilful movement, and had all the 
effects of a surprise. All at once the Confederates 
found themselves exposed to a destructive cross-fire. 
I They made a brave resistance, but in two hours, such 
was the precision and rapidity of Sigel's gunners, they 
were in full retreat through the defiles of Cross- 
Timber Hollow. 

Thus ended what is known as the battle of Pea 



198 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Ridge. In the two days the Nationals lost over thir- 
teen hundred rnen. The Confederate loss must have 
been oreater. This battle had no direct connection 

o 

with the movements more immediately under con- 
sideration. It did not result from the fall of Forts 
Henry and Donelson. It did not in any way affect 
the impending struggle at Pittsburg Landing. 

But inasmuch as the movements of the army under 
Curtis were part of Halleck's general plan, as that 
plan contemplated quite as much the opening of the 
Mississippi from Cairo to the Gulf as the driving of 
the enemy out of Kentucky and Tennessee, and as 
the battle of Pea Ridge was noted for skill on the part 
of the officers and bravery on the part of the men, it 
has been deemed wise, the more especially as it 
occurred simultaneously with the events now under 
review, to give it a place in these pages, which are in- 
tended to be preliminary to the most gigantic effort 
yet made on either side since the commencement of 
the war. 

The Popular Favorite. 

After the fall of Donelson it was only natural that 
General Grant should, for a time at least, become the 
popular favorite. All over the Union his praises 
were liberally sounded, and by not a few who had ac- 
quired an insight into his character he was hailed 
already as the coming man. His sphere of action had 
been greatly enlarged. General Halleck, as if to 
mark his appreciation of Grant's noble services, had 
assigned him to tiie command ot the new district of 



BEFORE THE BATTLE OF SHILOH. 



199 



West Tennessee, a command which extended from 
Cairo to the northern borders of Mississippi, and em- 
braced the entire country between the Mississippi 
and Cumberland rivers. 

General Grant took immediate steps to turn to ac- 
count the victories which he had won and to press 
the enemy still farther to the south. He established 
his headquarters at Fort Henry, where General Lewis 
Wallace was in command. We have seen already 




MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE: 



that Foote's flotilla was withdrawn from the Cumber- 
land, that part of it had gone up the Tennessee River, 
and that Foote himself, with a powerful naval arma- 
ment, had gone down the Mississippi for the purpose 



200 GENEBAL SHERMAN. 

of co-operating with the land troops against Colum- 
bus, Hickman, Island No. lo, and New Madrid. 
General C. F. Smith in Command. 

It seems to have been the conviction of all the 
Union commanders — of Halleck, of Buell, of Grant — 
that a lodorment should be made at or near Corinth in 
Northern Mississippi. The possession of Corinth or 
Florence or Tuscumbia, but particularly Corinth, 
vv^ould o-ive the National forces control of the Mem- 
phis and Charleston railroad, the key to the great 
railway communications between the Mississippi and 
the East, as well as the border slave States and the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

It would facilitate the capture of Memphis, because 
it would place it more completely at the mercy of the 
troops now moving down the Mississippi ; and it 
would render effective assistance to General Curtis^ 
who, as we have seen, was at this moment carrying 
on important operations in Arkansas. While adopt- 
ing vigorous measures for the purpose of giving effect 
to the general plan. Grant had the mortification to 
receive an order from Halleck instructing him to turn 
over his command to General C. F. Smith and to 
remain himself at Fort Henry. 

Grant Humiliated. 

In such circumstances such an order must have 
been humiliating in the last degree to General Grant, 
and it is not surprising that, stung to the quick as he 
must have been, he should have asked to be entirely 
relieved from duty. As a general rule, it is unwise 



BEFORE THE BATTLE OF SHILOH. Tfl 

to attach too much importance to individuals in a 
great national contest. No one man is absolutely in- 
dispensable. It is undeniable, however, that the 
retirement of General Grant at this particular junc- 
ture might have materially affected the future history 
of the great national struggle, now fairly begun and 
already bearing upon it somewhat of the impress of 
his character and genius. 

The story of this short-lived difficulty is easily told. 
Complying with a request for an interview, Grant had 
on the 27th of February gone on a visit to Buell, up 
the Cumberland to Nashville. In the mean time, Hal- 
leck had ordered him to ascend the Tennessee, then 
in full flood, and establish himself on the Memphis 
and Charleston railroad at or near Corinth. On the 
1st of March, Halleck ordered him to fall back from 
the Cumberland to the Tennessee, with the view of 
carrying out the orders previously given. It was sup- 
posed at this moment that the Confederates had re- 
treated to Chattanoocra. 

Halleck's Complaints. 

Sherman meanwhile received orders to seize all 
steamboats passing Paducah, and to send them up the 
Tennessee for the transportation of Grant's army, 
On hearing that Grant had gone up the Cumberland, 
Halleck telegraphed to him, "Why don't you obey 
my orders? Why don't you answer my letters? 
Turn over the command of the Tennessee expedition 
to General C. F. Smith, and remain yourself at Fort 
Henry." At the same time, Halleck wrote complain- 



202 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

ingly to McClellan at Washington, saying he could 
get no reports from Grant, whose troops were demor- 
alized by their victory. 

To Grant himself Halleck wrote, statinor that his re- 
peated neglect of positive orders to report his strength 
had created great dissatisfation and seriously inter- 
fered with the general military arrangements, and that 
his going to Nashville when he ought to have been 
with his troops had given such offence at Washington 
that it had been considered advisable to arrest him on 
his return. 

Grant's Conduct Explained. 

It is possible that, judging by the highest forms of 
military law. Grant in some of the particulars charged 
was to blame. It is possible, too, that Halleck, who 
was a man of the old school and strict to the letter 
©f the law, was officious overmuch. Grant, however, 
had his explanation ready. He had not received 
Halleck's orders in time ; he had gone to Nashville 
for the good of the service, and not for personal plea- 
sure or for any selfish motive ; he had reported every 
day, had written on an average more than once a 
day, and had done his best to obey orders from head- 
quarters ; he had not permitted his troops to maraud ; 
on the contrary, he had sent the marauders on to St. 
Louis. He submitted to instructions by turning the 
army oi^er to General Smith. He asked, however, 
that he miaht be relieved. 

The explanations so far satisfied Halleck that he 
requested the authorities at Washington to allow the 



BEFORE THE BATTLE OF SHILOH. 



203 



matter to drop. Smith, however, remained in com- 
mand, but, as the reader will soon discover, only for a 
brief period. 

A Splendid Pageant. 

The temporary change of commanders did not al- 
low any intermission of the work. The expedition up 
the Tennessee was hurried forward. An acquisition 
was found in Sherman, who, in compliance with orders 
from Halleck, reported to 
Smith. It was not many days 
until seventy transports, carry- 
ing over thirty thousand troops, 
were ready to move to the 

point agreed upon. As the ^^^^^^B^H^^^ 
boats steamed up to Savannah, 
where the depot of supplies 
was established, bands playing 
and banners flying, it was per- 
haps the most splendid pageant 
seen since the commencement of the war. On the 
nth of March the greater portion of the army was 
debarked at Savannah in perfect safety. 

General Lewis Wallace, with his division, disem- 
barked on the west bank of the river at Crump's 
Landing, about four miles above Savannah, and took 
post on the road to Purdy. His instructions were to 
destroy the railroad bridge in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of that village. This was a hazardous under- 
taking, for the Confederates, as was afterward learned, 
ATere lying close at hand ; but it was successfully ac- 




MAJ.-GEN. LEW. WALLACE. 



204 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

complished, and that, too, under the inconvenience 
and discomfort of a series of heavy thunderstorms. 
A Confederate train approached while the bridge 
was burning, and narrowly escaped capture by re- 
versing the engine. Sherman was ordered by Smith 
to take his own division and the two gunboats Tyler 
and Lexington, to proceed farther up the river, and 
Lo strike the Memphis and Charleston railroad. 

Sherman's Coinniand in Peril. 

Sherman went up as far as Tyler's Landing, at the 
mouth of Yellow Creek, just within the borders of I 
Mississippi, but the roads were so flooded by the 
heavy rains that he found it impossible to reach the ! 
railroad. Had the enemy known his opportunity, 
Sherman's division might have been cut to pieces; 
for it was with the utmost difficulty, and not until i 
many men and horses had perished in the swollen 
streams, that he got back to his boats. 

On his way up the stream Sherman made one im- 
portant discovery. On passing Pittsburg Landing 
the gunboats were fired upon by a Confederate regi- 
ment. It had already become known that the Con- 
federate army was concentrating at Corinth, and that 
two batteries were already posted in advance — one 
at Eastport, the other just above the mouth of Bear 
Creek. 

Sherman learned that a road led from Pittsburg 
Landing to Corinth ; he conveyed the information at 
once to Smith, and declared it to be all-important, 
in his judgment, that Pittsburg Landing should be oc- 



BBFOEE THE BATTLE OF SHTLOH. 205 

cupied. The advice was taken and the place became 
sacred — the name immortal. 

After a personal examination of the ground, Smith 
was satisfied that Sherman's advice was sound ; and 
Hurlbut was ordered to occupy Pittsburg Landing, 
while Sherman was directed to bring his division on 
the ground, but to take a position out from the river, 
leaving space enough behind him, as Smith put it, 
" for a hundred thousand men." 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Sherman Saves the Battle of Shiloh. — Valley j 
of Death. — A Wall of Iron. — Grant Praises : 
Sherman's Heroism. 

Pittsburg Landing is about eight or nine miles ; 
above Savannah, and lies on the west side of the < 
Tennessee. The river-banks at the landing rise ( 
about eighty feet, but are cloven by a number of I 
ravines, through one of which runs the main road 
to Corinth to the south-west, and branching off to 
Purdy to the north-west. The landing is flanked on i 
the left by a short but precipitous ravine. On the ( 
right and left are Snake and Lick creeks, streams 
which rise near each other and gradually diverge, 
falling into the Tennessee some four or five miles 
apart on either side of the landing. Between these 
streams, which form a good flanking arrangement, 
making attack possible only in the front, lies a 
plateau or table-land rising some eighty feet high, 
of irregular surface, cleared near the shores, but 
covered with tall oaks and thick brushwood farther 
from the river. 

Abuut three miles from the landing, and embowered 
in trees, stood a little log building — a place used 
occasionally by the Methodists for holding camp- 
meetings. It had neither doors nor windows, and 



BATTLE OF SHILOH. 207 

was only half-floored. Some corn in the husk lay 
piled on the floor. This was Shiloh Church, destined 
to give its name to the neighborhood and to the 
bloody contest which was so soon to disturb its quiet 
surroundings. 

Sherman's Guard of Eight Thousand. 

The illness of General Smith, which resulted in 
death on the 25th of April, brought Grant again 
to the front. On the 17th of March he arrived at 
Savannah, established his headquarters at the house 
of Mr. Cheney, and assumed the command. He 
found the army already in position, and made no 
radical changes. The landing was guarded by the 
gunboats Tyler and Lexington. Sherman's division, 
eight thousand strong, formed a sort of outlying 
force, covering all the main roads leading to the 
landing. There was a gap between his centre and 
his right, and a still wider gap of about two and a 
half miles between his centre and his left. Hurlbut's 
division was put in line on the left of the main Corinth 
road, and Smith's own division, under General W. H. 
L. Wallace, was on Hurlbut's right. 

Lewis Wallace's division was detached and sta- 
tioned at Crump's Landing, to observe any move- 
ments which might be made by the Confederates at 
Purdy and to cover the river communications between 
Pittsburg Landing and Savannah. McClernand's 
division was about a mile in front of W. H. L. 
Wallace, with that of Prentiss to his right. These 
two divisions — that of McClernand and that of Pren- 



2d8 



GENERAL- SHERMAN. 



tiss — formed the real line of battle. The entire force 
was about thirty- three thousand men. In estimating 
the possible strength of the Union army the aid 
which might come from Buell must be taken into 
account. 

Buell on the March. 
This general, after repeated solicitations that he 
might be permitted to abandon Nashville, cross Ten- 
nessee, and join his forces to those of Grant with a 
view to counteract the Confederate concentration at 
Corinth, had at last obtained Halleck's consent. The 
Army of the Ohio, which numbered some forty thou- 
sand men, was therefore already on its march, and by 
the 20th of March it had reached Columbia. The 
roads were bad and the weather stormy in the ex- 
treme ; but it was not unreasonable to conclude that 

Buell would be able to accom- 
plish the distance in time. 
Should this large increase of 
strength arrive before the com- 
mencement of hostilities. Grant 
could have but small reason for 
any misgivings as to the issue 
of the contest. 

Let us now glance at the po- 
sition of the Confederates and 
consider their plans and their 
prospects. When the first line of the Confederate 
defence had been swept away by the capture of Fort 
Doneison, Johnston retired first of all to Murfreesboro; 




GEN. P. G. T. BEAUREGARD. 




%^ IVxv^li^Y^^^^^^' '^ 



GENERAL SHERIDAN 




•VATePS SDA/A/.t. 



MAP S}«)WH>IG PITTSBURG LANDING AND CORINTH. 
14 209 



210 



GENERAL SHERMAN. 



but the great object aimed at both by him and Beau-i 
regard was to concentrate the Confederate forces and 
establish a second Hne of defence on the Memphis and 
Charleston railroad. Concentration had for some time 
past been the favorite idea of Beauregard. If his 
advice had been taken in time, Donelson might not 
yet have fallen. Beauregard selected Corinth as thei 
most desirable point for concentrating the scattered 
forces of the Confederacy. Here the two great 
railroads which connect the Gulf of Mexico andi 
the Mississippi with the Adantic Ocean form a junc-i 
tion. It is the key of the railroad system of Missis-: 
sippi. 

A Great Military Camp. 
Orders were issued to the commanders of all the 
outlying positions, and Beauregard was soon joined 
by Bragg from Pensacola, by Polk from Mississippi, 
Johnston also coming up with 
his entire army from Murfrees- 
boro. Corinth therefore became 
a great military camp, and in ad- 
dition to its other advantages it 
afforded complete protection to 
Memphis. In three weeks the 
Confederate strength had risen 
from eleven thousand to forty- 
five thousand men. This, how- 
Van Dorn and Price were known 
to be coming up from Arkansas with other thirty 
thousand men. 




GENERAL B. BRAGG. 



ever, was not all. 



BATTLE OF SHILOH. 211 

Since the commencement of the war the Confed- 
erates never found themselves in circumstances 
more favorable for striking a bold and decisive 
blow. After the junction with Johnston that general 
took the command, Beauregard being nominally 
second, but remaining really the soul of the move- 
ment. 

It had been the intention of Halleck, under whose 
instructions the entire movement on the part of the 
Nationals was conducted, to intervene between John- 
ston and Beauregard. When, therefore, he heard 
that Johnston had disappeared from Murfreesboro, 
and that his object was to join Beauregard at Corinth, 
he ordered Buell to hurry forward to the aid of Grant 
and counteract, as far as possible, the Confederate 
concentration. 

Confederate Forces United. 

There had been unnecessary delay, which permitted 
the Confederate generals to unite their strength ; and 
now the weather and the roads were such that, al- 
though Buell's army was at Columbia on the 20th, it 
took full seventeen days to reach Pittsburg Landing, 
a distance of only ninety miles. 

To the Confederate general two questions presented 
themselves: Shall I wait for Van Dorn and Price? or 
shall I strike Grant at once, before Buell has time to 
come up ? At this time Breckenridge, with the Con- 
federate right, which consisted of eleven thousand 
men, was stationed at Burnsville ; Hardee and Bracror, 
with more than twenty thousand men, formed the 



21.2 



GENEKAL SHERMATT. 




LIEUTENANT-GENERAL PuLK. 



centre at Corinth ; and Polk and Hindman, with ten \ 

thousand men, were on the 
left, to the north of the Mem- \ 
phis and Charleston railroad. ' 
Johnston, on assuming com- 
mand, had issued a flaming, 
proclamation. '* You are ex- 
pected," he said to the sol- 1 
diers, " to show yourselves : 
worthy of your valor and( 
courage, worthy of the women i 
of the South, whose noble ' 
devotion in this war has never been exceeded in any;, 
time." ! 

The Foe Advancing. 

On the 3d of April their available strength being j 
forty thousand men, the Confederates commenced 1 
their onward march. Their plan was first to destroy 
Grant and then to fall with all their weight on Buell. 
The roads were in a terrible condition, and in conse- 
quence the progress made was slow. It was intended 
to attack the National army on the 5th, but the attack 
was delayed in consequence of a heavy rainstorm 
which fell in the afternoon. They were the less un- 
willing to delay the attack by reason of information 
having just reached them that the troops from the 
West, under Van Dorn and Price, would certainly join 
them the next morninof. 

That night they were distant from the National pickets 
only about three-quarters of a mile. Hardee was in 



ti 



BATTLE OF SHILOH. 



213 




MAJ.-GEN. BRECKKN- 
RIDGE. 



front; Bragg was in a second line behind ; Polk was be- 
hind Bragg; and Breckenridge brought up the rear. 
During the course ol the even- 
ing a council of war was held. 
There was a disposition to wait 
for Van Dorn and Price. But 
ihere was peril in waiting. If 
Buell should arrive, Johnston 
would lose his golden oppor- 
tunity. It was the general 
conviction that their forward 
movement was unknown to 
Grant, and, after a consultation 
of some two hours it was resolved to strike a blow be- 
fore dawn of the coming day. *' Gentlemen," said 
Beauregard at the close of the council, while pointing 
in the direction of Grant's army, " we sleep in the 
enemy's camp to-morrow night." 

Sherman at the Front, 

The Confederate generals made a mistake in sup- 
posing that Grant was ignorant of the fact that they 
were moving forward upon him with the view of 
making an attack. That the enemy was massed at 
Corinth he was well aware, but he was in the enemy's 
country, and information was not v/illingly obtained 
irom the people of the neighborhood. That he ex- 
pected to be attacked is proved by the instructions 
which he gave to his officers, particularly to Lewis 
Wallace and Sherman. 

But he had no means of knowing the enemy's 



^u 



GENEEAL SHERMAN. 



Strength. He did not know that concentration was i 
taking place so rapidly, and a vague idea prevailed in 
the Union camp that the force opposed to them did 
not exceed ten thousand men. Of the forward march 




ABATTIS. 



of the enemy he could not be ignorant, for on the 4th 
an infantry picket belonging to Colonel Buckland's 
brigade having been captured, Sherman took that 
brigade, with some cavalry, and drove back the Con- 
federate horsemen some six miles from the front of 
the camp, taking good care not to expose his com- 
mand to any sudden assault. 

The firlnor of cannon was heard in the evening. On 
the same day Lewis Wallace reported eight regiments 
of infantry and twelve hundred cavalry at Purdy, and 
an equal force at Bethel. It is not to be denied, how- 



BATTLE OF 8HIL0H. 21fl 

ever, that Grant was in doubt from what direction 
the onslaught would be made. They might attack 
his main camp, or they might cross over Snake Creek 
to the north and west of him, establishing themselves 
on the Tennessee below, and forcing him to fight or 
cross to the east side of the river. Grant had his 
feelers out all around, and, as the result proved, he 
did best to risk a batde on the ground which had been 
\ chosen and on which he stood. 

An Eventful Day. 
The uncertainty which prevailed in the Union camp 
as to the point which might first have to bear the 
' shock of batde proved an immense gain to the Con- 
j federates. It enabled them to mass themselves in 
i great force and fall with destructive effect on one part 
I of the Union line. So great, indeed, was the advan- 
\ tage which they thus obtained that the wonder is not 
= so much that victory leaned to their standards during 
the greater part of the first day's fighting, but that 
they did not succeed in a few hours in completely 
, sweeping the Union army from the field. 
1 Their plan was to penetrate the Union centre, di- 
vide the army in two, and cut it up in detail. This 
' done, it would not be difficult to make short, sharp 
work with Buell. The plan was good enough, but in 
their calculations the Confederate generals made one 
mistake : they did not take into account the cool pluck 
: and skill of tlie Union commanders and the stern 
courage and determination of the Union men. 
The night of the 5th was, as we have seen, wild 



216 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

and stormy. The next morning (Sunday) rose brightii 
and clear. The recent rains, while they had filled thei 
creeks and streams, had given an air of freshness to 
the surrounding country. The breath of spring was 
everywhere. The trees were robed in the most deli- 
cate green and the sweet, rich voices of the morning 
songsters filled the air with melody. In the Union 
camp it was still unknown toward what point the 
enemy might be moving, but there was watchful- 
ness everywhere. Prentiss's grand guards had been 
doubled the night before and his pickets were out one 
mile and a half. 

Sherman's troops had already breakfasted, and 
were formed into line. With the early dawn Har- 
dee's corps, which formed the first Confederate line, 
was in motion. Quickly but silently they passed 
across the ravine of Lick Creek and the ground 
which separated it from the outlying divisions of the 
Union army. It was the more easy for them to move 
noiselessly because the fallen leaves, being soaked 
with rain, made no rustling sound under the footsteps 
of the men. 

The Terrible Onset. 

The onslaught was tremendous. Avalanche-like, it 
overcame all resistance. The Union outposts were 
driven like chaff before the wind. On Hardee 
moved, falling heavily on Sherman's left, and then, 
as if rebounding from that firm phalanx, his endre 
force rolled with resistless and crushing weight upon 
Prentiss's division. The fierce yells of the charging 



BATTLE OF SHILOH. 217 

regiments, the sharp shrill sounds of musketry, 
the booming- of cannon, the bursting of shells, the 
crashing of timber, and the clouds of sulphurous 
smoke which filled the woods too plainly told that the 
batde of Shiloh had begun. 

When the first shots were fired. Grant, unfortu- 
nately, was not on the ground. He had gone down 
the river to Savannah, some nine miles off, to have 
an interview with Buell. Soon as he heard the first 
guns he hastened to the scene of action. Leaving a 
letter for Buell, and ordering Nelson, who had arrived 
with a portion of Bu ell's forces, to hurry forward, he 
took a steamboat for Pittsburg Landing. Halting at 
Crump's Landing, he gave directions to Lewis Wal- 
lace to follow at once, unless it should turn out that 
the firing they heard was intended to deceive and 
that the real attack was to be made upon him. lit 
the latter event he was to defend himself to the 
utmost, and to rely with confidence on reinforcements 
being sent him with the least possible delay. The 
attack had been made ac the first streak of early 

dawn. 

i 

Grant on tfee Field. 

It was eight o'clock befcre Grant reached the field 
of Shiloh. He saw that he had to fight the combined 
Confederate force, and without the aid of Buell. 
iWhat the Confederate strength was Grant could 
only guess. We know chat the combined army was 
over forty thousand strong. Grant had an available 
orce of thirty-three thousand men. He beheved he 



218 GENKKAL SHERMAN. 

could depend upon Lewis Wallace, who had five 
thousand more. Some severe work, however, hadj 
already been done. 

There was a considerable gap between Prentiss's 
right and Sherman's left. It was into this gap that 
Hardee tried to force himself, his object being to out- 
flank and turn both lines. In the beginning of thei 
conflict Sherman's left, as we have indicated, wasi 
sorely pressed and suffered terribly. 

Sherman in the Thick of the Fig^ht. 

But that active and skilful general was present ini; 
the thickest of the fight, and by his cheering words 
and personal bravery, as well as by the admirablel 
manner in which he handled his men, he laid that day thei 
foundation of a fame which the American people willi 
not willingly let die. Hildebrand's brigade, which hadi 
been driven from its position by the first onset of the 
enemy, Sherman tried in vain to rally. While thus 
engaged he received a severe bullet-wound in the 
hand. Nothing, however, could daunt his energy or 
induce him to relax his efforts. McClernand pushed 
forward a portion of his troops to aid the smitten Hil- 
debrand, and these for a time bore the shock of 
batde. 

All, however, was in vain. In poured the Confed- 
erates in ever-increasing numbers. Bragg had come 
to the aid of Hardee, and Polk, with the third Con- 
federate line, was already moving toward Sherman's 
rear. By nine o'clock a very large portion of Sher- 
man's division was virtually out of the fight, and before 



BATTLE OP SHILOH. 219 

ten Prentiss had been forced from his ground, his camp 
captured and plundered, his division thrown into con 
fusion, and he himself isolated from his men. 

Pluck and Strategy. 

But for the pluck and skill of Sherman the battle 
at this stage might have been lost, although it cannot 
be said that there was any lack of bravery on the 
part of any of the Union divisions. Officers and men 
everywhere vied with each other in deeds of daring. 
But Sherman showed strategy as well as pluck. Feel- 
ing the pressure of the enemy, and in danger of being 
caught in the rear, he swung round upon his right as 
ipon a pivot, coming out at a right angle and taking 
entirely new ground. Here he took a firm position 
ind held it tenaciously for several hours, the repeated 
md vigorous attacks of the enemy falling upon the 
iiolid front of his well-arranged battalions as upon a 
lihield of shining steel. 

The falling back of Sherman, while it enabled him 
o prolong the contest and successfully to prevent at- 
ack in the rear, left McClernand's division completely 
;xposed. On this, therefore, the Confederate forces 
ell with tremendous energy. For a time McCler- 
land boldly and even successfully resisted, most 
effective aid being rendered by Dresser's powerful 
ifled cannon. Regiment after regiment of the Con- 
sderates rushed through the abandoned camps and 
ressed forward, only to be cut to pieces by the deadly 
ifle-shot, displaying magnificent courage and the 
lost reckless daring. 



H 

1 



220 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Ultimately, however, the force of overwhelming 
numbers began to tell on McClernand's Hnes. He 
was forced to retire, not, however, except in the most 
perfect order, fighting as he went and bravely con- 
testing every inch of ground. By eleven o'clock this 
division was on a line with Hurlbut, close to W. H 
L. Wallace, with Sherman to the right. 

Stewart in Iiniiiinent Danger. 

Meanwhile, Stewart's brigade of Sherman's div 
ion, which was posted on the extreme left of 
National line, about two miles from Pittsburg Land-i 
ing, on the Hamburg road, near Lake Creek, where 
Buell was expected to land, was, in consequence of 
the falling back of the other divisions, in an extremely 
perilous position. The screaming of a shell in its 
passage through the branches of the trees overhead 
apprised Stewart of the approach of the enemy in his 
direction. 

It turned out to be a column of cavalry and infantry, 
composed for the most part of Breckenridge's re- 
serves. They were moving along the road leading 
from Corinth to Hamburg. Notifying W. H. L 
Wallace of his difficulty and calling for aid, he calmly 
awaited the attack. It was fiercely made and gal- 
lantly resisted. Wallace sent Mc Arthur to the aid of 
Stewart, but McArthur missed his way, and came di- 
rectly on the Confederates under Withers. It was 
impossible for Stewart to maintain his position ; but 
so vigorously did McArthur engage the enemy that 
Stewart managed to avoid capture, and succeeded in 



BATTLE OF 8HIL0H. 221 



reaching a place of comparative safety, where he 

;'estored his shattered force to something like 

order. 

Three Divisions Routed. 

The battle had raged since the early morning. It 
ivvas fiercest about ten o'clock. There was but little 
ntermission, however, until two. About ten Grant 
/isited Sherman's camp, and, finding that the supply 
Df cartridges was short, he organized a train of ammu- 
hition-wagons to run between the camp and the land- 
ing — an arrangement beset with great difficulty in 
:onsequence of the large number of fugitives who 
ivere forcing their way through the narrow road. By 
welve o'clock, noon, the Confederates had possession 
)f the ground occupied in the morning by the first 
ine of the National army, and the camps of Sherman, 
McClernand, Prentiss, and Stewart had been captured 
ind plundered. Three of the five divisions of that 
(irmy had been completely routed. 
\ The ground being entirely cleared before them — 
Prentiss's brigade, as we have seen, being demolished, 
ind Stewart having been compelled to retreat, Mc- 
Clernand, too, and Sherman having both yielded on 
he right — the Confederates, apparently resolved to 
i)ush matters to a crisis, rushed with tremendous fury 
ipon Hurlbut, who still maintained his original posi- 
ion, and who had been joined by Prentiss and some 
wo thousand of his men. W. H. L. Wallace flew to 
he aid of Hurlbut, taking with him the Missouri 
)atteries of Stone, Richardson, and Webber. 



222 ©EJfEEAL SHERMAN. 

Heroic Wallace. 

Hurlbut, who had hitherto been in the open field 
now fell back into the woods which lay between hi 
camp and the river, and there, nobly aided by Wa 
lace, who fought like a hero of old, gallantly resiste 
the foe for several weary hours. Upon this compac 
body of National troops, who knew that if they ha 
death in front they had certain death in the rea 
three most desperate charges were made as if upo) 
a wall of iron. 

In one of these encounters General W. H. L. Wa" 
lace fell mortally wounded. Mc Arthur took the con) 
mand, but in spite of their best efforts both he am 
Hurlbut were compelled to retire a little farther dowi 
and toward the river. In the confusion Prentiss an^ 
his company, getting isolated, were captured, sent t 
the Confederate rear, and finally marched to Corint 
as prisoners of war. 

The situation now seemed desperate. It was be 
tween three and four o'clock. Sherman and McClei 
nand, all but utterly exhausted and having lost man; 
of their guns, had fallen back and taken a position ii 
front of the bridge which crosses Snake Creek. I 
was over this bridge that General Lewis Wallace wa 
momentarily expected to come. 

Unaccountable Delays. 

Grant had been pressed into a corner of the battle 
field, his army at this time occupying a space of no 
more than four hundred acres on the very verge o 
the river. As yet there were no signs of Wallace 



BATTLE OF SHILOH. 223 

nor any explanation of his delay. Buell, too, had 
failed to come to time. Five of the Union camps had 
been captured, and many guns and prisoners had 
fallen into the enemy's hands. Fatigue and disorder 
had done and were still doing their terrible work. 
Cooped up in this narrow corner of the field, with the 
triumphant enemy in front and the dark rolling waters 
o( the Tennessee in the rear — death before and death 
behind — what more can Grant do ? Will he surrender ? 
No ! The word had no place in his system of tactics. 
The Confederates, however, were less strong than 
they seemed. Success had broken their ranks, and 
the hard work of the day had produced its natural 
fruit. The men were completely worn out. Some of 
their best men had perished. 

Death of General A. S. Johnston. 

Generals Gladdon and Hindman had been killed, 
and at about half-past two o'clock, when pressing his 
men toward the landing and almost recklessly expos- 
iing himself, Commander-in-chief Johnston received a 
rifle bullet in the leg, which proved fatal. There was 
a lull in the fight after Johnston fell, but Beauregard 
assumed command, and the struggle for the posses- 
sion of Pittsburg Landing was resumed with fresh 
energy. Beauregard felt that there was no time to 
lose, for night and Buell were coming. 

The entire strength of the Confederate army was 
•at this stage being pressed against the National left. 
It seemed to be the object of Beauregard to turn 
'the National line or force it into the river. In any 



224 GENEEAL SHEEMAN. 

case, he was determined to seize the landing. Hap- 
pily, as the result proved, a deep ravine lay between 
the Confederates and the Nationals, who, cooped up as 
they were, still covered the landing. This ravine was 
impassable for artillery and cavalry. In consequence 
of the heavy rains the bottom was wet and the sides 
slippery. The ravine led down to the river, and at 
its mouth the two gunboats, Tyler and Lexington, 
had taken position, their commanders having obtained 
permission from General Grant to exercise their dis- 
cretion in shelling the woods and sweeping the ravine. 
A Deadly Battery. 

On the brow of his side of the ravine General 
Grant had hastily flung up some earthworks in the 
form of a half-moon. To several siege-guns which 
were parked there Colonel Webster, Grant's chief of 
staff, added a number of guns which had belonged to 
light batteries, now broken up, and thus secured a 
semicircular defence of about fifty cannon. This 
hurriedly-improvised battery reached round nearly to 
the Corinth road. The wretched condition to which 
the Nadonal army had been reduced may be gathered 
from the fact that it was with the utmost difficulty 
men could be got to work the guns. 

The men were exhausted and demoralized. Volun- 
teers were called for, and Dr. Cornyn, surgeon of the 
First Missouri Artillery, having offered his services, 
his example was quickly followed. The Confederate 
assault was led by Chalmers, Withers, Cheatham, 
Ruggles, Anderson, Stuart, Pond, and Stevens. It 




15 



GENERAL h E. B. STUART. 



aft> 



226 GENEEAL SHERMAN. 

was a perilous attempt, but It was bravely made. 
Down the steep sides of the ravine they rushed, 
uttering their favorite and familiar cry, and with 
their accustomed dash and fury. 

Critical Moment. 

For a moment it seemed as If all was lost, and as l 
if Beauregard was about to crown the day's work by > 
a final crushing blow. But no ! It was destined to ' 
be otherwise. The slippery sides of the ravine and i 
the slush and mud at the bottom greatly hindered < 
the movements of the attacking party. Once in the 
deadly hollow, there was literally no way of escape. 
At a signal given Webster's guns from their fifty 
mouths opened fire in front, while the Tyler and ' 
Lexington, striking the Confederates on the flank, > 
swept the ravine with their eight-inch shells. 

It was now a most unequal contest. The Con- 
federates had fallen into a trap. Every onward 
movement was vigorously repulsed. The National 
troops began to rally, and, finding position, con- 
tributed to the work of destruction by the unerring 
aim of their rifles. Again and again, and yet again, 
did the Confederates face the terrible fire, rushing 
across the ravine as If they would storm the battery 
in front, but it was only to be mowed down like 
grass or driven back like sheep. The ravine was 
filled with the wounded and the dead. So dense 
was the smoke that the entire scene was wrapped 
In almost midnlorht darkness — a darkness relieved 
only by the swift-recurring rifle flash and the cannon's 



BATTLE OF SHILOH. 227 



laze. It was a virtual hell — a real, a veritable valle> 
T death itself. 

Union Troops Hold the Field. 

The tide had turned. The crisis was past. Beaure- 
:,ird, seeing that it was useless to prolong the strug 
|e, withdrew his men. He professed himself satis- 
fed with what he had done, and, as it was near night- 
:,11, he thought he might rest for the night and give 
lie finishing touch in the morning. The firing now 
cased, and Grant was left master of the ground, 
before the close of the struorale, Nelson, with Buell's 
dvance, had arrived on the field, and Lewis Wallace, 
|iving at last found his way, was coming up with his 
l^e thousand men. For the National cause the first 
('ly at Shiloh had ended not ingloriously, and with 
tese fresh accessions of strength the prospect was 
Hght for the coming day. 

The dreary hours of the night were sufficiently 
fled with horrors. The gunboats kept up an inces- 
5-nt cannonade, in some places setting the woods on 
fje. The wounded on both sides vainly sought to 
^cape from the grasp of this new and terrible de- 
sroyer. Happily, a heavy rainstorm fell upon the 
"ene of agony and the fire was extinguished. 

The Two Commanders Consulting. 

[Shortly after the firing had ceased Grant visited 
herman, and as it was the opinion of both that the 
(pnfederates were exhausted, it was agreed that the 
c.tack should be resumed early in the morning 
hbsequently, Grant visited each of the division com- 



228 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

manders, giving the necessary instructions, and the 
flung himself on the wet ground and snatched a fe^ 
hours' rest, with his head resting on the stump of 
tree. During the night Lewis Wallace came up aaj 
Buell arrived in person. All night through stean 
boats kept busily plying between Savannah and PitU 
burg La^ading, bringing up the remaining divisior' 
of Buell's army. Nelson's division was all on to 
field by nine o'clock r. m. Crittenden's arrived a litt 
later, and by five in the morning McCook's divisio 
which was the last to come up, having had to wait f( 
boats, ivas all safely disembarked. Twenty-sev( 
thousar\d men were thus added to the National arm 



Second Day at Sliiloli. 

With the early light of the morning of the yt, 
which r'ame in with a drizzling rain, the troops wei 
in position and ready to make the attack. The frei 
troops were placed in line as they came upon the fie . 
considf.rably in advance and upon the ground aba- 
doned by Beauregard after the failure of his ht 
attack. Nelson was on the left, then in order Ci* 
tenden, McCook, Hurlbut, McClernand, Sherman, a I 
Lewis Wallace. Thomson of Wallace's division, w:i 
his field-guns, was the first to disturb the silence of t^ 
morning and to awaken the echoes of the forest. 

The response was vigorous, but the fresh troops 
Wallace stood bravely to their work. At this momet 
Grant arrived, and ordered Wallace to press forwal 
and attack the Confederate left under Bragg, w3 
since the death of Johnston was second in commai • 



BATTLE OF SHILOH. 229 

This was gallantly done, the Confederates being com- 

, pelled to abandon the high ground, which was soon 

I occupied by Wallace's troops. Here a halt was made, 

Wallace expecting Sherman to come to his aid. 

I Booming- Ouiis; 

; Meanwhile the two armies had come into collision 

at the other extremities of their Hnes. From what has 

(been said above it will be seen that Buell's f&rce^ 

■ which lay nearest to Pittsburg Landing, composed 

the centre and left of Grant's new line of batde. The 

divisions of Nelson and Crittenden only were ready 

when Wallace's guns were heard booming to the 

, right. They moved forward at once, Nelson's division 

leading. Their artillery had not yet arrived, but the 

.batteries of Mendenhall and Terrill of the reo^ular ser- 

vice were placed at their disposal. 

Nelson had moved half a mile at least before he 
felt the enemy. At the first touch he seemed to yield, 
but it was only for a moment. At this point Beaure- 
gard had gathered up his strength and was resolved 
to strike a deadly blow. If he could turn the National 
left he might still accomplish his purpose of yesterday, 
and make himself master of the landinor. His on- 
slaught was tremendous. For a second Nelson's 
troops wavered, but it was only for a second. Men- 
denhall's battery was hurried into action, and the 
advancing Confederates were driven back in confusion 
,by a tempest of grape and canister. Hazen's brigade 
charged, captured one of Beauregard's batteries, and 
,turnf:d It with deadly effect on the foe. Once mor« 



230 GENERAL SHERMAK. 

the Confederates came up with redoubled strengtl 
and Hazen fell back before the advancing tide. 

The Famous "Brass Twelves." 

Terrill's battery of McCook's division was now gc 
into position. Pouring forth shell from his terj 
pounders and grape and canister from his bra^ 
twelves, Terrill did splendid and effective work. Fo 
two hours the artillery conflict raged. Crittende; 
was on Nelson's right, and McCook was to the righ' 
of Crittenden, fronting the Confederate centre. Bue 
had taken general command of his own troops. Th 
terrible artillery duel began to tell on the Confederal, 
line. Nelson, becoming more daring, began to movij 
forward. Crittenden and McCook advanced abreaa 
at the same time, but every inch of ground wa 
keenly contested, and victory, now leaning to one sid 
and now to the other, seemed undecided as to whic 
to award the palm. 

Sherman's captured camp was still in the Coi 
federate rear, and to this as an objective point th 
National line kept slowly but steadily advancing 
Sherman and Wallace, carrying out Grant's instrui 
tions to the letter, have advanced under a terribl 
fire and have reached the ridge occupied by th 
former on Sunday morning. 

Tempest of Battle. 

The little log church in Shiloh has again becom 
a conspicuous object in the battle-field. Around 
the tempest of battle is again to rage. Beauregan 
despairing of success on the left, had, by countei 



BATTLE OF SHILOH. 2»^1 

marching his troops, greatly strengthened himself in 
front of the enemy's right. The struggle at this 
point was protracted and severe. Sherman and 
Wallace held their ground, and it soon became 
apparent that Beauregard's strength was all but 
exhausted. 

At the same time that the Confederate general 
had concentrated his troops against the National 
right he did not neglect an opportunity which seemed 
to present itself more toward what might be called 
the National centre. Noticing a slight gap between 
Crittenden and McCook, he endeavored to force a 
passage between them. Here he made his last effort, 
his last decided stand. It was all in vain. McCook's 
division stood like a wall of irc>n. 

Th^ Confederates Routed. 

The Confederate centre now began to yield. All 
alonof the line, from Nelson on the left to Sherman 
and Wallace on the right, the Nationals were press- 
ing forward. Everywhere the enemy was seen 
retiring. " Cheer after cheer," says Wallace, " rang 
through the woods, and every man felt that the 
day was ours." The battle of Shiloh was ended. 
" Don't," said Beauregard to Breckenridge, as he 
ordered a retreat — *' don't let this be converted into 
a rout." 

It was now half-past five o'clock, and the wearied 
National troops being in no mood to pursue the foe, 
the retreat was the more easily conducted. The two 
days' fighting had resulted in the loss of over twenty 



232 GENERAL SHERMAK. 



thousand men — the Confederate killed and woundec 
amounting to more than ten thousand, the Nationals 
to nearly twelve thousand. 

General Halleck only did what was right when h( 
thanked Generals Grant and Buell "and the officen 
and men of their respective commands for the braver) 
and endurance with which they sustained the genera 
attack of the enemy on the 6th, and for the heroic 
manner in which on the 7th they defeated and routec 
the entire rebel army." 

Why Wallace was Delayed. 

Lewis Wallace was greatly blamed for his non-ap 
pearance on the field of battle on the 6th. It was no 
difficult, however, for that brave officer, who did sucl" 
effective work on the 7th, to give sufficient and satis 
factory explanations. He had, it appeared, obeyed hie 
first orders, which were that he should join the righi 
of the army, but, not knowing that it had fallen back 
he had wasted the whole afternoon in a fruidese 
march. 

There has been much useless discussion as to how 
much Grant was indebted to Buell for the victory al 
Shiloh. What did happen we know. What mighl 
have been we cannot tell. That Grant was large!) 
indebted to Sherman for this brilliant victory his own 
despatches show, confirmed by the deliberate state- 
ments in his Memoirs. Some of the facts of the case 
are plain, and admit of no double interpretation. 

During the greater part of Sunday the Confeder- 
ates marched triumphantly from point to point The 



BATTLE OF SHILOH. 233 

Nationals were driven back entirely from their origi- 
nal ground ; five of their division camps were overrun 
and captured; and Grant, with his whole army, was 
pressed into a corner of the field. The situation was 
desperate. One blow more and it seemed as if Beau- 
regard would reap a glorious victory. Of all this 
there can be no doubt. 

A Desperate Strugg-le. 

It is as little to be denied, however, that at the last 
moment Grant snatched victory from his triumphant 
rival. The advancing Confederates were not only 
successfully resisted, but driven back in confusion 
and compelled to give up the struggle. All this 
Grant accomplished before any effective assistance 
arrived from Buell. It would simply be absurd to 
deny that the arrival of reinforcements — which, in- 
cluding Wallace's division, amounted in all to twenty- 
seven thousand men — made victory on the following 
day comparatively more easy. But we are not at 
liberty to say that, without the aid of Buell, Grant 
might not have accomplished his purpose and driven 
the enemy from the field. We simply cannot tell. 
We know that both Grant and Buell did their best, 
and that their best was needed. 

From earliest dawn till half-past five in the after- 
noon the battle raged without intermission. It was 
no easily-won victory; and if praise is due to the 
Union commanders, justice compels us to be equally 
generous to General Beauregard. If for the moment 
we could forget the cause, and think only of the skill 



234 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

and heroism displayed, we should say that on those 
two days he covered himself with glory. In Beaure- 
gard the Union commanders found a foeman worthy 
of their steel. He was by far the ablest general who 
had yet appeared In the Confederate ranks. 
Too Late for New Plans. 
There Is one other point on which It Is necessary to 
make a remark before closing this chapter. It Is to be 
borne In mind that Grant was not responsible either 
for the selection of the battle-ground or for the dis- 
position of the troops. Whatever praise or blame re- 
sulted from the one or the other was due to General 
C. F. Smith. When Grant was restored to the chief 
command of the Army of the Tennessee, it was only 
a few days before the commencement of the fight, and 
any attempt to make radical changes in the arrange- 
ments, carried out, as these must have been. In the 
presence of a vigilant and powerful enemy, would 
have been perilous In the extreme. If the battle of 
the 6th had ended differently, General Grant might 
have been justified in making some complaint as to 
the circumstances in which he found the enemy on 
resuming command. As it was, his mouth was shut. 
He showed himself a true man by nobly respecting 
the memory of General Smith — a capable commander 
and a brave man. 

Sherman's Magnificent Deeds. 

In his personal Memoirs, General Grant pays the 
following splendid tribute to Sherman: *' During the 
whole Sunday I was continuously engaged In passing 



BATTL15 OV SHILOH. 235 

from one part of the field to another, giving directions 
to division commanders. In thus moving along the 
line, however, I never deemed it important to stay 
long with Sherman. Although his troops were then 
under fire for the first time, their commander, by his 
constant presence with them, inspired a confidence in 
officers and men that enabled them to render services 
on that bloody battle-field worthy of the best of 
veterans. McClernand was next to Sherman, and the 
hardest fiorhtincr was in front of these two divisions. 
McClernand told me on that day, the 6th, that he prof- 
ited much by having so able a commander supporting 
him. A casualty to Sherman that would have taken 
him from the field that day would have been a sad one 
for the troops engaged at Shiloh. And how near we 
came to this ! On the 6th, Sherman was shot twice, 
once in the hand, once in the shoulder, the ball cutting 
his cost and making a slight wound, and a third ball 
passed through his hat. In addition to this he had 
seven I horses shot during the day." 



CHAPTER XIV. 

General Sherman's Graphic Description of the ! 
Battle of Shiloh. 

We cannot do the reader a greater favor than to i 
insert General Sherman's very interesting account of ' 
the important part acted by himself and his division [ 
in the celebrated battle of Shiloh. It is a plain state- 
ment of facts, free from all self-laudation, and was : 
written at " Camp Shiloh, April lo, 1862." General!' 
Sherman's narrative is as follows : 

On Friday, the 4th inst., the enemy's cavalry drove : 
in our pickets, posted about a mile and a half in ad- 
vance of my centre on the main Corinth road, captur- 
ing one first lieutenant and seven men ; I cuused a 
pursuit by the cavalry of my division, driving them 
back about fiVQ miles and killing many. On Satur- 
day the enemy's cavalry was again very bold, coming 
well down to our front; yet I did not believe they 
designed anything but a strong demonstration. On 
Sunday morning early, the 6th inst., the enemy drove 
our advance-guard back on the main body, when I 
ordered under arms all my division, and sent w^ord to 
General McClernand, asking him to support my left; 
to General Prentiss, giving him notice that the enemy 
w^as in our front in force ; and to General Hurlbut, 

236 



SHERMAN'S DESCRIPTION. 237 

asking bim to support General Prentiss. At that 
time — 7 A. M. — my division was arranged as follows : 

First brigade, composed of the Sixth Iowa, Colonel 
J. A. McDowell ; Fortieth Illinois, Colonel Hicks ; 
Forty-^ixth Ohio, Colonel Worthington ; and the Mor- 
ton br.ttery. Captain Behr, on the extreme right, guard- 
ing the bridge on the Purdy road over Owl Creek. 

Second brigade, composed of the Fifty-fifth Illinois, 
Colonel D. Stuart ; the Fifty-fourth Ohio, Colonel T. 
Kilby Smith ; and the Seventy-first Ohio, Colonel 
Mason, on the extreme left, guarding the ford over 
Lick Creek. 

Third brigade, composed of the Seventy-seventh 
Ohio, Colonel Hildebrand ; the Fifty-third Ohio, Colo- 
nel Appier ; and the Fifty-seventh Ohio, Colonel 
Mungen, on the left of the Corinth road, its right 
resting on Sniloh meeting-house. 

Fourth brigade, composed of the Ibeventy-second 
Ohio, Colonel Buckland ; the Forty-eighth Ohio, 
Colonel Sullivan ; and the Seventieth Ohio, Colonel 
Cockerill, on the right of the Corinth road, its left 
resting on Shiloh meeting-house. 

Two batteries of artillery — Taylor's and Water- 
house's — were posted, the former at Shiloh, and the 
latter on a ridge to the left, with a front fire over 
open ground between Mungen's and Appier s regi- 
ments. The cavalry, eight companies of the Fourth 
Illinois, under Colonel Dickey, were posted in a large 
open field to the left and rear of Shiloh meeting- 
house, which I regarded as the centre of my position. 



238 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

The Fire Opens. 

Shortly after 7 a. m. with my entire staff I rode 
along a portion of our front, and when in the open 
field before Appier's regiment the enemy's pickets 
opened a brisk fire upon my party, killing my orderly, 
Thomas D. Holliday, of Company H, Second Illinois 
Cavalry. The fire came from the bushes which line 
a small stream that rises in the field in front of Ap- 
pier's camp and flows to the north along my whole 
front. 

This valley afforded the enemy partial cover, but 
our men were so posted as to have a good fire at 
them as they crossed the valley and ascended the 
rising ground on our side. 

About 8 P. M. I saw the glistening bayonets of 
heavy masses of infantry to our left front in the 
woods beyond the small stream alluded to, and be- 
came satisfied for the first time that the enemy de- 
signed a determined attack on our whole camp. 
Hot Work along- the Whole Line, 

All the regiments of my division were then in line 
of battle at their proper posts. I rode to Colonel 
Appier, and ordered him to hold his ground at all. 
hazards, as he held the left flank of our first line of 
battle, and I informed him that he had a good battery 
on his right and strong support to his rear. Gen- 
eral McClernand had prompdy and energetically 
responded to my request, and had sent me three 
regiments, which were posted to protect Waterhouse's 
battery and the left fiank of my line. 



SHERMAN'S DESCRIPTION. 239 

The battle opened by the enemy's battery In the 
woods to our front throwing shells Into our camp. 
Taylor's and Waterhouse's batteries promptly re- 
sponded, and I then observed heavy battalions of in- 
fantry passing obliquely to the left, across the open 
field in Appier's front ; also, other columns advancing 
direcdy upon my division. Our infantry and artillery 
opened along the whole line, and the battle became 
general. Other heavy masses of the enemy's forces 
kept passing across the field to our left, and directing 
their course on General Prentiss. I saw at once that 
the enemy designed to pass my left flank and fall upon 
Generals McClernand and Prentiss, whose line of 
camps was almost parallel with the Tennessee River 
and about two miles back from it. Very soon the 
sound of artillery and musketry announced that Gen- 
eral Prentiss was engaged, and about 9 a. m. I judged 
that he was falling back. About this time Appier's 
regiment broke in disorder, followed by Mungen's 
regiment, and the enemy pressed forward on Water- 
house's battery, thereby exposed. 

Gims Lost. 

The three Illinois regiments In immediate support 
of this battery stood for some tim.e ; but the enemy's 
advance was so vio^orous and the fire so severe that 
when Colonel Raith of the Forty-third Illinois received 
a severe wound and fell from his horse, his regiment 
and others manifested disorder, and the enemy got 
possession of three guns of this (Waterhouse's) bat' 
tery. 



240 GENERAL SHEEMAN. 

Although our left was thus turned and the enemy 
was pressing our whole line, I deemed Shiloh so im- 
portant that I remained by It, and renewed my orders 
to Colonels McDowell and Buckland to hold their 
ground; and we did hold these positions until about 
lo A. M., when the enemy had got his artillery to the 
rear of our left flank and some chanofe became neces« 
sary. Two regiments of Hlldebrand's brigade - 
Appier's and Mungen's — had already disappeared to 
the rear, and Hlldebrand's own regiment was in dis- 
order. I therefore gave orders for Taylor's battery 
— still at Shiloh — to fall back as far as the Purdy and 
Hamburg road, and for McDowell and Buckland to! 
adopt that road as their new line. 

Rejfinients in Disorder. 

I rode across the angle and met Behr's battery at 
die cross-roads, and ordered It immediately to come into 
battery, action right. Captain Behr gave the order, 
but he was almost immediately shot from his horse, 
when drivers and gunners fled in disorder, carrying 
ofl" the caisson, and abandoning five out of six guns 
without firing a shot. The enemy pressed on, gaining 
this battery, and we were again forced to choose a 
new line of defence. Hlldebrand's brigade had sub 
stantially disappeared from the field, though he himself 
bravely remained. McDowell's and Buckland's bri 
gades maintained their organizations, and were con 
ducted by my aides so as to join on General McCler 
nand's right, thus abandoning my original camps anc 
line. 



SHERMAN'S DESCRIPTION. 241 

This was about lo a. m., at which time the enemy 
had made a furious attack on General McClernand's 
whole front. He struggled most determinedly, but 
finding him pressed, I moved McDowell's brigade 
directly against the left flank of the enemy, forced him 
back some distance, and then directed the men to 
avail themselves of every cover — trees, fallen timbei; 
and a wooded valley to our right. We held this posi 
' tion for four long hours, sometimes gaining and at 
others losing ground ; General McClernand and my- 
I self acting in perfect concert and struggling to maintain 
this line. 
< Falling- Back. 

While we were so hard pressed two Iowa regiments 
approached from the rear, but could not be brought 
up to the severe fire that was raging in our front ; and 
General Grant, who visited us on that ground, will 
remember our situation about 3 p. m. ; but about 4 p. M. 
^itwas evident that Hurlbut's line had been driven back 
to the river, and, knowing that General Lew Wallace 
iwas coming with reinforcements from Crump's Land- 
ing, General McClernand and I, on consultation, 
selected a new line of defence, with its right covering 
a bridge by which General Wallace had to approach. 
We fell back as well as we could, gathering, in addi 
tion to our own, such scattered forces as we could find, 
and formed the new line. 

I During this change the enemy's cavalry charged us, 
but were handsomely repulsed by the Twenty- ninth 
Illinois Regiment. The Fifth Ohio Battery, which had 
u 



342 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

come up, rendered good service in holding the enem) 
In check for some time, and Major Taylor also came 
up with another battery, and got into position just ir 
time to get a good flank-fire upon the enemy's columr 
as he pressed on General McClernand's right, checkinc 
his advance, when General McClernand's divisior 
made a fine charge on the enemy and drove him bacl 
into the ravines to our front and right. 

Nig-ht Comes. 

1 had a clear field, about two hundred yards wide 
In my immediate front, and contented myself witl 
keeping the enemy's Infantry at that distance during 
the rest of the day. In this position we rested for th( 
night. My command had become decidedly of a mixec 
character. Buckland's brigade was the only one tha' 
retained its organization. Colonel Hildebrand was per 
sonally there, but his brigade was not. Colonel Mo 
Do well had been severely Injured by a fall off his horse 
and had gone to the river, and the three regiments o 
his brigade were not in line. The Thirteenth Missouri 
Colonel Crafts J. Wright, had reported to me on the 
field and fought well, retaining Its regimental organ! 
zation, and It formed a part of my line during Sunda> 
night and all Monday. 

Other fragments of regiments and companies hac 
also fallen into my division and acted with It during 
the remainder of the battle. Generals Grant and 
Buell visited me In our bivouac that evening, and from 
them I learned the situation of affairs on other parts 
of the field. General Wallace arrived from Crump's 



SHEEMAN'S DESCRIPTION. 243 

Landing shortly after dark and formed his line to my 
fight rear. It rained hard during the night, but our 
men were in good spirits, lay on their arms, being 
patisfied with such bread and meat as could be gathered 
It the neighboring camps, and determined to redeem 
()n Monday the losses of Sunday. 

Deeds of Valor. 

At daylight on Monday I received General Grant's 
)rders to advance and recapture our original camps, 
despatched several members of my staff to bring 
p.p all the men they could find, especially the brigade 
i)f Colonel Stuart, which had been separated from the 
livision all the day before ; and at the appointed time 
he division, or rather what remained of it, with the 
Thirteenth Missouri and other fragments, moved for- 
ward and reoccupled the ground on the extreme right 
f General McClernand's camp, where we attracted the 
re of a battery located near Colonel McDowell's 
Drmer headquarters. Here I remained, patiently 
waiting for the sound of General Buell's advance 
pen the main Corinth road. 

About TO A. M. the heavy firing in that direction 
nd its steady approach satisfied me ; and General 
\/^allace being on our right flank with his well- 
onducted division, I led the head of my column to 
fcneral McClernand's right, formed line of battle, 
cing south, with Buckland's brigade directly across 
le ridge and Stuart's brigade on its right in the 
iOods, and thus advanced, steadily and slowly, under 
heavy fire of musketrj^ and artillery. Tayior had 



244 GENEEAL SHERMAN. 

just got to me from the rear, where he had gone fc^ 
ammunition, and brought up three guns, which ' 
ordered into position to advance by hand firing 
These guns belonged to Company A, Chicago Ligljj 
Artillery, commanded by Lieutenant P. P. Wood, an 
did most excellent service. 

Awful Kattle of Musketry. 

Under cover of their fire we advanced till \\ 
reached the point where the Corinth road cross( 
the line of McClernand's camp, and here I saw k 
the first time the well-ordered and compact columr' 
of General Buell's Kentucky forces, whose soldier 
movements at once gave confidence to our new( 
and less-disciplined men. Here 1 saw Willich 
regiment advance upon a point of water-oaks ar 
thicket, behind w^hich I knew the enemy was in gre 
strength, and enter it in beautiful style. Then arc: 
the severest musketry-fire I ever heard, and last( 
some twenty minutes, when this splendid regime: 
had to fall back. 

This green point of timber is about five hundn 
yards east of Shiloh meeting-house, and it was e^ 
dent here was to be the struggle. The enemy ecu 
also be seen forming his lines to the south. Gener 
McClernand sending to me for artillery, I detach< 
to him the three guns of Wood's battery, with whii 
he speedily drove them back, and, seeing some othe 
to the rear, I sent one of my staff to bring the 
forward, when by almost providential decree th" 
proved to be two twenty-four-pound howitzers b 



SHERMAN'S DESCRIPTION. 245 

longing to McAlister's battery, and served as well 
as guns ever could be. 

This was about 2 p. m. The enemy had one battery 
close by Shiloh, and another near the Hamburg road, 
both pouring grape and canister upon any column of 
troops that advanced upon the green point of water- 
oaks. Willich's regiment had been repulsed, but a 
whole brigade of McCook's division advanced beauti- 
fully, deployed, and entered this dreaded wood. 

The Enemy Swept like Chaff. 

I ordered my second brigade (then commanded 
by Colonel T. Kilby Smith, Colonel Stuart being 
wounded) to form on its right, and my fourth brigade, 
Colonel Buckland, on its right, all to advance abreast 
with this Kentucky brigade before mentioned, which 
I afterward found to be Rousseau's brigade of 
McCook's division. I gave personal direction to the 
twenty-four-pounder guns, whose well-directed fire 
first silenced the enemy's guns to the left, and after- 
ward at the Shiloh meeting-house. 

Rousseau's brigade moved in splendid order steadily 
to the front, sweeping everything before it, and at 
4 p. M. we stood upon the ground of our original front 
line, and the enemy was in full retreat. I directed 
my several brigades to resume at once their original 
camps. 

Several times during the battle cartridges gave 
out, but General Grant had thoughtfully kept a 
supply coming from the rear. When I appealed to 
regiments to stand fast, although out of cartridges, 



246 GENERAL SHER^tAN. 

I did so because to retire a regiment for any caus 
has a bad effect on others. I commended the Fortiet 
IlHnois and Thirteenth Missouri for thus holding thei 
ground under heavy fire, although their cartridge 
boxes were empty. 

Galiaut Keutuckians. 

I was ordered by General Grant to give persona 
credit where I thought it due, and censure where 
thought it merited. I concede that General McCook' 
splendid division from Kentucky drove back th 
enemy along the Corinth road, which was the grea 
centre of this field of battle, where Beauregard com 
manded in person, supported by Bragg's, Polk's, an( 
Breckenridge's divisions. I tiiink A. S. Johnston wa 
killed by exposing himself in front of his troops a 
the time of their attack on Buckland's brigade or 
Sunday morning, although in this I may be mis 
taken. 

My division was made up of regiments perfect!) 
/lew, nearly all having received their muskets for tht 
first time at Paducah. None of them had ever beer 
under fire or beheld heavy columns of an enem) 
bearing down on them as they did on that Sunday. 

To have expected the coolness and steadiness of 
plder troops would be wrong. They knew not the 
value of combination and organization. When in- 
dividual fears seized them the first impulse was to gel 
away. My third brigade did break much too soon, 
and I am not yet advised where it was during 
Sunday afternoon and Monday morning. Colonel 



i^HEHMAN'S DESCllIt>TION. 24? 

HIidebrand, Ita commander, was as cool as any man 
I ever saw, and no one could have made stronger 
efforts to hold his men to their places than he did. 
He kept his own regiment, with individual exceptions, 
in hand an hour after Appier's and Mungen's regi- 
ments had left their proper field of action. 

Heroes of tlie Fight. 

Colonel Buckland manao^ed his briorade well. I 
commended him as a cool, intelligent, and judicious 
gentleman, needing only confidence and experience 
to make a good commander. His subordinates, 
Colonels Sullivan and Cockerill, behaved with great 
gallantry; the former receiving a severe wound on 
Sunday, and yet commanding and holding his regi- 
ment well in hand all day, and on Monday until his 
right arm was broken by a shot. Colonel Cockerill 
held a larger proportion of his men than any colonel 
in my division, and was with me from first to last. 

Colonel J. A. McDowell, commanding the First 
brigade, held his ground on Sunday, till I ordered 
him to fall back, which he did in line of battle ; and 
when ordered he conducted the attack on the enemy's 
left in good style. In falling back to the next posi- 
tion he was thrown from his horse and injured, and 
his brigade was not in position on Monday morning. 
His subordinates. Colonels Hicks and Worthington, 
displayed great personal courage. Colonel Hicks led 
his regiment in the attack on Sunday, and received a 
wound which it was feared would prove mortal. He 
was a brave and gallant gentleman, and deserves well 



24S GENERAL ' SHERM A N. 

of his country. Lieutenant-Colonel Walcutt of the 
Ohio Forty^sixth was severely wounded on Sunday, 
and was disabled. 

Hard-woD Laurels. 

My second brigade, Colonel Stuart, was detached 
nearly two miles from my headquarters. He had to 
fight his own battle on Sunday against superior num- 
bers, as the enemy interposed between him and Gen- 
eral Prentiss early in the day. Colonel Stuart was 
wounded severely, and yet reported for duty on Mon- 
day morning, but was compelled to leave during the 
day, when the command devolved on Colonel T. KIlby 
Smith, who was always In the thickest of che fight, 
and led the brigade handsomely. 

As I did not receive Colonel Stuart's report of 
the operations of his brigade during the time he was 
detached, I was compelled to forbear mentioning 
names. Lieutenant-Colonel Kyle of the Seventy-first 
was mortally wounded on Sunday, but the regiment 
itself I did not see, as only a small fragment of it was 
with the brigade when it joined the division on Mon- 
day morning. Great credit was due the fragments of 
men of the disordered regiments who kept In the ad- 
vance. I observed and noticed them, but until the 
brigadiers and colonels made their reports I could not 
venture to name individuals, but did In due season 
notice all who kept in our front line, as well as those 
who preferred to keep back near the steamboat land- 
ing. The following w^as the result in figures of the 
killed, wounded and missing: 



SHERMAN'S DESCRIPTION. 249 

Officers killed i6 

Officers wounded 45 

Officers missing 6 

Soldiers killed 302 

Soldiers wounded 1230 

Soldiers missing 435 

Aggregate loss in the division 2034 

The enemy captured seven of our guns on Sunday, 
but on Monday we recovered seven — not the identical 
guns we had lost, but enough in number to balance 
the account. At the time of recovering our camps 
our men were so fatigued that we could not follow the 
retreating masses of the enemy ; but on the following 
day I followed up with Buckland's and Hildebrand's 
brigades for six miles. 

Bravery of Staff-oflacers. 

Of my personal staff I could only speak with praise 
and thanks. I think they smelled as much gunpowder 
and heard as many cannon-balls and bullets as sat- 
lisfied their ambition. Captain Hammond, my chief 
of staff, though in feeble health, was very active in 
rallying broken troops, encouraging the steadfast, and 
aiding to form the lines of defence and attack. Major 
Sanger's intelligence, quick perception, and rapid exe- 
cution were of very great value to me, especially in 
bringing into line the batteries that co-operated so 
efficiently in our movements. Captains McCoy and 
Dayton, aides-de-camp, were with me all the tinie, 
carrying orders and acting with coolness, spirit, and 
courage. To Surgeon Hartshorne and Dr. L'Hom- 
medieu hundreds of wounded men were indebted for 



250 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

the kind and excellent treatment received on the field 
of battle and in the various temporary hospitals created 
along the line of our operations. They worked day 
and niorht, and did not rest till all the wounded of our 
own troops as well as of the enemy were in safe and 
comfortable shelter. 

To Major Taylor, chief of artillery, I felt under deep 
obligations for his good sense and judgment in man^ 
aging the batteries, on which so much depended. The 
cavalry of my command kept to the rear, and took 
little part in the action ; but it would have been mad- 
ness to expose horses to the musketry-fire under which 
we were compelled to remain from Sunday at 8 a. m, 
\ill Monday at 4 p. m. 

Following- the Enemy. 

With the cavalry placed at my command and rwoj 
brigades of my fatigued troops I went on the morn-' 
inor of the 8th out on the Corinth road. One after 
another of the abandoned camps of the enemy lined 
the roads, with hospital-flags for their protection ; at 
all we found more or less wounded and dead men. 
At the forks of the road I found the head of General 
T. J. Wood's division of Buell's army. I ordered 
cavalry to examine both roads leading toward Corinth, 
and found the enemy on both. Colonel Dickey, of 
the Fourth Illinois Cavalry, asking for reinforcements. 
I ordered General Wood to advance the head of his 
column cautiously on the left-hand road, while I con- 
ducted the head of the third brigade of my division up 
the right-hand road. 



SHERMAN'S !>EF?ClltPTION. 



251 



Aboui half a mile from the forks was a clear fields 
through yhich the road passed, and immediately 
beyond a "jpace of some two hundred yards of fallen 
timber, ai:d beyond that an extensive rebel camp. 




CAVAi^RY CHARGE AT SHILOH. 

The enemy's cavalry could be seen in this camp; 
after reconnoissance, I ordered the two advance com- 
panies of the Ohio Seventy- seventh, Colonel Hilde- 
brand, to deploy forward as skirmishers, and the 
regiment itself forward into line, with an Interval of 
one hundred yards. In this order we advanced cau- 
tiously until the skirmishers were engaged. Taking 
it for granted this disposit;r,n would clear the camp, I 



252 GENERAL gttfiUMA^^ 

held Colonel Dickey's Fourth Illinois Cavalry ready 
for the charge. 

The enemy's cavalry came down boldly at a charge, 
led by General Forrest in person, breaking through 
our line of skirmishers, when the regiment of infantry, 
without cause, broke, threw away their muskets, and 
fled. The ground was admirably adapted for a 
defence of infantry against cavalry, being miry and 
covered with fallen timber. 

Onset of Cavalry. 

As the regiment of infantry broke, Dickey's cav- 
alry began to discharge their carbines, and fell into 
disorder. I instandy sent orders to the rear for the 
brigade to form line of battle, which was prompdy 
executed. The broken infantry and cavalry rallied 
on this line, and, as the enemy's cavalry came to it; 
our cavalry in turn charged and drove them from the 
field. I advanced the entire briorade over the same 
ground and sent Colonel Dickey's cavalry a mile 
farther on the road. On examining the ground 
which had been occupied by the Seventy-seventh 
Ohio, we found fifteen of our men dead and about 
twenty-five wounded. I sent for wagons and had all 
the wounded carried back to camp, and caused the 
dead to be buried, also the whole rebel camp to be 
destroyed. 

Here we found much ammunidon for field-pieces, 
which was destroyed ; also two caissons, and a general 
hospital with about two hundred and eighty Confed- 
erate wounded and about fifty of our own wounded 



SHERMAN'S DESCRIPTION. 253 

men. Not having the means of bringing them ofif^ 
Colonel Dickey, by my orders, took a surrender, 
signed by the medical director (Lyle) and by all the 
attending surgeons, and a pledge to report them- 
selves as prisoners of war ; also a pledge that our 
wounded should be carefully attended to, and sur- 
rendered to us as soon as ambulances could go out. 
The roads were very bad, and were strewed with 
abandoned wagons, ambulances, and limber-boxes. 
The enemy had succeeded in carrying off the guns, 
but had crippled his batteries by abandoning the 
hind limber-boxes of at least twenty caissons. I am 
satisfied the enemy's infantry and artillery passed 
Lick Creek next morning, after travelling all night, 
and that he left to his rear all his cavalry, which had 
protected his retreat ; but signs of confusion and dis 
order marked the whole road. The check sustained 
by us at the fallen timber delayed our advance, so that 
night came upon us before the wounded were pro- 
vided for and the dead buried, and our troops being 
fagged out by three days' hard fighting, exposure, 
and privation, I ordered them back to their camps. 



CHAPTER XV. 



Thrilling Pen-picture of the Battle of Shiioh by 
an Army Surgeon. 

It requires many eyes to see a great bartle In aU its 
details. Eye-witnesses describe what they saw, ^nd 
each according to his location. While all agree in the 
general features, changes, and aspects of the contest, 
each beholder has something new and of vital interest 
to relate. For this reason we add a striking picture 
of the terrible fight at Shiloh from the pen of Dr 
James Moore, surgeon of the United States army. 
After detailing the movements preceding the capture 
of Island No. lo, Dr. Moore says: 

Thus the doom of Island No. lo was sealed. The 
batteries on the Kentucky shore were soon silence(/ 
by the gunboats, and Pope's army crossed. The Con- 
federate army scattered in the 
woods, and five thousand were 
at last captured. The Confed- 
erate commander on the island, 
General William D. McCall, then 
capitulated with a few hundred 
men. A hundred heavy guns, 
several field batteries, small-arms 
LiEUT.-GEN. w. HARDEE, in abuudauce, tents, wagons, 
horses, and provisions, were the fruit pf the victory, 
m 




PEN-PICTUKE OF SHILOH. 266 

ijreat joy was diffused throughout the North. The 
rreat Mississippi was now open as far as Forts 
A/^ right and Pillow, sixty miles above Memphis, and 
i.^oote prepared to attack these also, 
i Meanwhile a great battle was In progress at Pitts- 
)urg Landing, on the banks of the Tennessee, Thus, 
)n the same Sunday night on which the steamer Pitts- 
ourg ran the enemy's batteries, the two armies lay on 
[he field where they had fought desperately the entire 
day; and when our troops were crossing to victory 
,)n the Kentucky shore, our army was struggling to 
•ecover the field which it had lost the preceding day. 
The battle of Pittsburg Landing, or Shiloh, lasted two 
lays. It commenced on the 6th of April. 
. The Confederate general, Johnston, after retreating 
•iouth through Tennessee, proceeded toward Mem- 
)his, and subsequently massed his army at Corinth, 
n Mississippi, near the Tennessee line, ninety-three 
niies from Memphis. 

Position of tlie Union Army. 

General Ulysses S. Grant had moved up the Ten- 
lessee River, and placed his army on the west bank 
It Pittsburg Landing, where he awaited Buell's corps 
;rom Nashville. The design was to combine their 
orces and advance on the rebel camp at Corinth, 
fohnston moved his entire army on the 4th of April, 
ntending to assault Grant on Saturday, but bad roads 
detained him until Sunday morning. There is a road 
rom Pittsburg Landing to Corinth, distant twenty 
niles. This road two miles from the Tennessee River 



256 GENERAL SHERMAN. 



H 



divides, and while one fork continues right on in it 
course, the other runs to lower Corinth. From Ham 
burg Landing, some miles up the river, a road crosses 
that before mentioned. Two roads branch off on th( 
right, in the direction of Purdy. It was on these 
several roads, and between them, at a distance of frorr 
two to five miles from Pittsburg Landing, that th« 
Federal army lay encamped. The divisions farthesij 
advanced were those of Prentiss, Sherman, and Mcll 
Clernand. Hurlbut's and Smith's divisions lay bdj 
tween them and the river. Smith being sick, hi 
division wes commanded by W. H. L. Wallace She3 
man's brigade held the right, Prentiss the centre, am 
Colonel Stuart the left. The extreme left was deemec 
sufficiently protected by precipices and a ravine. 

On the rebel side, General A. S. Johnston coj 
manded and had especial charge of the centre 
Generals Braxton Bragg and T. P. G. Beauregai 
commanded the two wings ; and Hardee, Polk, at 
Breckenridge held subordinate positions. Their pla| 
was to make an attack on the Federal centre, anc! 
then on each of the wings, front and flank. Th(i 
rebel troops numbered seventy thousand men. 

Sudden Attack. 

The enemy attacked the Federals as some were a] 
breakfast and others lying around. It was a complel 
surprise. The pickets had been driven In suddeni] 
and the enemy's artillery cast shot and shell amoni 
the regiments. So unexpected was the assault th« 
officers were bayonetted before they rose from th< 



PEN-PICTURE OF SHILOH. 257 

jbeds. There was a general panic before any line of 
.battle could be formed. The attack on Buckland's 
brigade of Sherman's division was made so suddenly 
that the officers had not time to dress. The men, 
pnatching up their muskets as best they could, ran to 
fhe other portion of the division in the utmost dis- 
order. 

Sherman Falls Back. 
Sherman made herculean efforts to get the division 
n position to abide the coming shock. McClernand 
neanwhile was trying to fill up the gap caused by 
Auckland's disordered flight, and was gallantly stem- 
ning the tide of batde amid the rolling smoke, the 
irash of muskets, and the roar of artillery. Sherman 
aw that he could not resist the fearful odds which 
/ere hurled against him, and issued the order to fall 
ack. 

j Meanwhile the division of Prentiss was in a more 
eplorable plight. It is true that there was time to 
Drm in line of batde, but, being drawn up in an open 
pld, they were exposed to a murderous fire poured 
a them by the enemy from the edge of the woods, 
nd were mowed down with great slaughter. They 
^ood their ground with cool courage, and their volleys 
^5re rapid and steady. But Grant was not on the 
Wd, and there was littk concert of action, as each 
cmmander could only take care of his own division, 
Md his ground, znd wait for support. Hence, no 
r^ular line of battle ;:juld be formed, and while the 
f'deral forces ccr.id adopt no connect^dl plan, the 

17 



258 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

rebel army as one machine was hurled on the disor- 
ganized troops. 

Prentiss's Division Shattered. 

Prentiss was outflanked, and saw himself enclosed 
by the enemy. The disorganized portion of his divis- 
ion, numbering three thousand men, surrendered anc 
were marched to the rear. The insolent foe drove 
the other regiments of this division before them like i. 
flock of sheep. 

One brigade after another was brought up by Md; 
Clernand to support Sherman. Desperate grew the 
struggle which ensued, and cannon and musketry 
rolled their continuous thunders over the bloody field 
and the audacious enemy rushed up to the mouth oi 
the cannon and took several. Desperate hand-toi 
hand fights ensued, and the stubborn resistance ot 
Sherman, though the sacrifice of life was great, kep. 
the army from being driven in dismay into the river 
The enemy, if not repulsed, was checked for a while 
McClernand held his ground with great pertinacity 
but the gap left by Sherman In retiring laid him opei 
to a flank movement, and the head of the enemy' 
columns was dashing with all their speed at him. 

Terrible Havoc. 

At this moment the rifled guns from Dresser' 
battery swept the road with a destructive fire, and th 
enemy paused. Reinforcements, however, strengt\" 
ened the forces of the enemy, and one charge re 
pulsed was only succeeded by another more desperate 

Many Federal officers of the line fell. The artillery 



PEN-PICTURE OF SHILOH. 259 

horses were shot by scores, and as the guns could not 
be withdrawn from the field, they fell into the hands 
of the enemy. The half of Swartz's guns and sixteen 
horses of the battery were lost. Dresser lost some 
rifled pieces and thirty-two horses, and McAlister 
half of his howitzers. The division at eleven o'clock 
'was driven back, and on a line with Hurlbut's, which 
chough fighting well and at times repelling the enemy, 
was at last obliged to retreat. Colonel Stuart, in 
command of a brigade on Sherman's extreme left, 
would have been cut off, but had been fortunately 
overlooked by the enemy. 

j Almost a Rout. 

' Two Confederate brigades were now sent to attack 

lim, and he fell back. The enemy pursued, and a 

DJoody combat followed. The gallant brigade had to 

etreat, with its wounded commander, in ten minutes, 

)ut made a stand for upward of an hour on a wooded 

iill. McArthur's brigade, which was sent to its aid, 

3st its way, and was driven back again and again till 

■; had to be sent to the rear to re-form. 

At twelve o'clock the camps of Sherman, PrentisSy 

nd McClernand were in the possession of the enemy, 

ho was still advancino-. The arrival of Grant from 

avannah, a few miles down the river, could not stay 

le disorder or prevent a retreat. Wallace's division, 

^. Crump's Landing, had been ordered up in the 

kerning, and would have strengthened the right, but 

ilost its way, and, had this been known to the enemy, 

1 t|e result would have been fatal. 



260 GENERAL SHEEMAN. 

Hurlbut put his division into position and animated 
his men. Sherman drew up the remains of his brigade 
and s?-W that the crisis was imminent. The Confederate 
troo^'S now rushed on, flushed with victory, but were 
forced back. They advanced again with desperate 
efforts, and were again obliged to flee to the thicket. 
The leaders led on fresh regiments. Terrible carnage 
followed, and the Confederate general A. S. Johnston \ 
was slain. For a third time the enemy was repelled,: 
but fresh troops always came up, and the wasted 
Federal forces were compelled to fall back, while theij 
Confederates pressed on, covering the field with theij 
slain. 

On the Brink of Destruction. 

The entire left wing was forced back to the river, 
vhere thousands were crowded, without boats, andi* 
vvere in danger of being massacred by the exultant 
enemy. Wallace, on the extreme right, nobly held 
his ground and four times repelled the foe. The re- 
serve line was carried, and the army now contracted 
into the area of half a mile. The sun was on the de- 
cline and the whole army was now on the brink of 
destruction. Just then a body of cavalry — Buell's 
advance — was seen. Help was near. Buell's columns 
were approaching the Tennessee, and the wily foe 
bore down on the crowded and disorganized Federa 
columns to crush them, and thus verify the predictior 
of Beauregard that ere night fell his horse would drinl^ 
from the Tennessee. The enemy reckoned without 
his host. 



PEN-PICTUKE OF SHILOH. 261 

Death -shots from Parrott Guns. 

At the critical moment, Colonel Webster, chief of 
staff, skilled as an artillerist, had collected all the guns, 
some of large calibre, from the broken batteries, and 
arranged them in crescent form around the landing. 
Collecting a force of artillerists, he was ready when 
the heavy columns of the enemy advanced. Suddenly 
twenty-one guns sent forth a deadly fire among the 
closed ranks, and the enemy recoiled, again to ad- 
vance. The gunboats Tyler and Lexington now 
moved down the bank, and with their twenty-four- 
pound Parrott guns and rifled cannon sent the shriek- 
ing shells bursting among the terrified ranks of the 
Confederates. They halted, turned, and retired from 
the range of these destructive engines. 

Meanwhile, General Nelson, commanding Buell's 
advance, crossed the Tennessee and opened a heavy 
fire on the enemy with a battery of artillery. The 
Confederates withdrew and bivouacked on the bloody 
field. Buell's army was coming up rapidly. Nelson's 
division was across the river, and Crittenden's was 
placed in front of Sherman's broken line. McCook's 
division had reached Savannah, and was waiting to 
be brought up to the field of battle. The regular 
batteries, commanded by Captains Mendenhall and 
Terrell, and an Ohio battery, arrived in the night, and 
Captain Bardett brought word that the rest would be 
up early in the morning. The news of this powerful 
reinforcement at hand animated the brave men who 
had fought against such odds and, though defeated, 



262 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

they felt that returning- day would turn the scale of ; 
victory in their favor. l^t 

Second Day at Shiloh. 

At five o'clock in the morning, on the 7th of April, 
Nelson and Crittenden advanced upon the enemy, 
drove in his pickets, and at seven o'clock neared his 
line of battle. Crittenden formed on the right of 
Nelson, with Bardett's battery in the centre. The 
sound of cannon shook the field, and told those at 
the landing that the batde was begun. McCook 
took position on the right of Crittenden, and Wal- 
lace with three brigades held the extreme right, and 
opened with artillery at seven o'clock. 

A grand artillery duel was for some time kept up. 
Nelson's line first engaged the enemy in a bloody 
contest. Colonel Hazen, of the Nineteenth brigade, 
captured a battery, but was compelled to relinquish 
it. The lines of Nelson, however, still kept steadily 
advancing, sweeping the field lost the day before, 
which was yet strewed with the dead of the com- 
batants. Crittenden pressed the enemy back in his 
front ; and Smith's brigade, by a gallant dash, cap- 
tured a battery, to recover which the enraged (oe 
charored aorain and ao^ain. 

The Host's Majestic Tread. 

The combat was deadly for half an hour on this 
spot. The splendid troops of McCook moved on, 
and now the Federal line, a mile and a half in extent, 
advanced with slow, majestic tread against the enemy, 
who, under cover of the thickets, made a desperate 



PEN-PICTURE OF SHILOH. 263 

'ally and hurled such a powerful force on Nelson's 
ivision that it recoiled, faltered, and finally fell back, 
^he compact masses of the foe were assailed at this 
ritical moment by Terrell's regular battery, raining 
hells from the twenty-four-pound howitzers. They 
taggered, but rallied again, and, undaunted, marched 
p to the death-dealing guns, and horses and gun- 
ers alike went down, till there was not a man re- 
gaining at one of the pieces. Terrell and a corporal 
worked one of the guns till saved by the dash of a 
sgiment. Nelson kept his men well in hand, but the 
ally of the foe, which at first had caused him to give 
ray, swept on in turn to Crittenden, who had to take 
tp a new position. 

The Tide of Battle Turned. 

The exultant enemy followed up his success till his 
^nks were swept by the death-bolts hurled by Men- 
enhall's and Bardett's artillery. Meanwhile, Buell, 
^eing the determined resistance of the enemy, 
rdered an advance by brigades at the double-quick, 
he enemy, recoiling from the terrible line of glitter- 
ig steel and the simultaneous movement of that great 
ost, fell back step by step as the Federal divisions 
ressed on. They lost all the ground which had been 
on the day before. The foe was now in confusion, 
eing mowed down in platoons by the musketry and 
rtillery. 

On the same spot where the Federal defeat had 
iken place on the previous day all the gans lost on 
lat part of the field were recaptured, ar i two of the 



•264 GENEEAL SHEEMAK 

enemy's captured In turn. A last and desperate stai 
was made In front of McCook's division, but ecu] 
not drive him back, though he was exposed to a flai 
movement. 

Wallace had a desperate encounter with a Confec 
erate line, which seemed, as regiment after reglmei 
poured in, to be Interminable. Cannonading on bo< 
sides extended along the whole front till he sei 
sharpshooters to pick off the gunners. Waiting fd 
Sherman, at last that leader brought up the remnaJ 
of his brave division and advanced on the Confederal 
lines. 

Sherinan Cries, " Forward ! " 

Sherman rode along where the bullets flew thickes 
and roused the courage of his men to a high degrej 
His horse was killed, but he sprang on another ai 
gave the order, " Forward! " The woods were galn( 
one of the enemy's batteries flanked, and here tl 
scale of victory preponderated to the Federal sidi 
Wallace, seeing the Confederate guns limbering u] 
was upon them. The whole line heard the order 
"Forward!" and pressed on the enemy till he wa: 
driven to the woods. 

By a determined stand here Sherman's division wa^ 
forced back ; but, though wounded twice and having 
three horses shot under him, he rallied his brave 
troops and hurled them on the foe, being distin 
gulshed on this hard-fought field as the hero of heroes 
The tide of battle, beginning on the left, had rollec 
like a wave on to the rights The enemy had tried to 



PEN-PICTURE OF SHILOH. 265 

find an unguarded or weak point, but now fell back 
slowly till driven beyond the last Federal camp. 
Three thousand cavalry in reserve were now ordered 
to charge them. But the enemy retired in order, 
and, planting his artillery, hurled destruction on the 
victorious columns which attempted to turn the defeat 
into a complete rout. Buell gave the order to halt, 
and the wearied troops bivouacked on the field. 

Heavy Losses on Both Sides. 

General Johnston, the Confederate leader, and 
Johnson, the provisional governor of Kentucky, were 
among the Confederate dead. The losses on both 
sides were nearly equal. The Federals lost in killed, 
wounded, and missing, including three thousand pris- 
oners, almost fourteen thousand. The loss of tht 
enemy was estimated at about the same. 

The first day was a defeat ; the second a victory, 
but dearly purchased. McClernand lost nearly a 
third of his whole force. 

The field presented a ghastly spectacle., The 
enemy had left his dead. Ten thousand of the. same 
race and nation lay cold in death on this ensanf^uined 
field, while twice that number were wounded. The 
Sanitary Commission here rendered the most invalu- 
able service, the ordinary means of supply bein*;,^ Inef- 
ficient and nurses as well as physicians too fev/. 

In this battle the Confederate army on the first day 
was well fought. Want of united action, partly the 
consequence of surprise, was the cause wh'<:h, next to 
overwhelming numbers, caused the Fedf/c-.l reverse. 



m 



^6() GENEKAL SHERMAN. 



It was a bloody battle on both sides, and such as this 
continent had never before witnessed. 

Sherman's Magnificent Valor. 9 

Sherman rose at once to the peril of the occasion, 
and all day long moved like a fabled god over the 
disastrous field. Clinging to his position till the last 
moment, fighting as he retired, his orders flying like 
lightning in every direction, and he himself galloping 
incessantly through the hottest fire, now rallying his 
men, now planting a battery, he seemed omnipresent 
and to bear a charmed life. 

Horse after horse sank under him, he himself was 
struck again and again, and yet he not only kept the 
field, but blazed like a meteor over it. At noon of 
that Sabbath day he was dismounted, his hand in a 
sling and bleeding, giving directions to his chief of 
artillery, while it was one incessant crash and roar all 
around him. Suddenly he '^aw to the right his men 
giving way before a cloud of Confederates. '' I was 
looking for that," he exclaimed. The next moment 
the battery he had been placing in position opened, 
sending death and destruction into the close-packed 
ranks. 

The Confederate commander, glancing at the bat- 
tery, ordered the cavalry to charge it. Seeing them 
coming down, Sherman quickly ordered up two com- 
panies of infantry, which, pouring in a deadly volley, 
sent them to the right about with empty saddles. 
The onset was arrested and our troops rallied with 
K'enewed courage. 



PEN-PICTURE OF SHILOH. 267 

1 Thus he acted all that fearful Sabbath day. As 
Sheridan was the rock that saved Rosecrans at Stone 
River, and Thomas the one that saved him at Chicka- 
mauga, so Sherman was the rock that saved Grant at 
Shiloh. At its close his old legion met him, and sent 
;up three cheers at the sight of his well- remembered 
form. 

The Battle Depended on Sherman. 
; Rousseau, in speaking of his conduct in this battle, 
isaid, " No man living could surpass him." General 
Nelson a few days before his death remarked, " Dur- 
ing eight hours the fate of the armxy on the field of 
Shiloh depended on the life of one man : if General 
Sherman had fallen the army would have been cap- 
i.ured or destroyed." Grant said, " To his individual 
efforts I am indebted for the success of that battle ; " 
imd Halleck in his despatch bore this unqualified tes- 
imony : "It is the unanimous opinion here that Brig- 
idier-General W. T. Sherman saved the fortunes of 
he day on the 6th of April." " He was a strong man 
p the high places of the field, and hope shone in him 
ike a pillar of fire when it had gone out in all other 
aen." 

The next day, when Buell's fresh battalions took 
lie field, Sherman again led his battered regiments 
Tto the fight, and enacted over again the heroic 
eeds of the day before ; for, as Rousseau said, he 
fights by the week." Untiring to the last, he pushed 
ut the third day, after the victory, and whipped the 
nemy's cavalry, taking a large supply of ammunition. 



268 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

In the subsequent advance to Corinth his divisk 
bore the most conspicuous part, and was the first 
enter the deserted works of the enemy. In the mej 
time he had been promoted to be major-general 
vohmteers. 

He could Afford now to Laugh. 

He could now laugh at the slander that had 
annoyed him and joke of it publicly. There wei 
two General Shermans ^n the army before Corini 
the only difference in their names being a transpoi 
tion of the initials, W. T. and T. W. T. W. wi 
known as the Port Royal Sherman, on account of 
operations there after the capture of the place 
DuPont. He was a very unpopular man with 
troops on account of a fretful, peevish dispositiol 
exhibiting itself not only in words, but in a disagree 
i*ble, nervous manner. He was equally unpopuh 
with the officers, who discussed his peculiarities freeli 
One day, General W. T. Sherman was calling o^ 
Steadman, when some one gave a ludicrous accoun 
of the behavior of T. W. Sherman on a certai: 
occasion, which created a great deal of merrimeni 
Sherman joined in it, and jokingly remarked, "01 
il'.at is the crazy Sherman, is it?" 

The Conquerors. 

At the close of this chapter it can hardly b 
deemed out of place to notice the influence cf Shilo. 
and Corinth on the fortunes of some of the principa 
actors. Among the Confederates, Beauregard wa 
the man principally affected. He had the greatcs 



I 



PEN-PICTURE OF SHILOH. 269 

)pportunity. He sustained the greatest loss. The 
ififect of Shiloh and Corinth was undoubtedly injuri- 
')us, but it was not lasting. Beauregard suffered the 
ess that neither at Shiloh nor at Corinth did any 
•ival of equal capacity come to the front. 

On the National side three men shared largely of 
he favors of fortune — Halleck, Grant, and Sherman, 
-lalleck reaped a glory which was scarcely all his 
)wn. Grant, in spite of a treatment which must be 
pronounced unjust, not only preserved his reputation, 
Dut secured the opportunity of making himself what 
le soon afterward was recognized to be, the leading 
i'epresentatlve on the field of the Northern cause. 

Sherman in the one battle and in the other sur- 
passed himself in deeds of skill and daring, and 
i^arned his right and title to a place in the front rank 
rf the great military men whom the war was gradu- 
ally develop)''g — «i p*ace which he never afterward 
ost 



CHAPTER XVI. 

General Sherman's Achievements at Vicksburg i 

After the battle of Corinth, which was fought on 
the 4th of October, 1862, the army under General 
Grant fell back to the position which it formerly occu ; 
pied, and remained in comparative inactivity until the 
beginning of November. It was stationed from Mem- 
phis to Bridgeport, Tennessee, along the Memphis 
and Charleston railroad. Its strong points were 
Memphis, Grand Junction, and Corinth. The army 
was arranged in four divisions. 

General Sherman, with the first division, was at t 
Memphis; General Hurlbut, with the second, was at i 
Jackson ; General C. S. Hamilton, with the third, was 
at Corinth; and General T. A. Davies, with the 
fourth, was at Columbus. Grant's headquarters were 
at Jackson, Tennessee, a point in the West where the 
Central Mississippi railroad unites with the Mobile 
and Ohio. That general had not abandoned the plan 
vliich was inaugurated at Henry and Donelson. His 
vhole soul was bent on the capture of Vicksburg. A 
variety of circumstances, however, had necessitated 
delay. The removal of Halleck to Washington had 
devolved upon him the entire care of the Departm.ent 
of the Tennessee — a department which included, in 
addition to Cairo, Forts Henry and Donelson, the 

270 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 271 

whole of Northern Mississippi, and those portions of 
Tennessee and Kentucky west of the Tennessee 
River. This, however, was not the only or even the 
most important reason. 

A Weakened Army. 

The army which had fought and won at Shiloh, at 
Corinth, and at luka had been greatly weakened, a 
large proportion of its strength having been sent to 
Kentucky to resist the invasion of Bragg. It was 
necessary, therefore, for Grant, while perfecting his 
plans and rearranging his troops, to wait for reinforce- 
ments. As soon as the reinforcements arrived he was 
ready to move. 

The National gunboats had swept the Mississippi 
from Cairo to Memphis, and between those two points 
every Confederate stronghold had been deserted or 

, destroyed. Farragut, with a portion of his fleet, had 
pushed his way up to Vicksburg after the rapture of 
New Orleans. He was accompanied by General F. 
Williams with an infantry force of four regiments. 
While Farragut bombarded the city, Williams was 

[Cutting a canal with the view of diverting che waters 
of the Mississippi from their proper channel, thus 
[leaving Vicksburg high and dry on all sides. 

Fruitless Siege. 

The siege lasted some seventy days. It was all to 

no purpose. Farragut, who failed to make any srri- 

ous impression on the Confederate works, began Ko 

fear for his own safety. The canal also proved a 

(Complete failure. The fleet and the land /brce Ix^ch 



272 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

found It necessary to retire, and Vicksburg remained 
to obstruct the navigation of the great river. 

On the 4th of November, Grant began to move. 
He transferred his headquarters from Jackson to La 
Grange, some few miles to the west of Grand Junction. 
He soon discovered that the Confederates, under Gen-^ 
eral John C. Pemberton, a Pennsylvanian, who had 
superseded Van Dorn, were in considerable strength 
immediately in his front. Pemberton, in fact, had 
taken a strong position behind two lines of defences, 
the outer being the Yallabusha and the inner being 
the Tallahatchie — two streams which after their junc- 
tion form the Yazoo River. Both of these streams 
cross the Mississippi Central railroad between Grand 
Junction and Grenada. The banks of the Tallahatchie 
were strongly fortified. Grant's first intention was to 
offer Pemberton battle, defeat him, and force his way 
to Vicksburg. 

Sherman and Grant Laying- Plans. 

On the 8th he sent out McPherson with ten thousand 
infantry and fifteen hundred cavalry, with instructions 
to drive from Lamar a body of Confederates who 
were holding the railroad. McPherson accomplished 
his task in the most effectual manner, the Confed- 
erates having been driven back as far as Holly 
Springs. The time had now come to make a deter 
mined effort to open the Mississippi. 

About the 17th of November, Grant summoned 
Sherman to meet him at Columbus, and at the inter- 
view which there took place the views of the two 




MAP OF VICKSBURG AND VICINITY. 



u 



273 



274 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

generals were freely exchanged, Grant explaining to 
Sherman his plan and giving him his orders. 

It was Sherman's suggestion that a portion of Cur- 
tis's army, which was stationed at Helena, should 
be brought over to Delta with a view to co-operate 
with Grant in his general movement toward Vicks- 
burg. These troops which, in the absence of General 
Curtis, who was at St. Paul, were under the tempo- 
rary command of General Frederick Steele, were 
promptly at the place appointed on the eastern bank 
oi the Mississippi. They numbered some seven 
thousand men, and were under the joint command ol 
Generals A. P. Hovey and C. C. Washburne. 

Ordered to scour the country to the south and east 
in the rear of the Confederate army, to destroy the 
railroads and bridges so as to cut off supplies, anc 
generally to prepare the way for Grant's advance 
they accomplished their task in the most effectua. 
manner, and then returned to the Mississippi. 

Confederates Fall Back. 

Pemberton, on discoverinor that the railroads were 
badly damaged and that the rolling-stock was de- 
stroyed. Grant meanwhile pressing on his front 
deemed it prudent to fall back on Grenada. 

On the 1st of December, Grant was at Holl) 
Springs. On the 5th he was at Oxford, where h( 
established his headquarters. It now became i 
serious question with General Grant how far he wa: 
wise in allowing himself to be tempted to advance 
into the enemy's country. The State of Mississipp 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICK6BUEG. 275 

'I was but sparsely peopled, and he had no means of 
knowing whether its resources were equal to the 
wants of a large army possibly cut off from its base 
' of supplies. Had he known what he knew after- 
' ward, the caution would have been unnecessary, and 
' he would doubtless have continued his onward march. 
On the 5th of December, Sherman, on his way to 
1 join Grant and bringing with him from Memphis 
' some sixteen thousand men, arrived at College Hill, 
about ten miles from Oxford, whence he reported to 
' his chief. On the 8th he received from Grant a let- 
ter requesting his immediate presence at Oxford, and 
enclosing a message from Halleck to Grant author- 
' Izing the latter to prosecute the new plan he had just 
submitted to him, to move his troops as he thought 
best, to retain till further orders all Curtis*s troops 
now in his department, to telegraph to General Allen 
in St. Louis for all the steamboats he might need, and 
to ask Porter to co-operate with his gunboats. 

Plan of Land and Jjaval Attack. 

On his arrival at Oxford, Sherman found Grant 
surrounded by his staff. The new plan was discussed 
and approved. It will be seen that Grant made up 
his mind that, for the safety of his men as well as for 
the final success of the expedition, it was necessary 
to take full advantage of the river communication 
with Vicksburg. It was agreed that a large force on 
transports should proceed down the Mississippi under 
convoy of Porter's gunboats — that on reaching the 
mouth of the Yazoo they should open up that water 



276 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

line, and by a joint attack of the land and naval forces 
attempt to capture Vicksburg in the rear. Grant 
meanwhile was to press forward toward Jackson, 
which is only some forty-six miles to the west of 
Vicksburg, offering Pemberton battle, and following 
him up close in the event of his retreat, in the hope 
of finding Sherman on the Yazoo with supplies or in 
possession of Vicksburg. 

Happily, Grant had been left complete control 
of the whole movement, Halleck having offered no 
special advice and imposed no conditions. He could 
move at will, and he could place in prominent com- 
mand the men of his own choice. 

Sherman's Coniinaud. 

Sherman, who commanded the right wing of Grant's 
army, was appointed to the command of the river ex- 
pedition, and received his instructions. Grant had 
the greater pleasure in appointing Sherman to this 
command that McClernand, who had great influence 
with the President, w^as known to be intriguing for an 
independent command on the Mississippi. Sherman 
was therefore ordered to take command of the force? 
at Memphis, and those also at Helena and Deltc 
under General Steele, to descend the river by trans- 
ports, with the gunboat fleet, commanded by Admiral 
Porter, as a convoy, and to attack Vicksburg by the 
29th of November. 

McClernand was to take the forces at Cairo and 
to proceed to Vicksburg, so as to be in time to lend 
Sherman effective aid as soon as he made the attack. 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 27) 

Grant himself, as we have said, was to move rapidly 
on the Confederates to the north and east of Vicks- 
burg, to follow them if they should retreat toward the 

I city, and to take part with Sherman, if necessary, in 

I the reduction of the place. 

Ready for Action. 
It was a well-conceived plan. Its success, however 

; depended on the prompt and faithful execution of all 
its parts. Grant knew that it was unsafe to trust for 

I supplies solely to the enemy's country. He had 
therefore repaired the Central Mississippi railroad as 
far as Oxford, where, for the present, he had estab- 
lished his headquarters, and Holly Springs, which was 
entrusted to the care of Colonel R. C. Murphy, was 

: retained as a grand depot and hospital. 

! Let us see how this plan was carried out. Grant 
had taken great care that no misfortune should befall 
him in his rear. He had left small but adequate gar- 

I risons at Columbus, at Humboldt, Trenton, Jackson, 

? Bolivar, Corinth, Holly Springs, Coldwater, Davis's 
Mills, and Middlebury. He had taken particular care 
of Holly Springs, for he knew that the treasures at 
that place presented a powerful temptation to Van 
Dorn. On the night of the 19th he warned Murphy 
of his danger, and informed him that he had sent four 
thousand men to enable him to repel any attack which 
might be made upon him. Murphy, it would seem, 
paid little heed to the instructions given him. He 
made no extra preparations to resist the enemy, and 
was clearly unequal to the occasiui*. 



278 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

On the morning of the 20th, at daybreak, Van Dorn. 
executing a brilHant cavalry operation, rushed upon 
the place with tremendous fury. Murphy offered no 
resistance. The Second IlHnois, however, refused to 
surrender, and gallantly fought their way out with a 
loss of only seven men. Murphy, with the rest of his 
men, accepted a parole. Van Dorn seized all the 
property, valued at over fifteen hundred thousand 
dollars, taking with him what he could carry and de- 
stroying the remainder. He set fire to the buildings, 
not even sparing the hospital, which was filled with 
sick and wounded soldiers, and committed an act of 
inhuman barbarity. 

"Cowardly and Disgraceful Conduct." 

This was the second time that Murphy had been 
guilty of such conduct. He did the same thing at 
luka. General Grant was wild with rage. It was his 
opinion that with *' all the cotton, public stores and 
substantial buildings about the depot " Murphy ought 
to have been able to keep the assailants at bay until 
relief arrived. It was only four hours after the catas- 
trophe when the four thousand men sent to his aid 
arrived on the spot. Grant was particularly incensed 
at Murphy for accepting a parole for himself and his 
men. A cartel had been agreed to by the rival com 
manders, and it had been stipulated that each party 
should take care of his own prisoners. 

If Murphy had refused parole for himself and men, 
Van Dorn would have been " compelled to release 
them unconditionally or to have abandoned all further 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 279 

aggjessive movements for the time being." In a 
I severe order on the 9th of January, General Grant 
dismissed Murphy from the army, the order to take 
effect "from December 20th, the date of his cowardly 
and disgraceful conduct." 

The disaster at Holly Springs was ruinous to 
Grant's plan. It robbed him of supplies which it 
was intended should sustain the army for several 
weeks. To replace them it would be necessary to 
put in operation all the capacity and force of the 
Columbus railroad, but this railroad had been de 
stroyed, and weeks would be exhausted before it 
could be put in working order. Ignorant of the 
resources of the country, and not knowing whether, 
in the event of his pressing forward, he should find 
Sherman in the vicinity of Vicksburg, he deemed it 
lis duty to fall back. Me immediately recrossed the 
Tallahatchie. 

The Game of War. 

Having no other means of subsisting his army, he 
made requisitions on the inhabitants as he moved 
along. On the 23d of December he was at Holly 
Springs, now a scene of wreck and ruin, and a few 
days later he re-entered La Grange and Grand Junc- 
tion, where he was once more in communication with 
Corinth and Memphis. Pemberton made no attempt 
to pursue. On the contrary, taking advantage of 
the retreat of his antagonist, he withdrew the greater 
portion of his forces from Grenada and concentrated 
toward Vicksburg. 



280 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

On the same day that Van Dorn made his raid on 
Holly Springs an attack was made by a Confederate 
force on Davis's Mills, a little farther to the north. In 
the neighborhood of Jackson, Tennessee, a vital point 
in Grant's line of communications, an attack was made 
by a body of cavalry under Forrest on the 19th. The 
telegraph wires were cut and the railroad was de- 
stroyed. 

Hopes Blasted. 

On the following day Forrest presented himself 
before Humboldt and Trenton. These and other 
stations along the railroad, such as Dyer's, Ruther- 
ford, and Kenton, fell an easy prey to the enemy. It 
seemed to be the purpose of the Confederates to de-* 
stroy every railroad bridge from Columbus to Corinth, Ij 
and thus to cut Grant off from all his communications) 
and supplies. 

So far, they had carried out their purpose with de- 
termination and with not a little success. Never was 
campaign opened under apparently happier auspicies. 
The rich bud of promise, however, was cruelly blasted. 

Grant's plan of the campaign had failed. Mean- 
while, what of Sherman? On the 20th, the very day 
on which Van Dorn and Forrest struck the blow 
A'hich compelled Grant to fall back and abandon his 
part of the joint undertaking, Sherman took his de- 
parture from Memphis. Taking with him over twenty 
thousand troops in transports, he left as a guard to 
the city a strong force of infantry and cavalry, and 
the siege-guns in position with a complement of gun^^ 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 281 

ners. On the following day, at Friar's Point, he was 
joined by Admiral Porter in his flag-ship Black 
Hawk, with the Marmora, Captain Getty, and the 
Conestoga, Captain Selfridge, which were to act as a 
convoy. The remainder of Porter's fleet was at the 
mouth of the Yazoo. On the same evening, the 
2 1st, the troops at Helena embarked in transports 
and came to Friar's Point. Sherman's force was now 
at least thirty thousand strong. All the arrange- 
ments were completed, and the joint expedition was 
moving down the river the following morning. 

A Strangle Story. 

Sherman got away just in time to secure for him- 
self the glory or dishonor of the expedition. Had 
he lingered a day longer he would have been super- 
seded in his command by General McCIernand. It is 
a strange story, and one which, for the sake of all the 
parties concerned, it would be well if the world could 
forget. We will not enter into details. It has already 
been stated that General McCIernand was a warm 
personal friend of President Lincoln, and that he 
was ambitious of an independent command on the 
Mississippi. 

It is not necessary to say that Sherman was a man 
according to Grant's own heart. Since that great 
day at Shiloh their fates had been linked together, 
and they had been to each other like David and 
Jonathan. Sherman was also a great favorite with 
Halleck, the commander-in-chief at Washington. 
But for the personal wishes of Grant and Halleck, 



282 GENERAL* SI JEKM AN. 

both of whom knew well that Sherman was the man i 
for the position, McCleiiiand would have been ap- > 
pointed by Lincoln in tiie hrst instance to the com- i 
mand of the river expedition. 

McClernand, however, was not to be put off: and 
Lincoln, who was always unwilling to disoblige a ; 
friend, was weak enough to yield to his entreaties 
On the 1 8th of December an order from the Presi- i 
dent reached Grant, directing him to divide all his 
forces into four army corps, to assign one corps to < 
McClernand, and to place him at the head of the 
troops destined for the attack upon Vicksburg. 

Embarrassing" Situation. | 

Grant could hardly fail to see in this order a blow t' 
aimed at himself. It was a most awkward circum- 
stance, and reflected little credit on the wisdom and ^ 
good sense of the President. Good and great as he . 
was, Lincoln was not without his weaknesses. He was i 
vain enough to imagine that he knew quite as much 
as his generals in the field, and he was disposed to 
deal with military officers as he was in the habit of 
dealing with politicians. 

It is not much to be wondered at if Grant was stag- 
gered by this order and if he was slow to put it in 
execution. It was not difficult for him to find an ex- 
cuse. He was in the midst of his preparations for an 
onward march. The reconstruction of his army, ac- 
cording to the instructions received, occupied him the 
whole of the 19th. The disaster at Holly Springs, 
compelling a backward movement, occurred on the 



J 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 283 

20th, and the raids of Forrest on the same day de- 
prived him of the use of the telegraph. 

Every Inch a Soldier. 

As it was, Sherman had proceeded down the river 
before any counter-instructions reached Memphis. If 
Sherman had any reason to fear a counter-order, his 
haste to get ready and his prompt departure but re , 
sealed the soldierly spirit and true character of the 
nan. As the result proved, it was well for Sherman, 
well for General Grant, and well for the nation at 
brge that Lincoln's order did not take effect before 
|;he 20th of December. 

On Christmas Day the expedition under Sherman 
ind Porter had reached Milliken's Bend, when Sher- 
fnan detached Burbridge's brigade of A. J. Smith's 
'division to break up the railroad leading from Vicks- 
Durg to Shreveport, Louisiana. Leaving A. J. Smith's 
division to await the return, the remaining divisions 
oroceeded on the 26th to the mouth of the Yazoo, 
md up that river to Johnson's plantation, some 
^.hirteen miles, and there disembarked. 

I Insurmountable Obstacles. 

J The disembarkation was conducted without any op- 
position. Steele's division landed farthest up the river, 
ibove what is called Chickasaw Bayou ; Morgan's 
division, a little lower down, at the house of Johnson, 
Vhich had been burned by the gunboats on a former 
!)ccasion ; Morg^an L. Smith's division, below that of 
Morgan ; and A. J. Smith's, which arrived next night, 
below that of M. L. Smith. The ground on which 



284 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Sherman now found himself presented obstacles 
of which formerly he had but a very imperfect 
conception. 

Vicksburg is built on a range of bluffs known as the 
Walnut Hills. These hills, which take their rise a 
little below the city, extend for the most part in a 
north-easterly direction, terminating in Haines' Bluff 
a distance of some thirteen or fourteen miles. The 
configuration of these hills has been compared to the 
ridge at Inkerman, to which it is said they bear, in 
some particulars, a striking resemblance. Their aver- 
age height is about two hundred feet. 

Natural Defences. 

Where the Mississippi touches their base at Vicks^ 
burg, and for some miles both above and below, they 
are precipitous. Along their entire length, indeed, 
from Vicksburg to Haines' Bluff, their face is veryi 
abrupt and cut up by numerous valleys and ravines. 
The only approach to the city by land from up the 
river is by climbing their almost perpendicular front. 
The ground beyond is high, broken, and somewhat 
rolling, gradually descending to the Big Black River. 
The Yazoo, which skirts the ridge at Haines' Bluff 
about nine miles above Vicksburg by the road along 
the foot of the bluffs, flows in a south-western direction, 
and before discharging its waters into the Mississippi 
crosses an old arm of the river, which now forms a 
semicircular lake. 

The Yazoo evidently in times gone by clung to the 
foot of the hills, and traces of its former whereabouts 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURa. 285 

ire to be seen in the numerous bayous and channels 
Sy which the intervening ground is cut up. One of 
.hese bayous puts off from the Yazoo about one-third 
dF the distance below Haines' Bluff, running at right 
iingles with the river until it approaches the bluffs, 
A^hen it turns and follows their base until it empties 
tself into the Mississippi. It is called Chickasaw 
Bayou. 

Frowning Batteries. 
I Between the bayou and the hills there was an irreg- 
ular strip of land on which the trees had been felled 
;o form an abattis. It was dotted also with rifle-pits. 
Rifle-trenches abounded, too, along the front of the 
Diuffs, and the heights above were crowned with bat- 
;eries. 

About a mile to the north-east of the bayou, and 
Darallel with it, there is a deep slough, which makes 
1 sharp turn as it approaches the bluffs, and enters 
l^hickasaw Bayou at the point where the latter is 
:hecked in its course and turns to flow alongr the base 
of the hills. There was thus a fortified line some 
;welve or thirteen miles in length, formed of abattis 
md rifle-pits, with an impassable ditch in front, and 
terminating in the powerful fixed batteries at Haines' 
Bluff on the one hand, and in the heavy batteries and 
leld-works above Vicksbure on the other. 

The land lying between the Yazoo and the Chick- 
isaw was not only low and swampy : it was, except 
n one or two places where there were plantations, 
densely "/-r^oded. The distance from Johnson's Land- 



I 



286 GENERAL SHERMAN. 



ing to the Chickasaw was about six miles. Such wa5 
the ground over which Sherman proposed to march 
his men. Such were the obstacles to be overcome 
before he could enter Vicksburg. To the Nationa 
commander, however, and to his officers these obsta 
cles were, as yet, but imperfectly known. | 

Slieniian's Valiant Army. 

General Sherman's army was organized in fourdi' 
visions. The First division, comprising three brieadesi' 
was under Brigadier-General George W. Morgan j 
Second division, three brigades, under Brigadier-Gem 
eral Morgan L. Smith ; Third division, three brigades.) 
under Brigadier-General A.J. Smith ; Fourth divisions 
four brigades, under Brigadier-General Fredericki 
Steele. The brigade commanders of the Fourth divis- 
ion were Generals Frank P. Blair, John M. Thayer 
C. E. Hovey, and Colonel Hassendurbel. 

According to Sherman's plan of attack, Generali 
Steele was to hold the extreme left. General Morgan 
the left centre. General M. L. Smith the right centre, 
and General A. J. Smith the extreme right. As the 
latter general had not yet arrived from Milliken's 
Bend, where we left him waiting for Burbridge, Gen- 
eral Frank P. Blair, with his brigade, was detached 
from Steele's division and placed on Morgan's right. 

Clever Strateg-y. 

The object of this arrangement was to distract the 
enemy's attention, leading him to expect an attack at 
a number of different points. Instructions, however, 
had been given to each of the commanders to con- 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 287 

verge toward the point of attack, at or near Bar- 
field's plantation. There it had been discovered the 
bayou could be crossed at two points — at a sand-bar 
and at a narrow levee. 

On the 27th the army be^^an to move. General 
Steele, who had been ordered to take position on the 
iirther side of the slough above this bayou, expe- 
rienced great difficulty in landing his troops. So soft 
and slushy was the ground and so dense was the 
brushwood that he found it necessary to construct 
roads for moving his wagons and artillery. When 
night came he had only advanced some two miles 
from the shore. 

During the greater portion of next day he pushed 
forward his command, but he was compelled to report 
to Sherman that he found it physically impossible to 
reach the bluffs from his position, and that to persist 
in the attempt would inevitably lead to the ruin of 
his troops and the loss of his field equipage. 

Pressing Forward. 

He was therefore ordered to leave some of his 

troops behind him as a show of force, to hasten to the 

west side of the Chickasaw Bayou, and to take a posi 

nil on Morgan's left. On the 27th, Blair moved 

slowly toward the bluffs, his desire being to give 

Steele time to come into position on the left. He 

' succeeded in silencing one of the enemy's batteries at 

i the point where he expected Steele would be able to 

join him, and held his ground. 

On the 28th the various divisions pressed forward, 



288 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

and the National troops were in full possession on 
the Yazoo side of the bayou, with one bridge thrown 
dcross and with two bridges partially constructed. 
During the course of the day, while reconnoitring, 
General M. L. Smith was severely wounded in the 
hip, and compelled to retire to his steamboat. 

Selecting Positions, 

His command devolved on General Stuart; but 
Sherman, feeling convinced that A. J. Smith could 
accomplish nothing on the extreme right, because of 
the heavy fire of the forts immediately in his front, 
ordered him to leave Burbridge in position at that 
point, and to come up with a portion of his forces 
to the point selected for crossing the bayou, and 
entrusted him with the execution of the task. Such 
was the state of things on the night of the 28th. 

General Morgan was in position on the west, or 
rather south-west, side of the. Chickasaw ; General 
Blair was a little to his right, near the angle of the 
bayou ; General M. L. Smith's division, under Gen- 
eral Stuart, was on the right centre ; General A. J. 
Smith's, which was farther to the right, had taken 
position near the place where the bayou was to be 
crossed ; and General Steele was moving up on the 
(eft, to act as a reserve to Morgan. 

The Grand Attack. 

On the morning of the 29th all things were in 
readiness for the attack. It was Sherman's object, 
as he himself has told us, to make a lodgment on 
the foot-hills and bluffs abreast of his position, while 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBUKG. 289 

diversions were being made by the navy at Haines' 
Bluff and by the First division directly toward Vicks- 
burg. We have already mentioned that there were 

( two crossings — one in front of Morgan, and another 
a little farther to the south-west, in front of M. L. 
Smith. An attempt was made by A. J. Smith to 
throw a light flying bridge over the bayou, more to 
the right. On the extreme left, a little above the 
angle of the Chickasaw, near the house of Mrs. Lake, 
Blair's men had succeeded in constructing a bridge, 

ibut not without great difficulty and with very con- 

:siderable loss. 

Storm of Fire. 

Sherman expected great things from General 
Morgan, who, as we have seen, commanded the 
first division and was to lead the attack in person. 
Sherman pointed out to him the place where he 
could pass the bayou, and received for answer, ''Gen- 
eral, in ten minutes after you give the signal I'll be 
on those hills." His position was one of considerable 
difficulty. The crossing was narrow, and immediately 
opposite, at the base of the hills, there was a Con- 
(Cderate battery, supported by infantry posted on the 
jpurs of the hills in the rear. This was the real point 
)f attack, but to distract the attention of the enemy 
Dherman's instructions were that the initial move- 
nents should be made at the flanks. 

It was about noon before the signal was given foi 
■ general forvi^ard movement across the bayou and 
oward the enemy's position. A heavy artillery fire 



290 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

was opened all along the National line. It recalleci 
the memory of luka and Corinth. The Confederate 
batteries made a prompt reply, and were soon fol 
lowed by the infantry, which opened a perfect tempesj 
of lead on the advance ranks of Moro^an and A. ] 
Smith. 

In the midst of this fierce storm of cannon-shot an( 
musketry, DeCourcy's brigade of Morgan's divisio 
succeeded in crossing the bayou ; but the fire was s 
terrific that they fled for cover behind the bank, an 
could not be moved forward. General Blair mear 
while had crossed the bayou by the bridge above thi 
angle, and had reached the slough, the bottom o 
which was quicksand and the banks of which wer 
covered with felled trees, these obstacles greatl 
impeding his advance. 

Desperate Assault. 

With great difficulty, and not until his ranks wei 
thrown into some disorder, was the crossing of th 
slough accomplished. This done, it was necessai 
before reaching the enemy's works to traverse 
sloping plateau raked by a direct and enfilading fii 
from heavy artillery and swept by a storm of bulle 
from the rifle-pits. 

Nothing daunted, Blair and his brave brigade — h 
own and his officers' horses having been left behin 
some of them floundering in the mire and vain 
seeking a foothold in the quicksand — went boundir 
across the plateau. Rushing upon the rifle-pits, th( 
captured the first line, and then the second, ar 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 291 

made a desperate effort to gain the crest of the hill 
on which the batteries were planted. 

Colonel Thayer of Steele's division had followed 
Blair with his brigade over the same bridge. Entering 
the abattis at the same point, he turned somewhat to 
the right, and emerged upon the plateau almost simul- 
taneously with Blair and about two hundred yards 
to his right. Unfortunately, however, Thayer found 
diat he was followed by only one regiment ; his second 
regiment after his movement had commenced having 
been ordered to the support of Morgan, and the other 
two regiments having followed this one by mistake. 
It was a sad blunder, and one which contributed not a 
little to the disaster of the day. 

Thayer discovered the mistake before he had fairly 
brought his troops into acdon, but he was too brave a 
man to halt or hesitate in the circumstances. On he 
pushed to the right of Blair, and rendered effective aid 
in the capture of the second line of rifle-pits. The 
odds were fearfully against him. 

An Unequal Strug-gle. 

Leaving his regiment to hold the position it had 
won, he hurried back, with Blair's consent, to obtain 
reinforcements. It was a trying interval. The 
moments seemed hours. '' It was a struggle," as has 
been well said, " between three thousand in the open 
iground below and ten thousand behind intrenchments 
above." The hillsides bristled with bayonets and 
blazed with the fire of musketry, while from the angry 
mouths of huge cannon destruction was poured forth 



292 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

upon the shattered and rapidly-thinning ranks of the 
assailants. 

Blair, impatient for the return of Thayer, rushed 
back himself to persuade the advance of more troops. 
It was all in vain. Both Thayer and himself failed in 
obtaining reinforcements. No help reached them ; 
no diversion was made in their favor. They had no 
choice but' to order a retreat. Blair and Thayer fell 
back with a loss of at least one-third of their men, and 
De Courcy, who had been attacked on the flank by , 
the Seventeenth and Twenty-sixth Louisiana, lost four i 
flags, three hundred and thirty-two men made pri- 
soners, and about five hundred small-arms. ; 

Heroic Bravery. j 

The attack was a complete failure. Somehow, the i| 
signal for attack was imperfectly understood. Either 
that or it was not heard at all on the right. Two i 
divisions had remained immovable while a handful of v 
men were being crushed in a desperate attempt on 
the left. A. J. Smith had done nothing. Stuart had 
managed to push one regiment across — the Sixth 
Missouri — which had orders to undermine the bluff. 
The position of those men was one which severely 
tried their faith and patience. They were exposed to 
the vertical fire of the Confederate sharpshooters who 
occupied the ridge ; and a battalion of the Thirteenth 
regulars, who were stationed opposite, and who at- 
tempted to protect them from the Confederate fire, 
proved equally dangerous with the enemy above. 
"Shoot hiorher!" shouted the Nationals below the 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBUKG. 293 

bluff. "Shoot lower!" cried the Confederates. After 
dark this regiment was brought back over the bayou. 
The remainder of Steele's division did not get up in 
time to be of any assistance to Blair. Morgan failed 
to make good his promise. He did not even obey 
his orders. 

Disobedience and Disaster. 

General Sherman was particularly severe on Mor- 
gan. To him and to his conduct he attributed the 
failure of the attack. "This attack failed," he has 
since told us in his memoirs, " and I have always felt 
that it was due to the failure of General G. W. Mor- 
gan to obey his orders or to fulfil his promises made 
in person. Had he used with skill and boldness one 
of his brigades, in addition to that of Blair, he could 
have made a lodgment on the bluff, which would have 
opened the door for our whole force to follow." 

Sherman was naturally mortified at the "lame and 
impotent conclusion " of a movement which he had 
fondly and confidently believed would result in a 
great and decisive victory. Baffled, and even humil- 
iated, he was not dismayed. He resolved to make 
another attack, and arrangements were made to push 
forward General Hovey to the position from which 
Blair had been driven ; Morgan's division, with the 
brigades of Blair and Thayer, to follow and support. 
For some reason it was not done, and next morning it 
was found to be impossible, because of the increased 
strength of the Confederates at the menaced point. 
Firing was continued on both sides during Tues- 



294 GENEEAL' SHEEMAN. 

day, and on Wednesday, the 31st, a flag of truce I 
was sent in, and the dead were buried and the 
wounded cared for. 

The Sad Burial. j 

An eye-witness has given us a sad picture of the ? 
battle-field on that day of burial: "All across the 
plain, scattered among the abattis and hid away in 
little entanglements of bogs or tufts of bushes, they jj 
lay. Confederates and Federals side by side, showing ^ 
how the battle had rolled and surged with the alter- 
nate charges of either party. 

" But the saddest sight of all was that of the unfor- 
tunate wounded, who had lain through all these weary 
hours since the battle, uncared for, many of them, 
because the nature of tlieir wounds prevented them 
from moving ; others w^ere held fast by a little knot i 
of corpses which chance had thrown upon them ; and :' 
still others, perhaps not wounded at all at first, but 
being caught beneath the horses they rode as they 
fell, were pinned to the earth. The frantic appeals 
for water, for food, or other succor of such of these 
miserable victims of war as could speak at all were 
most heartrending." 

The Great Commander's New Resolve. 

Sherman was still dissatisfied, and resolved to make 
another attack. After consulting with Admiral Porter, 
it was agreed that a combined naval and land assault 
should be made on Haines' Bluff, the key of the Con- 
federate position. Porter was to proceed up the 
Yazoo with his gunboats and open fire on the bluffs, 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 295 

iivhile General Steele was to land his division out of 
range of the enemy's guns, then to push forward and 
take the position by storm. The attack was to be 
made during the dark hours. By two o'clock on the 
morning of Thursday, the ist of January, the necessary 
arrangements were completed. A heavy fog, how- 
ever, had enveloped the entire district, and so dense 
was it that Porter found it impossible to steer the 
boats. 

It was utterly out of the question to make any 
further efforts. On the night of the 29th December 
there had been a tremendous rainstorm ; all the low 
ground was flooded, and the men, who had been biv- 
lOuacking for five successive days in those wretched 
swamps without fire, were suffering cruelly from damp 
and cold. On the 2d of January, Sherman placed his 
troops on board the transports, and the fleet sailed 
down to the mouth of the Yazoo. 

' Sherman's Disappointment. 

Thus ended, somewhat ingloriously, the second cam- 
paign against Vicksburg. Sherman had accomplished 
nothing. He had, however, made great sacrifices, 
his loss in killed and wounded and prisoners amount- 
ing to nearly two thousand men. Such was the batde 
of Chickasaw Bayou, or, as it is sometimes but less 
correctly named, the batde of Haines' Bluff. 

It was a sad disappointment to the people of the 
North, and Sherman, from whom great things were 
expected, came in for a large share of abuse. Several 
of the correspondents on the spot, ignorant of some 



296 GENERAL SHEEMAN. 

of the causes of the failure, and not knowing as ye 
the fate which had befallen Grant, were unnecessaril" 
severe in their condemnation of Sherman. That h 
meant well, that he was resolved to win, and that hi 
plan was well conceived, there can be no doubt. Bu 
somehow the execution was not equal to the concep: 
tion. 

A Fatal Mistake. 

There was some mistake in giving the signal, ano 
the real assault was made by only three thousana 
men. If Blair had been sustained in his attack, as h(i 
ought to have been sustained, the National arm} 
would most undoubtedly have effected a lodgmen 
on the heights ; and, although hard fighting must have 
followed, with doubtful success, it is not at all impos 
sible that Sherman might have reaped all the glory 
due to the capture of Vicksburg. He proved his 
generalship in the face of impossibilities. 

Blair will be remembered as the hero of Chickasaw 
Bayou. He fought like a warrior of old, face to face 
and hand to hand with the foe. After Blair praise is 
due to Thayer, who gallantly sustained his companion 
in arms. The battle-ground no doubt had much to do 
with the defeat. 

To any one of less daring than Sherman, familiar 
with the district and well informed as to the strength 
of the enemy's position, the undertaking might have 
seemed impracticable from the outset ; and it is ques- 
tionable whether even he, had he possessed a fuller 
knowledge of the difficulties which beset him, would 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 297 

have imperilled his fame and risked the lives of his 
soldiers in a task so apparently hopeless. 

Success Impossible. 

It was doubtless a mistake not to have more 
thoroughly and officially reconnoitred the ground 
before choosing it as a field of action. After all, 
however, it was an experiment which might have been 
successful, and it was not the only unsuccessful ex- 
periment which had been made before Vicksburg was 
captured. As it was, everything might have been 
well if Grant had been able to carry out his part 
of the plan. The retreat of the latter from Oxford, 
leaving, as it did, Pemberton free to concentrate his 
troops for the defence of Vicksburg, largely dimin- 
ished Sherman's chances of success. 

The Confederates were jubilant after this first 
victory. It was undoubtedly a great triumph. Gen- 
eral Pemberton, not without reason, felt proud that 
he had baffled Grant in person, compelling him to 
retreat, and that he had, temporarily at least, saved 
Vicksburg by the defeat of the greatest of Grant's 
lieutenants. These rejoicings in the South were not 
unmixed with sorrow. The more thoughtful of the 
Confederates knew that defeat only intensified the 
purpose of the North. 

We left the transports and the fleet on their way 
down the Yazoo. At the mouth of that river General 
McClernand was waiting with orders from the War 
Department to take command of the entire expedi- 
tion. That general, it will be remembered, was ap 



298 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

pointed to this command by the direct influence of 
President Lincoln. It was a severe blow to Sherman, 
who felt it keenly. It was some consolation, however, j 
to him to know that the appointment — which had been 
made weeks ahead, and which had no connection with j 
the recent disaster — was not intended as a disgrace. 

With a modesty which became a man of his high 
spirit he accepted the situation, and explained to 
McClernand what had been done, accepting the en- 
tire responsibility of the failure. Referring to the 
trains of cars which could be heard coming in to •« 
Vicksburg almost every hour, and the fresh troops ij 
seen on the bluffs, he gave it as his opinion that : 
Pemberton's army must have been pressed back and t 
that Grant must be at hand. 

He then learned, for the first time, what had be- 
fallen Grant; McClernand stating that Grant was 
not coming at all, that the depot at Holly Springs 
had been captured by Van Dorn, that Grant had 
fallen back from Coffeeville and Oxford to Holly 
Springs and La Grange, and that when he passed 
down Quimby's division of Grant's army was actually 
at Memphis for stores. By common consent, all 
further attempts against Vicksburg, for the present, 
were abandoned, and the entire force left the Yazoo 
and returned to Milliken's Bend on the Mississippi. 

On the 4th of January, McClernand issued his 
General Order No. i, assuming command of what 
was to be called the Army of the Mississippi, and, fol- 
lowing the plan which had been agreed upon at 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 299 

Washington, and which had been adopted in the 
, armies of the East, dividing his forces into two corps. 
The "first was to be commanded by General Morgan, 
and *vas to be composed of his own and A. J. Smith's 
idivi^^ions, and the second to consist of Steele's and 
Stuart's divisions, was to be commanded by Gen- 
eral Sherman. The rest of the Army of the Tennes- 
see was similarly divided, General Hurlbut being 
placed in command of one corps, and General Mc- 
^Pherson in command of the other. The supreme 
command of these four corps was retained by Gen- 
'cral Grant. On the same day General Sherman 
issued the following order : 
I 

Headquarters Right Wing Army of Tennessee, 
Steamer Forest Queen, Milliken's Bend, 
January 4, 1863. 

Pursuant to the terms of General Order No. i, 
made this day by General McClernand, the tide of our 
'army ceases to exist, and constitutes in the future the 
Army of the Mississippi, composed of two 'army 
corps,' one to be commanded by General G. W. Mor- 
o^an, and the other by myself. In relinquishing the 
command of the Army of the Tennessee and restrict- 
ing my authority to my own corps, I desire to express 
to all commanders, to soldiers and officers recendy 
3peradng before Vicksburg, my hearty thanks for the 
'^eal, alacrity, and courage manifested by them on all 
bccasions. We failed in accomplishing one great 
purpose of our movement, the capture of Vicksburg, 
3ut we were part of a whole. Ours was but part of 



300 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

a combined movement in which others were to assist 
We were on time; unforeseen contingencies must havj 
delayed the others. 

We have destroyed the Shreveport road, we ha^ 
attacked the defences of Vicksburg and pushed thj 
attack as far as prudence would justify ; and, havinj 
found it too strong for our single column, we ha^ 
drawn off in good order and good spirits, ready fc 
any new move. A new commander is now here 
lead you. He is chosen by the President of 
United States, who is charged by the Constitution 
maintain and defend it, and he has the undoubt( 
riorht to select his own accents. 

I know that all good officers and soldiers will giv( 
him the same hearty support and cheerful obedience 
they have hitherto given me. There are honors 
enough in reserve for all, and work enough, too. 
Let each do his appropriate part, and our nation must, 
in the end, emerge from the dire conflict purified and 
ennobled by the fires which now test its strength and 
purity. All officers of the general staff not attached 
to my person will hereafter report in person and by 
letter to Major-General McClernand, commanding 
tlie Army of the Mississippi, on board the steamer 
1 igress at our rendezvous at Haines' Landing and at 
Montgomery Point. 
By order of 

Major-General W. T. Sherman. 

J. H, Hammond, 

Assistant- Adjutant General, 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 301 

Before the arrival of McClernand, Sherman and 
^orter had agreed upon a plan for the reduction of 
i^ort Hindman, or, as it was called, Arkansas Post. 
\bout forty or forty-five miles from the mouth of the 
Arkansas there is a piece of elevated ground, the first 
,iigh land on the banks of the river after leaving the 
Vlississippi. At this point the river makes a sharp 
oend. Here the French had a trading-post and a 
.ettlement as far back as 1685. 

Sherman Bent on Conquest. 

I The Confederates had taken advantage of the place 
o erect some fortifications, the principal work being 
\amed Fort Hindman, after the famous guerilla chief, 
khind these works they kept several steamboats, 
vhich were wont to sweep down the river and inter- 
ept supplies. 

Sherman had experienced some inconvenience from 
he existence of this stronghold. He had left Memphis 
,Q such haste that he had not been able to take with 
iiim a suf^clent supply of ammunition for his guns. 
The Blue Wing, a small steamer carrying a mail, towing 
jome coal-barges, and having with her the necessary 
applies, had been sent after him. This boat had 
»een pounced upon at the mouth of the Arkansas, 
aptured, and with all her supplies taken up to Fort 
iindman. 

It was Sherman's conviction, from the moment he 
earned of the fate of the Blue Wing, that before any 
'peration could be successfully conducted against 
/^icksburg by way of the Mississippi it v/ould be neces- 



302 GENERAL SHEEMAN. 

sary to reduce Fort Hindman and make an end of the 
Arkansas pirates. 

The Plan Approved. 

Sherman communicated his purpose to McClernand, 
and asked permission to go up the Arkansas and 
clear out the post. McClernand, who had not as yet, 
so far as appearances indicated, formed any plan of 
his own, went with Sherman on board the Black Hawk 
to consult with Porter. Porter, who had the highest 
esteem for Sherman, not only approved of the enter- 
prise, but expressed a desire to go up the river him- 
self, in place of trusting the expedition to any of his 
subordinates. It was Sherman's expectation that he 
would be sent with his own corps alone on this busi- 
ness ; but McClernand concluded to go himself and 
to take with him his whole force. 

The troops, which had not yet disembarked from 
the transports, were ordered to remain on board. 
Sherman's corps was in two divisions. The first, 
which consisted of three brigades, commanded re- 
spectively by Blair, Hovey, and Thayer, was under 
Brigadier-General Frederick Steele. The second, 
which consisted of two brigades, commanded by 
Colonels G. A. Smith and T. Kilby Smith, was under 
Brigadier-General Stuart. The transports with the 
troops on board, convoyed by the gunboats, of which 
three were ironclads, proceeded up the Mississippi. 

Expedition ag^ainst Fort Hindman. 

The force under McClernand amounted to some 
twenty-six thousand or twenty-seven thousand men, 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 303 

comprising forty regiments of infantry, ten batteries 
with several guns of heavy caHbre, and about fifteen 
hundred horse. On the 8th of January the expedi- 
tion was at the mouth of the White River. This 
river, which is one of the principal streams in 
Arkansas, rises a few miles east of Fayetteville, 
flows north-east into Missouri, then returns into 
Arkansas, and, pursuing a south-easterly course, 
enters the Mississippi about fifteen miles above the 
mouth of the Arkansas River. It is navigable by 
steamboats for about three hundred and fifty miles. 
About fifteen miles from its mouth there is a chan- 
nel or "cut-ofT," through which it discharges a por- 
tion of its waters into the Arkansas. If, as some- 
I times happens, the Arkansas should be higher than 
I the White River, the state of things is reversed, and 
the waters of the Arkansas seek the Mississippi 
through the channel of the White River. The " cut- 
off " at this season of the year is always well filled 
' and easily navigable. 

A Formidable Stronghold. 

I On the morning of the 9th the expedition, having 
r ascended the White River, had reached the mouth of 
the "cut-off" There was no delay in making the 
passage through to the Arkansas, a distance of about 
eight miles. Steaming up the Arkansas, the boats 
' reached Notrib's farm, about four miles below Fort 
Hindman, shortly after four o'clock in the afternoon 
Here they halted, and during the night the artillery 
and wagons were got on shore, the troops disembark- 



304 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

ing in the morning. Arkansas Post is on the north 
side or left bank of the Arkansas, at a point where 
the river makes a sharp elbow by flowing north, then 
east, then again abruptly to the south. The principal 
work, as we have said, was Fort Hindman. Its guns 
commanded the river as it stretched to the east and 
after it bent toward the south. This fort was a reofu 
lar square bastioned work, one hundred yards each 
exterior side, with a deep ditch about fifteen feet 
wide and a parapet eighteen feet high. It was armed 
with twelve guns, two of which were eight-inch and 
one nine-inch. 

Hold the Fort or Die. 

The garrison, which numbered only five thousand 
men, was under the command of General T. J. 
Churchill, who was under the direction of General 
T. H. Holmes, then commanding at Little Rock. 
Churchill had received instructions to " hold on until 
}ie!p should arrive or all were dead." This order 
showed the spirit of the enemy. 

The disparity of forces was great. It was twenty- 
six thousand or twenty-seven thousand against five 
thousand. The strong position held by the Confed- 
erates, however, did much to compensate for inferiority 
of numbers. The fort itself was strong, and its ap 
proaches were of the most difficult description. 
Fronting on the river, it was protected on the west 
by a bayou, on the east by a swamp which did not 
quite reach the edge of the water. Between the fort 
and the swamp there was a ravine which stretched 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 305 

down to the river, and the front of this ravine was 
well fortified. 

The position had thus to be approached through 
the elevated ground which lay between the bayou and 
the swamp. The encampments of the Confederates 
were established in front of the fort, in the centre of 
the plateau dotted with clumps of trees. There was 
an outer line of intrenchments which stretched across 
the entire ground. 

Vigrorous Bombardment. 

On the loth the army was kept busy endeavoring 
to get a position in rear of the fort, Sherman on the 
right and Morgan on the left. Some mistakes were 
made in consequence of a want of knowledge of the 
ground. In the afternoon, and while the land forces 
were still seeking position. Porter was making good 
use of his flotilla. As he moved up the river he 
shelled the rifle-pits along the levee and drove the 
Confederates inside the fort. When about four hun- 
dred yards from Fort Hindman he brought into action 
[lis three iron-clads, the Baron de Kalb, the Louisville, 
md the Cincinnati, and for half an hour the firing was 
<:ept up, the guns of the fort replying vigorously and 
A^ith rapidity. 

On the morning of the nth, McClernand, who had 
lis quarters still on board the Tigress, had come up 
md taken a position in the woods to the rear. Early 
n the forenoon he sent a message to Sherman, asking 
lim why the attack was not begun. It had been un- 
lerstood beforehand that the opening of fire by the 

20 



306 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

gunboats on the fort should be the signal for a general 
attack. 

The Thunder of Guns. 

Sherman therefore replied that all was ready ; that 
he was within five or six hundred yards of the enemy's 
works ; that the next movement must be a direct 
assault along the whole line ; and that he was waiting 
to hear from the gunboats. Half an hour or there- 
about afterward was heard the clear, ringing sound 
of the navy guns, the firing becoming louder and more 
rapid as they neared the fort. 

The National field-pieces opened fire along the 
whole line. The thunder was terrific. The Con- 
federates, most of whom were Texan volunteers, made 
a gallant resistance. A regiment of cavalry, aban- 
doning their horses, fought on foot, and rendered for 
a time effective service in resisting the advance of the 
Nationals. It was impossible for them to resist the 
fierce onset made by overwhelming numbers resolved 
to win or die. 

A Storm of Bullets. 

Sherman pressed forward on the right, Morgan on 
the left, each driving the Confederates back and grad- 
aally obtaining possession of the wooded ground in 
front of the newly-erected parapet, but not without 
considerable loss. The Confederate firing was heavy, 
but the National soldiers took advantage of the clumps 
of trees and felled logs to shield themselves from the 
storm of bullets. Gradually the edge of the wood^ 
was reached, the ground was clear, and there was 







VU"K^RTTR^, AND T'l^ A PPT? O A( H KS. 



308 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

nothing to protect them from the decimating fire of 
the eneni)'. 

Meanwhile, the gunboats were pouring a murder- 
ous fire upon the fort and sweeping the adjoining 
ground above and below with grape and shrapnel. 
Porter had brought into action not only the iron-clads, 
but the ram Monarch, Commander Ellet, and even the 
frailer vessels, as he tells us, that amid the clouds of 
smoke they might " do the best they could." 

The Fort Silenced. 

It was not long until the effects of this terrific firing 
began to be visible. All the adjoining ground was 
cleared of the foe ; nearly all the artillery-horses in 
the fort were killed ; and one by one the guns were 
beincr silenced. Shortly after three o'clock the firing^ 
from the fort altogether ceased. The cannonading^ 
however, was kept up by the gunboats. Porter, who 
had taken a regiment on board, was proceeding with 
the Black Hawk to attempt a landing and to take 
possession, when a white flag was raised in token of 
surrender. He immediately ordered the firing to 
cease. 

We left the troops in the clearing at the edge of 
the woods, fully exposed to the enemy's fire from the 
parapet outside the fort. This line had three sections 
of field-guns, and they were handled, according to the 
testimony of Sherman himself, with great skill and 
energy. Hovey was Vv^ounded ; Thayer had his horse 
shot under him ; and so thick and fast were the round- 
shot falling about Sherman and his staff that they felt 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBUKG. 309 

it necessary to scatter, Sherman himself dismounting. 
Morgan at this crisis unfortunately found himself in 
front of the ravine, beyond which it was impossible 
to pass. 

Prodigies of Valor. 

Sherman was now well engaged on the right, and 
Morgan, finding himself thus hindered, sent a few 
rei^iments to his aid. The burden of the fiofht, as at 
Chickasaw, had fallen on the brigades which now 
composed the division of General Steele. Blair and 
Thayer and Hovey performed prodigies of valor. 

On the right the Confederate batteries had been all 
but silenced. Morgan's men, on the left, had done 
splendid work before they were brought to a standstill 
at the ravine. A. J. Smith's brigades had pressed the 
Confederates back step by step until they were within 
two hundred yards of the fort. Burbridge expressly 
distinguished himself But for the ravine an attempt 
would have been made by the One-hundred-and- 
Twentieth Ohio to scale and carry by assault the 
eastern side of the fort. 

Almost at this moment, however, Sherman, as his 
attention was arrested by the flags of the gunboats 
visible above the parapet of Fort Hindman, saw a 
man jump on the nearer parapet at the point where 
entered the road which divided the peninsula. " Cease 
firing ! " he ordered, and the words were passed along 
the line with amazing rapidity. The firing soon 
ceased. Sherman knew that something extraordinary 
was going on, and so gave this order. 



310 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

The White Flag. 

In a few seconds the fort was invaded on every 
side by the National troops. Colonel Dayton was 
ordered forward to the place where was hung out the 
large white flag, and as soon as his horse was seen 
on the parapet Sherman advanced with his staff. It 
appeared afterward that the white flag was hung out 
without even the knowledge of Churchill. It made 
little difference. The batde had really been won on 
the land as well as on the river side of the fort. The 
surrender was subsequently made in due form — Col- 
onel Dunnington, the commander of the fort, sur- 
rendering to Admiral Porter, and Colonel Churchill 
surrendering to the military authorities. 

The National loss in killed, wounded, and missing 
amounted to nine hundred and seventy-seven men. 
On the Confederate side there were only sixty killed 
and eighty wounded. Five thousand soldiers, with 
their officers, made prisoners, and all the property of 
the place, including some seventeen guns, consti- 
tuted the prize of victory. General Burbridge was 
singled out for the honor of planting the National 
standard on Fort Hindman. Such was the battle of 
Arkansas Post. 

Sherman Rohbed of his Honors. 

General Sherman was dissatisfied with the arrange- 
ments made by General McClernand immediately 
after the surrender. The post of honor, the occupa- 
tion of Fort Hindman, was given to A. J. Smith of 
Morgan's division, Sherman being ordered to hold 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBURG. 311 

the lines outside and go on securing the prisoners 
and stores. McClernand's reason for so doing was that 
he did not wish to interfere with the actual state of 
facts — the status quo at the time of surrender. 

It is undeniable that it was Sherman's plan through- 
out ; that his corps bore the burden of the fight ; that 
after the surrender his troops were in possession of 
two of the three brigades which constituted the op- 
posing force ; and that he was in possession of all the 
ground outside the *' fort proper." McClernand was 
proud of his success and manifested not a little 
vanity. His star, he said, was ever in the ascendant. 

In his memoirs Sherman tells us that McClernand 
was extremely jealous of the navy, and that in his re- 
port he ignored altogether the action of Porter s fleet. 
This was the less to be regretted that Porter told his 
own story in a very handsome and effective way. It 
is only simple truth to say that the battle was fought 
and won by the fleet before the land troops had any 
certainty of success. 

Petty Rivalry. 

There was. In fact, a feeling of jealousy among the 
commanders — a feeling which was not wholly to dis- 
appear until the arrival of Grant, In whose presence, 
and under the influence of whose more commanding 
genius, jealousy and selfishness gave place to a spirit 
of honorable rivalry and dutiful obedience. 

The day after the batde was devoted to burying 
the dead. The prisoners were all collected and sent 
to St. Louis. The victory at Arkansas Post opened 



31 2 GENEKAL SHERMAN. |: 

the way for a successful expedition to Little Rock, 
the capital of the State of Arkansas. Sherman ex- 
pressed a desire to be sent on this expedition. Mc- 
Clernand, however, did not deem it advisable. A 
combined expedition was therefore sent up the White 
River as far as St. Charles, Des Arc, and Duval's 
Bluff under General Gorman and Lieutenant-com- 
manding J. G. Walker. The expedition was com- 
pletely successful. 

Meanwhile, the works at Fort Hindman were dis- 
mantled and blown up, and on the 13th the troops 
were re-embarked and proceeded down the Arkansas 
to Napoleon. There instructions were received from 
General Grant, who ordered McClernand to take the 
entire expedition down the river to Milliken's Bend 
and await his arrival. This place was reached on the 
2 1 St of January. 

The Second Assault. 

In itself, the movement against Arkansas Post was 
a small affair ; it was so regarded by General Grant ; 
it ought to have been successfully accomplished by 
one corps and by a portion of the fleet — instead of 
the combined strength of both — and that was Sher- 
man's idea ; but resulting as it did in victory, it served 
the double purpose of employing troops which would 
otherwise have been idle, and of cheering the hearts 
of a people who were somewhat despondent. 

In the Vicksburg campaign which succeeded, Sher- 
man bore a prominent part with his command — in the 
expedition up Steele's Bayou to the Yazoo in March; 



ACHIEVEMENTS AT VICKSBUBG. 313 

the feint upon Haines' Bluff, April 29 to May i ; the 
movement to Grand Gulf, May i to 6 ; the capture of 
Jackson, May 14; the occupation of Walnut Hills, and 
'subsequent assaults upon the land-defences of Vicks- 
burg, May 19 and 22, in each attempt the colors of 
the corps being planted on the enemy's works ; and 
in the siege operations which resulted in the sur- 
render of the city July 4, 1863, when Sherman with 
a detached command was at once ordered to pursue 
Johnston, who with a relieving force had been lying 
east of the Big Black, but retreating hastily on the 
news of the surrender. By the loth he was driven 
behind the intrenchments of Jackson. Siege opera- 
tions were actively pressed, but on the night of the 
1 6th Johnston succeeded in escaping, thus proving 
himself to be the " hero of retreats." Steele's divis- 
on pursued to Brandon, and after destroying the 
-ailroads in all directions Sherman fell back to the 
-vest of the Big Black, along which he lay when sum- 
noned, September 22, to the relief of Rosecrans's 
)eleaguered army at Chattanooga. Meanwhile he 
lad been appointed brigadier-general in the regular 
irmy, to date from July 4. By the 27th of September 
he last of his command were embarked at Vicksburtr 
.nd by October 4, Memphis was reached, whence he 
narched eastward, repairing the railroad as he pro- 
eeded, until the 27th, when orders reached him at 
Puscumbia from General Grant, who had superseded 
vosecrans, to abandon all work and hasten on to 
Chattanooga. 



CHAPTER XVII. 
Sherman's Superb Valor at Chattanooga. 

After Vicksburg came the battle of Chickamaugc 
It was a Confederate victory, but it was barren o 
results. The losses on both sides were heavy. Th 
Nationals lost sixteen thousand three hundred an 
fifty men and fifty-one guns. The Confederates 1 
about eighteen thousand. Chickamauga was a bat 
almost without a plan. It resulted to the credit o 
neither of the generals-in-chief. It made an end 0| 
General Rosecrans, and nearly ruined Bragg. It 
but one hero, and that was General Thomas. "Tl 
Rock of Chickamauga " will live for ever in America, ^ 
history. | 

After the battle of Chickamauga, Rosecrans pre 
ceeded to throw up fortifications around Chattanoogc 
In this work he found an able and efficient assistan 
in General James St. Clair Morton. Within twent} 
four hours after falling back from Rossville he wa 
strongly intrenched — so strongly that Bragg coul' 
not, with safety, venture upon an offensive movemen' 
Bragg, in truth, was in great trouble. He felt bitte 
disappointment because the late battle had no 
resulted in more complete success. He was dissatis 
fied with the conduct of several of his officers. H 
had not lost the confidence of Jefferson Davis, bu 



314 



VALOR AT CHATTANOOGA. 315 

with the authorities at Richmond generally he was in 
bad odor. He was expected by them to perform 
impossibilities. 

The suggestions offered him were as numerous as 
they were absurd. Bragg, however, had will enough 
to abide by his own counsel, and sense enough to at- 
tempt the one thing which was practicable. If he 
could not force his way into Chattanooga, he might 
at least starve the Army of the Cumberland into sub- 
mission or retreat. 

Tactics of Brag-g". 

With this end in view the Confederate general 
drew a cordon around the city and interrupted or cut 
off the various lines of communication. He made 

1 himself master of the south bank of the Tennessee, 
opposite Moccasin Point, and then broke the line of 
communication between Chattanooga and Bridgeport. 
He destroyed the bridge at the latter place, and thus 
severed the communication with Nashville, the base 

i of supplies. 

The Army of the Cumberland became a cause of 
great anxiety to the authorities at Washington. It 
was felt that if something were not done to relieve 
it, and that quickly, the army ran the risk of being 
utterly destroyed, and Chattanooga and East Ten- 
nessee would again be brought under Confederate 
rule. In these circumstances the Government fell 
back on the conqueror of Vicksburg. Grant was 

j ordered to Chattanooga to take sole command. He 
was then at New Orleans, confined by an injury sus- 



316 



GENERAL SHERMAN. 



tained in falling from his horse. As soon as he was 
able he hastened to Indianapolis, where he met Stan- 
ton, the Secretary of War, and received from his 
hands the order appointing him to the command of 
the new military Division of the Mississippi, compris- 




WAT£f1S'S0I^JJ.r. 



POSITIONS OF THE ARMIES AT THE BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA. 

ing the three departments and armies of the Ohio, 
the Cumberland, and the Tennessee. By the same 
order General Rosecrans was relieved of the com- 
mand of the Department and Army of the Ten- 
nessee. 

At the request of General Grant, the Department of 
the Cumberband was oriven to Thomas, and that of the 



VALOK AT CHATTANOOGA. 



317 




MAJOR-GENERAL W. ROSECRANS. 



Tennessee to Sherman. On the i8th of October, 1863, 
Grant having arrived at Louisville, formally assumed 
the command and issued 
his first order. Rosecrans 
on the 19th, after Issuing 
a touchino- farewell address 

o 

■to the troops, left for Cln- 

'cinnati. Thither also were 

ordered Generals McCook 

and Crittenden, whose corps 

were now consolidated into 

one. From Louisville, Grant 

telegraphed to Thomas, 

" Hold Chattanooga at all 

hazards." — " I will hold the town until we starve," 

was the prompt and characteristic reply. 

It was not enough, however, to bring Grant to 
Chattanooga. It was necessary that he should 
have under him a competent army. Arrangements 
had already been made for Increasing the strength of 
the National army at Chattanooga. As soon as it 
became known that General Longstreet had gone to 
Tennessee, instructions were sent to Grant and other 
commanders in the South and West to send Rose- 
crans all possible assistance. Grant was yet at New 
Orleans, and as Sherman, who represented him at 
Vicksburg, did not receive the despatch until several 
days had elapsed, there was some unavoidable delay 
in sending reinforcements from the neighborhood of 
Vicksburg. 



318 



GENERAL -SHERMAN. 



As early as the 27th of September, Sherman, with I 
the Fifteenth corps, in obedience to the orders from 
Grant, had set out for Memphis on his way to Chat- 
tanooga. Meanwhile, fearful of the consequences 
which must result if Rosecrans should be tempted to 









LANDING AT LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY. 

abandon his position and attempt to retreat, the Gov- 
ernment had detached the Eleventh and Twelfth 
corps from the Army of the Potomac, and, placing 
them in charge of General Hooker, hurried them 
along by rail to Chattanooga. 



VALOE AT CHATTANOOGA. 319 

Never before, not even at Solferino and Magenta, 
had railroads been more effectively used for trans- 
porting troops and all the necessary material of war 
than on this occasion. It was Stanton's project, and 
in giving it effect he bent upon it all the energies of 
his powerful mind and will. In seven days the two 
corps, some twenty-three thousand strong, with artil- 
lery-trains, baggage, and animals, were transferred 
from the Rapidan to Stevenson, Alabama, a distance 
of 1 192 miles. 

The Situation Critical. 

Grant reached Nashville on the 21st of October. 

[He there met and had an interview with Rosecrans 

land Hooker. On the 23d he arrived at Chattanooga. 

j Next morning he made a recon- 
noissance of the ground and 

i determined on his plan of ac- 

j tion. He found that Rosecrans 
had allowed the enemy to oc- 
cupy all the heights around his 
position, and that neither the 

I river nor the railroad could be 

! used. Unless the river or the maj.-gen. jos. hooker. 
roads could be opened there was no choice but re- 
ireat; and retreat, in the present condition of the 
army, would be certain ruin. 

' Thomas anrl his chief engineer, General William F. 
Smith, had decided upon a plan by which they hoped 
to be able to regain possession of Lookout Valley 
and to re-establish communications with Bridgeport 




GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

by way of Brown's Ferry. Hooker, by order 
Thomas, had already concentrated at the latter plac 
This plan met the hearty approval of General Grai 
who proceeded Immediately to put it in executloi 
Hooker was to cross the Tennessee at Bridgepol 




THE PONTOON-BRIDGE. 



and push on by the main wagon-road to Wauhatchie 
in Lookout Valley. 

Palmer, who was now opposite Chattanooga, was 
to move down the north side ot the river to a point 
opposite Whiteside, where he was to cross the river 
and hold the road passed over by Hooker. W. F. 
Smith was to q-q down the river from Chattanooea, 
under cover of the darkness, with about four thousand 



VALOR AT CHATTANOOGA. 321 

troops, to cross at Brown's Ferry and to seize the 
range of hills at the mouth of Lookout Valley. A 
pontoon-bridge was to be thrown over the river at 
Brown's Ferry, so as to open communications between 
Hooker and Thomas. The movements of Hooker 
and Palmer might be made in open day, but Smith's 
success depended largely on secrecy. These move- 
bents were prompdy and successfully executed, and 
jwere of great importance. 

The Question of Supplies Settled. 
I The Confederates, unwilling to abandon the position, 
bade a fierce attack; but, finding their efforts useless, 
Ichey withdrew up the valley toward Chattanooga. 
The remainder of Smith's force, some twelve hun- 
red strong, under General Turchin, having moved 
eanwhile down the north bank of the stream, across 
loccasin Point, reached Browm's Ferry before day- 
ight. They were rapidly ferried across, and by ten 
b'clock a pontoon-bridge connected the north and 
isouth banks of the Tennessee. On the morning of 
the 28th, as has been stated, Hooker, with the Elev- 
enth corps, Major-General Howard, and Geary's 
'division of the Twelfth corps, appeared in Lookout 
Valley at Wauhatchie, his left connecting with Smith 
at the pontoon-bridge. 

These movements secured for the Nationals the 
possession of the roads and the river, and all fears 
3f starvadon in Chattanooga were now abandoned, 
'General Thomas's plan," said Grant in his telegram 
bo Halleck, " for securing the river and southside road 
21 



322 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

:o Bridgeport has proved eminently successful. The 
question of supplies may now be regarded as settled." 

Brag-g's Stubborn Resistance. 

Bragg was not willing that his antagonist shouldl 
retain the great advantage he had won without making 
another attempt to dislodge him. Lookout Valley,! 
which lies between Raccoon and Lookout mountains, 
and which has an average width of about two miles, 
is divided toward its centre by a series of wood- 
crowned heights, some of them rising to an elevation 
of two hundred and three hundred feet. 

These heights, as well as the more commanding 
positions on Raccoon and Lookout mountains, were 
in the hands of the Confederates. From these emi- 
nences the position and 
movements of the National 
army could be easily seen. 
McLaws, of Longstreet's 
^^^^^^S^,.-,;!S* ^^x corps, was on Lookout 

Mountain, eagerly watching 
Hooker. It was his deter- 
mination to fall upon and 
crush that branch of the 
National army so soon as 

MAJ -GEN. O. O. HOWARD. 111 

he should see a favorable 
opportunity. On the night of the 28th, Geary's di- 
vision, on Hooker's right, was lying at Wauhatchie, 
Howard's corps, as has been mentioned, having been 
thrown out in the direction of Brown's Ferry. Mc- 
Laws, desirous to take Geary by surprise, descended 




VALOR AT CHATTANOOGA. 



32S 



at midnight, and with fierce energy, his men uttering 
wild screams as they advanced, fell upon Geary's 
pickets, driving them in. 



DIAGRAM I. 




CHATTANOOGA, LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN, AND MISSIONARY RIDGE. 

The batteries on Lookout Mountain now opened 
ire, and while Geary's camp was furiously attacked 
)n three different sides by the on-rushIng Confeder- 
ites, his men were exposed to a very tempest of shot 
uid shell. Geary, however, was not unprepared. 



S24 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Knowing that he was Hable to be attacked at any 
moment, he had been holding himself in a state of 
readiness. When, therefore, McLaws' men came up 
they were warmly received. 

Full in the faces of the too-confident Confederates 
Geary's brave fellows poured a deadly fire of mus- 
ketry. Such a reception had not been expected. 
The advancing columns recoiled. Geary, however, 
was greatly outnumbered, and the battle continued. 
Hooker was aroused by the booming of cannon and 
the shrill rattling of musketry. He knew, from the 
direction whence these sounds issued, that Geary had 
been attacked. Howard was ordered to double-quick 
his nearest division, that of Schurz, to the aid of 
Geary. 

** Forward, Boys ! " 

"Forward to their relief, boys!" shouted Hooker 
as Schurz's men streamed past him through the dark- 
ness. They had advanced but a short distance when, 
suddenly, there came a blaze of musketry from the 
hills, showing that the Confederates were close at 
hand, as well as in force in the neighborhood of 
Geary's position. Tyndale's brigade was detached 
and ordered to charge the heights, while Schurz, with ij 
the remainder of his troops, moved on toward Geary. 
A thin brigade of Steinwehr's division, commanded by 
Colonel Orlan Smith of the Seventy-third Ohio, now 
came up, and it was found that the hill to the rear of 
Schurz was occupied by the enemy. 

This hill Smith was ordered to carry with the bay- 



VALOR AT CHATTANOOGA. 325 

I onet. The moon was shining bright and clear, but 
the hill was precipitous, seamed with ravines, covered 
with thick brushwood, and rose to the height of two 
hundred feet. It was a daring — it seemed almost a 

j foolhardy — experiment ; but the order had been given 
and it must be obeyed. On and up the slope rushed 
the brave fellows of the Seventy-third Ohio and of 
the Thirty-third Massachusetts, until they had almost 
reached the rifle-pits, when they were received by a 
volley from some two thousand muskets and driven 
back in confusion to the foot of the hill, 

A Grand Charge. 

There, however, they re-formed, and, although now 
fully aware of the nature of the ground and of the 
difficulties to be encountered, those noble regiments 
again breasted the hill, and in spite of the destructive 
. volleys which tore through their ranks, and the shout- 
ing and yelling and taunting sneers of the men on 
the summit, they pressed on, without firing a shot, 
; toward the blazing rifle-pits, and then, with one bound, 
! bayonet in hand, swept the enemy before them. 
, It was not until the enemy was in full retreat and 
^1 until shouts of victory were rending the midnight air 
that the first volley was fired. It was a sort of parting 
salute, given in a species of wild glee by the Nation- 
j als, but not particularly agreeable to the retreating 
i foe, and not likely soon to be forgotten by any of the 
I Confederates who survived that moonlight struggle. 
Geary meanwhile, although contending with vastly 
superior numbers and sometimes nearly overborne, 



326 GENEHAL SHERMAN. 

held his ground with characteristic tenacity, and at 
length, after three hours' fighting, he hurled his as- 
sailants back toward Lookout Mountain. 

Historic Deeds. 

The charge made by Orlan Smith has been singled 
out as one of the most brilliant charges of the war. It 
delighted and astonished Hooker. *' No troops," he 
said, " ever rendered more brilliant service." It won 
special commendation from so reserved a man as 
Thomas. " The bayonet charge of Howard's troops," 
said he in his letter of congratulation to Hooker, 
'' made up the side of a steep and difficult hill over 
two hundred feet high, completely routing and driving 
the enemy from his barricades on its top, and the re- 
pulse by Geary's division of greatly superior numbers 
who attempted to surprise him, will rank among the 
most distinguished feats of arms in this war." 

Sliernian Pushing- Forward. 

While these events were taking place at Chattanoo- 
ga, Sherman was pressing forward from Memphis. He 
had left Vicksbuig for Memphis, on his way to Chatta- 
nooga, on the 27th of September. His own corps 
followed him up the river in steamboats. He had 
been preceded by the divisions of Osterhaus and John 
E. Smith. Arriving at Memphis on the 2d of October, 
he received a letter from Halleck instructing him to 
move by the line of the Memphis and Charleston rail- 
road to Athens, and to report thence to Rosecrans at 
Chattanooga. 

He was to repair the railroads as he advanced and 



VALOB AT CHATTANOOGA. 



327 



to depend on his own line for supplies. On his way 
to Corinth, on Sunday, the nth, having with him as 
an escort a battalion of the Thirteenth regulars, he 
arrived at Colliersville about noon, just in time to save 
the Sixty-sixth Indiana, Colonel D. C. Anthony, from 
being overwhelmed and probably destroyed by a body 
of Confederate cavalry, some three thousand strong 
with eight guns, under the command of General 
Chalmers. 

Rapid Advances. 

He reached Corinth that Sunday evening. With- 
out delay he pushed on to luka. At Tuscumbia, on 
the 27th, his advance, under General PVank Blair, 
came into contact with a Con- 
federate force some five thou- 
sand strong, under General S. 
D. Lee. The Confederate cav- 
alry were severely punished, 
and Lee gave no further an- 
noyance to the troops on their 
march. The National troops 
had been repairing the roads 
as they moved along, in obedi- 
ence to instructions received from Halleck. On the 
same day on which Blair chastised Lee, Sherman 
received a despatch from Grant urging him to dis 
continue his work on the railroad and hasten forward 
with all possible despatch, with his entire force, to 
Bridgeport. 

Happily, he had made arrangements with Admiral 




ADMIRAL PORTER. 



328 



GENERAL SHERMAN. 



Porter to have boats waiting for him at Eastport. By 
means of these he passed his troops across the Ten- 
nessee and hurried eastward, Blair covering his rear, 
and reached Bridgeport on the 14th. On the day fol- 
lowing he joined Grant at Chattanooga, and the two 
together reconnoitred the ground, Grant explaining 
his proposed plan of attack so soon as the Army of 
the Tennessee was forward and ready for action. 

'*Okl Teciimseli" there. 

Sherman arrived at Chattanooga at a most oppor- 
tune moment. It seemed as if the fates were working 
in the interest of General Grant and the army under 
his command. The plans of the general commanding 
had worked to perfection ; they had been admirably 
carried out, and they had been attended, so far, with 
complete success. 

And now, when Sherman, his trusted right arm, 
came up with his well-trained veterans, Bragg had 
invited attack by committing a huge and irreparable 

blunder. It was known 
to the Confederate com- 
mander that Burnside at 
an earlier date had gen- 
eral instructions to push 
forward from Knoxville 
and form a connection with 
Rosecrans. Believing that 
if such a connection were 
MAj.-GEN. A. E. BURNSIDE. uow formed it would be 

fatal to his prospects, and in the vain hope of cutting 




VALOR AT CHATTANOOGA. 329 

his rival off and beating him in detail, he detached 
Longstreet from the army in front of Chattanooga 
and ordered him to attack Burnside and take pos- 
session of Knoxville. A more fatal blunder he could 
not have committed. He could not, had such been 
his object, have played more completely into the 
hands of his antagonist. Grant saw his opportunity, 
but he resolved to wait until the arrival of Sherman, 
so as to be able to turn it to full and satisfactory 
account He was now ready. 

Burnside Hemmed in. 

Grant was not insensible to the perilous position 
in which Burnside was now placed, nor was he in- 
different to his calls for help. But he knew that 
Burnside would be relieved most effectually by the 
plan which he himself proposed to carry out — that 
the threatened catastrophe at Knoxville would be 
best averted by a decisive victory at Chattanooga. 

The great battle of Chattanooga — by far the most 
picturesque battle in the war — was now about tc 
be fought. Grant's plans, as we have seen, were 
matured and ready for execution. It was now the 
middle of November. Sherman's corps had arrived 
at Bridgeport on the 14th. Grant made up his mind 
to make the general attack on the 21st. He had 
discovered that the north end of the Missionary 
Ridge was imperfectly guarded, as also the western 
bank of the river from the mouth of the South 
Chickamauga down toward Chattanooga. This point 
invited attack. This, however, was not all. A sue- 



330 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

cessful blow given in that direction would make a 
junction impossible between Bragg and Longstreet. 
The northern end of Missionary Ridge therefore he 
singled out as the special point of attack. While 
the attack should seem to be general and bearing 
heavily on the Confederate left, he proposed to mass 
his converging forces on the point thus indicated. 

Sherman's Difficulties. 

Sherman, with his own troops and one of Thomas's 
divisions, was to cross the Tennessee just below the 
mouth of the South Chickamauga, and secure the 
heights as far as the railroad tunnel. Thomas was to 
co-operate with Sherman by concentrating his troops 
on his own left, leavino^ a thin line to ouard the works 
on the rio^ht and centre. Hooker was to assail the 
Confederate left and drive it from Lookout Mountain. 
Grant was the more anxious to make the attack on 
the 2 1 St that on the day before he received from 
Bragg a letter suggesting the removal of non-com- 
batants from Chattanooga — a letter intended to convey 
the idea that an attack on that place was meditated, 
but which really confirmed the report brought by a 
deserter, and confirmed Grant in the belief that Bragg 
was about to retreat. 

The general attack which was to be made on the 
2 1 St was countermanded. Sherman had experienced 
unexpected difficulty in passing his troops across 
Brown's Ferry in consequence of the heavy rains. 
The pontoon-bridge at last gave way. Osterhaus, 
whose division was still on the southern side of the 




GENERAL JAMES LONGSTREET. 



831 



332 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

river and without the means of crossing, was ordered 
to report to General Hooker, with whom he remained. 
Howard was at the same time called to Chattanooga^ 
and temporarily attached to the command of General 
Thomas. On the afternoon of the 23d the Fifteenth 
corps, under the immediate command of General Blair, 
having flung pontoon-bridges across the Tennessee 
at the point indicated above, and also across the 
Chickamauga, were advancing to their position on the 
extreme left of the National army. 

Grant, now impatient of delay, and determined that 
if Bragg really meant to retire, he should not retire 
uninjured and in good order, had instructed Thomas 
on the morning of the 23d to advance and give the 
enemy an opportunity of developing his lines. 

Brilliant Scene. 

The day was unusually beautiful. The men, now 
that they were relieved from their prison-house in 
Chattanooga and well fed, were in excellent spirits. 
They were dressed in their best uniforms and accom- 
panied by new bands of music. The neighboring 
heights were crowded with spectators. The magnifi 
cent array, the steady step, the splendid uniforms, the 
burnished bayonets glittering in the clear November 
sunlight, — it was a holiday picture. It seemed a dress- 
parade or review, and was so regarded for a time by 
the Confederates, who witnessed the spectacle from 
the side and summit of Missionary Ridge. 

Wood's division of Granger's corps moved in ad- 
vance on the left, Sheridan's division of the same 



VALOR AT CHATTANOOGA. 



333 



corps being on the right. Palmer of the Fourteenth 
corps supported Granger's right, with Baird's division 
refused ; Johnson's division of Palmer's remaining 
under arms in the intrenchments, to be ready to rein- 
force at any point. Howard's corps was formed in 




MISSIONARY RIDGE FROM THE CEMETERY AT CHATTANOOGA. 

mass behind that of Granger. As soon as Thomas's 
men began to move forward the heavy guns of Fort 
Wood opened upon the enemy's first position. 

Upon the ramparts of the fort Grant, Thomas, 
Granger, and Howard stood watching the advance. 
It was a splendid sight. On moved the mighty mass 
as if it had been one solid unit. Cheers were heard 
to arise from the ranks of the advancing columns. 
The pickets of the enemy were seen to break and fly 
in confusion before them. In spite of the well- 
directed fire from Its summit, Wood had already 
reached the base of Orchard Knob, a steep, craggy 
hill rising above the general level of the valley, 



334 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

midway between the river and the ridge and about a 
mile from Fort Wood. 

Without halting-, Wood ordered his men to charge. 
It was done in gallant style, the rifle-pits on the 
summit being carried and two hundred men made 
prisoners. A heavy battery was advanced to the 
captured position from Fort Wood, and the place was 
held. This was an important gain to the Nationals 
and they made the most of it. 

Simultaneously with this movement of General 
Thomas against Orchard Knob, a cavalry brigade by 
order of General Grant was operating on Bragg's 
extreme right and rear. No other movement of any 
consequence took place on the 23d. 

Sherman on Missionary Ridge. 

Sherman all night through was pushing his troops 
across the river. As early as daylight on the morn- 
ing of the 24th he had eight thousand men, with artil- 
lery and horses, on the south side of the Tennessee. 
At one o'clock p. m. the march was taken up by three 
columns, each head of column covered by a line of 
skirmishers with supports. It was a dull, drizzly day. 
The clouds were low, and the movements of the 
troops could not be easily seen by the enemy. 

At half-past three o'clock Sherman had possession 
of the whole northern extremity of Missionary Ridge, 
as far almost as the railroad tunnel. In the afternoon 
and during the night he threw up intrenchments and 
established himself in a really strong position. Sher- 
man had thus, so far, carried out his part of the gen- 



VALOE AT CHATTANOOGA. 335 

eral plan. Such was the state of things on the 
National left at the close of Tuesday, the 24th. 

On the National right matters were, If possible, 
even more favorable. Hooker had performed a bril- 
liant feat of arms on Lookout Mountain. At four 
o'clock on the morning of the 24th he had reported 
that his troops were in position and ready to advance. 
Soon afterward the movement commenced. It had 
been Hookers intention to push his men across 
Lookout Creek and strike the enemy in front. It 
was a hazardous undertaking, for Lookout Mountain, 
with its high palisaded crest, its steep, rugged slopes, 
its numerous rifle-pits, its encircling lines of earth- 
works and redans, was deemed by Bragg Impreg- 
nable. 

It so happened, however, that Lookout Creek was 
so swollen by the recent hee y rains that it was im- 
passable. A direct movement by the main road could 
not be attempted until temporary bridges were con- 
structed. Hooker therefore ordered Geary, with his 
own division and Whittaker's brigade of Cruft's divis- 
ion, to march to Wauhatchie, to cross the creek there, 
and move down on the right bank, while he employed 
the remainder of his forces In throwing bridges across 
on the main road. 

The day was favorable for conducting such opera- 
tions. A heavy mist enveloped the mountain and 
spread itself over the adjoining valleys. The atten- 
tion of the enemy had been drawn to the bridge- 
builders, of whom an occasional glimpse could be had 



336 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

as the mist drifted with the breeze ; but no notice had 
been taken of Geary, who reached his appointed place 
at Wauhatchie unobserved. 

The Confederates Surprised. 

It was about eight o'clock when he began to cross 
the creek. Passing over without molestation, he sur- 
prised and captured the picket-guard, and, immediately 
facing to the north, he extended his line on the right 
to the base ot the mountain. The Confederates, 
caught at once on both flank and rear, offered a stub- 
born resistance. Meanwhile, the bridges were con- 
structed, and, Osterhaus's division having been brought 
up from Brown's Ferry, the Nationals were soon in 
great force on the right bank of the creek. Under 
cover of the two batteries — the Ohio on Bald Hill, and 
the New York on the hill in the rear — Hooker's men 
went dashing down the valley, sweeping everything 
before them, capturing the rifle-pits, and making a 
large number of prisoners. 

At the same time, the troops to the right, passing 
directly under the muzzles of the Confederate guns, 
were rushing up the rugged sides of the hill, leaping 
over boulders and ledges of rock, cutting their way 
through the abattis, and gradually forcing position 
after position until the plateau was cleared and the 
retreating Confederates were seen plunging them- 
selves down the jagged and precipitous face of the 
mountain, and flying in confusion and utter rout 
toward Chattanooga Valley. Hooker had not ex- 
pected to accomplish so much in the same space of 



VALOR AT CHATTANOOGA. 337 

time. Nay, he had been unwilHng that his men should 
attempt so much. 

The Men would not Halt. 

Not knowing to what extent the enemy might be 
reinforced, and fearing disaster from the rough cha- 
racter of the ground, he had given directions that the 
men should halt when they reached the high ground. 
But aroused to the highest pitch of enthusiasm 
and with a flying foe before them, a halt was im- 
possible. 

It was now about two o'clock in the afternoon, and 
such was the density of the mist which shrouded the 
mountain and hung heavily over the valley that it was 
found necessary, temporarily at least, to suspend 
operations. Hooker, not deeming it advisable to 
descend into the valley in pursuit, established his line 
on the east side of the mountain, his right resting on 
the palisades, his left near the mouth of Chattanooga 
Creek. 

The battle had literally been fought above the 
:louds. It was not until nightfall that the sky cleared, 
and revealed to thousands in the valley below the 
ictual progress which Hooker had made. As soon as 
t became known that behind that veil of clouds a 
^reat batde had been fought and won, and that the 
NTational arms had been victorious, the soldiers gave 
A^ay to the wildest enthusiasm, and loud cheers for 
'Old Hooker" coming up, resounding from the valley, 
vere echoed and re-echoed among the blood-stained 
lills. 

?2 



338 GENERAL SHEEMAN. 

The night which followed was beautiful In the 
extreme. The mist disappeared, and a full moon 
shed her mellow lio^ht over a scene of matchless mao-. 
nificence. It was Hooker's conviction that the enemy 
would withdraw from the summit of the mountain 
before daylight. In anticipation of such a movement 
he detached parties from several regiments with in- 
structions to scale the palisades. When morning 
came the Confederates were gone. 

Frowning Artillery. 

Such was the condition of things on the night of 
the 24th and the morning of the 25th of November. 
The National army maintained an unbroken line, 
with open communications from the north end of 
Lookout Mountain through the Chattanooga Valley, 
to the north end of Missionary Ridge. 

The morning of the 25th rose in beauty. Far 
almost as the eye could reach the sun fell upon the 
compact lines of polished steel. In front, towering 
up, the huge form of Missionary Ridge, its precipitous 
sides defying attack, its summit swarming with armed 
men and crowned with artillery; away to the right 
and standinor out clear and well defined the bold out- 
lines of Lookout Mountain ; Hooker's men spread out 
in the valley below to the right, Sherman's massed in 
compact phalanx above to the left, while Thomas's 
well-trained bands, eager and ready for the fray, are 
gathered together in close array around the head- 
quarters of the chief, — such was the sight which met 
the eye of the beholder as he stood on Orchard Knob 



VALOR AT CHATTANOOGA. 339 

on the morning of the day which was to witness the 
final struggle and the crowning National victory at 
Chattanooga. It was a magnificent spectacle, and 
one which it rarely falls to the lot of mortals to 
witness. 

Brag^g- versus Sherman. 

At an early hour the preparations were complete. 
The sun had arisen, however, before the bugle sounded 
''Forward!" Hooker had received orders to move 
on the Confederate left ; Sherman was to move 
against the right; while the centre, under the Im- 
mediate eye of General Grant, was to advance later 
in the day and whenever the developments made on 
either wing should justify the attack. Shortly after 
sunrise Hooker, who has left a small force on Lookout 
Mountain, Is seen with the mass of his troops moving 
down the eastern slope of the mountain and sweeping 
across the valley. 

Sherman moved at the same time on the Con- 
federate right, and it soon begins to be evident that 
Bragg, believing that the main attack is to be made on 
bis right. Is massing his troops on Sherman's front. A 
fierce artillery duel at once commenced between Or- 
chard Knob and Missionary Ridge. Hooker, pressing 
on toward Rossville Gap, encountered an unexpected 
obstacle at Chattanooga Creek. The bridge had been 
destroyed by the Confederates as they retired from 
the valley In the early morning. It was an unfortunate 
circumstance, necessitating- as it did ^ delay of thr^e 
hours, 



340 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

As soon as the bridge was completed the troops 
were pushed over. Rossville Gap was quickly occu- 
pied, and Hooker, moving Osterhaus along the east 
side of the ridge, Geary at its base, with the batteries 
on the west side, and Cruft on the ridge itself, marched 
northward, driving the enemy before him. Shortly 
after sunset the victory on the National right was 
complete. Breckenridge had proved himself no match 
for Hooker. 

The Desperate Striigg-le. 

Let us now see what was going on toward the 
left and at the centre. On the morning of the 25th, 
Sherman was in the saddle before it was light. 
During the night he had strongly intrenched his 
position. His order of battle was similar to that of 
Hooker. General Corse, with three of his own regi- 
ments and one of LIghtburn's, moved forward on the 
crest of the hill ; General Morgan L. Smith, with his 
command, advanced along the eastern base ; while 
Colonel Loomis, supported by the two reserve brig- 
ades of General John E. Smith, advanced along the 
western base. The briorades of Cockerell and Alex- 
ander and a portion of LIghtburn's remained behind, 
holding the position first occupied. Almost from the 
commencement of the forward movement the ad- 
vancing columns were exposed to the guns of the 
enemy. 

The tide of battle ebbed and flowed, victory now 
leaning to the one side and now to the other. It 
was a desperate grapple and the loss of life was 



VALOR AT CHATTANOOGA. 341 

terrible. No decided progress was being made on 
either side. Corse found it impossible to carry the 
works in his front ; the Confederates were equally 
unable to drive him from the position he had won. 
The columns which under Loomis and Smith moved 
along the sides of the ridge, encountering fewer 
difficulties, were attended with better success. Smith 
kept gaining ground on the left spur of Missionary 
Ridge, while Loomis on his side got abreast of the 
tunnel and the railroad embankment. 

The fire of the one and the other, striking the Con- 
federates on both flanks and slightly In rear of their 
front, had the effect of withdrawing attention, and 
thus to a certain extent of relieving the assaulting 
party on the crest of the hill. 

It was now about three o'clock. The battle was 
raging with tremendous fury. Column after column 
of the enemy came streaming down upon Sherman's 
men, gun upon gun pouring upon them its concen- 
trated shot from every hill and spur as they vainly 
struggled in the valley ^nd attempted to force their 
way to the farther height. Neither, however, was 
gaining any advantage. 

They Held their Ground. 

Almost at the crisis of the fight it seemed to the 
anxious watchers at Chattanooga as If Sherman was 
losing ground. There was, indeed, a backward 
movement. It had seemed to General J. E. Smith 
that Colonel Wolcott, who now commanded on the 
crest — Corse having been wounded early in the 



342 GENERAL 'SHERMAN. 

day — was sorely pressed and in danger of being 
overpowered. 

He therefore sent to his aid the two reserve 
brigades of Runion and Mathias. Having crossed 
the intervening fields and climbed the hillside in spite 
of a most destructive fire of artillery and musketry, 
they effected a junction with Wolcott. The ridge, 
however, being narrow, they were forced to take 
position on the western face of the hill, where, being 
exposed to attack on right and rear, the enemy, rush- 
ing from the tunnel gorge, fell upon them in over- 
whelming numbers, drivino- them down the hill and 
back to the lower end of the field. There they were 
re-formed, and the Confederates who had ventured 
to pursue were struck heavily on their flank, and 
compelled to retire to the slielter of their works on 
the wooded hills. It was this backward movement 
of Smith's brigades which, being seen at Chatta- 
nooga, created the impression that a repulse had 
been sustained by the National left. 

Impatient for the Fray. 

Sherman has taken some pains to correct this false 
impression, and informs us that the *' real attacking 
columns of General Corse, General Loomis, and 
General Morgan L. Smith were not repulsed," but, 
on the contrary, held their ground and struggled "all 
day persistently, stubbornly, and well." 

Long and wearily had Sherman waited for the 
attack in the centre. An occasional shot from Or- 
chard Knob, and some artillery and musketry fire 



VALOU AT CHATTAKOOaA. 343 

away in the direction of Lookout, were the only signs 
of activity in the National ranks on his right. It was 
not until shortly after three o'clock that he saw a white 
line of .^moke in front of Orchard Knob, the line ex- 
tending farther and farther to the right. It was evi- 
dent that something decisive was happening. He 
had faith in the result, for he knew that by his repeated 
and persistent attacks he had compelled Bragg to con- 
centrate large masses of his troops on his own right. 
He had thus weakened the Confederate centre and 
created the opportunity for Grant and Thomas. 

During these hours of sore trial and deep anxiety 
Grant's attention was quite as much directed to the 
left as was that of Sherman to the centre. Grant's 
headquarters were at Orchard Knob. He had a com- 
mandine view of the entire battle-eround. He knew 
that Bragg was concentrating on his own right, and, 
determined to penetrate the National left and force 
his way to Chattanooga, was hurling against Sherman 
his well-disciplined legions in overwhelming masses. 
He feared lest his trusted lieutenant, sorely pressed, 
should be yielding to impatience because of the con- 
tinued inaction at the centre. 

But it was necessary to wait for Hooker, who, as 
has been stated, had been delayed three hours in re- 
constructing the bridge across Chattanooga Creek. 
It was desirable at least that the Confederate left 
should be well engaged, as well as the Confederate 
right, before the decisive blow was dealt at the centre. 
With any other commander on his left Grant might 



344 GENEflAL SHERMAN. 

have risked too much by leaving him so long, unaided 
or unrelieved, to struggle against the strong position 
and the ever-increasing numbers of the enemy. 

**A Wall of Adamant." 

Grant, however, had not forgotten Shiloh. He 
remembered how on that day, at the foot of the 
bridore over Snake Creek, Sherman had stood Hke a 
wall of adamant, his men massed around him, and 
presenting to the almost triumphant foe what seemed 
a huge and solid shield of shining steel, effectually 
resisting and ultimately turning the tide of battle. 
What he had done then he had on many a batde-field 
since proved his ability and willingness to do again. 
Grant was asking much from his lieutenant, but he 
felt convinced that Sherman would not be found 
wanting. Meanwhile, he had the satisfaction of per- 
ceiving that his plan was worjcing admirably. Bragg, 
completely out-generalled, was weaking his own centre 
and preparing for him his opportunity. 

It was now half-past three o'clock. Grant was 
pacing to and fro on Orchard Knob. Concerned for 
the welfare of Sherman, seeing his opportunity rapidly 
ripening, and impatient to strike, yet unwilling by 
premature action to imperil the hoped-for and what 
seemed the inevitable result, he kept turning his eyes 
wistfully in the direction in which Hooker should 
make his appearance. 

The Moment Arrives. 

Still there were no signs of his coming. Hooker, 
as the reader knows, was successfully moving along 



VALOR AT CHATTANOOGA. 345 

the ridge and driving the enemy before him. But 
Grant was as yet ignorant at once of the cause of his 
delay and of the progress he had made. The oppor- 
tune moment, however, had come. He saw that 
Bragg had greatly weakened his centre to support 
his right, and, having faith that Hooker must be close 
at hand, he gave Thomas the order to advance. 

The thunderbolt was hurled. The signal-guns were 
fired — one — two — three — four — hvG — six — and the 
divisions of Wood, Baird, Sheridan, and Johnson, 
long since impatient of delay, advanced with firm 
and steady step. These were preceded by a double 
line of skirmishers, drawn mostly from the divisions 
of Wood and Sheridan. The orders were to carry 
the rifle-pits at the base of the ridge, and then to re- 
form and push their way to the summit. 

The whole movement was conducted with the 
regularity and precision of clockwork. The skir- 
mishers dashed forward, the main body following 
within easy supporting distance. 

The Ridg-e Ablaze. 

Missionary Ridge all at once seems ablaze. On all 
the forts and batteries the heavy guns open fire, and 
from their hollow mouths they bellow harsh thunder 
and vomit forth their missiles of destruction. Full 
thirty guns are pouring shot and shell into the ad- 
vancing columns. Nothing, however, can cool the 
ardor or restrain the impetuosity of the National 
soldiers. "Rolling on the foe," on moves this "fiery 
mass of living valor." 



Ue OENEHAL SHERMAN. 

The picture of the poet becomes here a living 
reaHty. The brigades of Hazen and WilHch are 
already at the base of the mountain. Like "bees 
out of a hive," to use the expressive words of Gen- 
eral Grant, the gray-coated Confederates are seen 
swarming out of the rifle-pits and rushing up the 
hillside. 

Fired now with the wildest enthusiasm, the brave 
Nationals, scarcely taking time to re-form, push their 
way up the steep and rugged sides of the mountain. 
They are fully exposed now to a terrific fire from the 
enemy's guns on the heights above them. Shell, 
canister, shrapnel, bullets, are falling upon them with 
deadly effect. 

The Old Flag" climbs Hig-lier. 

Nothing daunted, however, on they pressed, and 
from Orchard Knob the National colors are seen 
fluttering higher and still higher and gradually nearing 
the summit. Order now begins to disappear. The 
brigades, partly because of the nature of the ground 
and partly because of the severity of the fire, break 
up into groups. There is, however, neither lack of 
purpose nor lack of enthusiasm. Every group has its 
flag, and In wedge-like form, each eager to be first and 
emulous of the other, is seen pressing onward and 
upward. It seems as if the color-bearers are running 
a race. To plant the first color on the summit appears 
to be the ambition of every brigade, of every group, 
of every soldier. Now they are clambering over the 
rugged ledges, now they are seeking momentary 



VALOK AT CHATTANOOGA. S47 

shelter In the ravines or behind the overhanging 
rocks ; but they are ever, in spite of the heavy guns 
and the murderous volleys of musketry from the rifle- 
pits, nearing the summit. 

Down go the Standard-bearers. 

Meanwhile, the work of destruction had been terri- 
ble. The color-bearers had suffered fearfully. The 
first to reach the summit was a group of men from 
the First Ohio and a few others from other regiments 
under the lead of Lieutenant-Colonel Langdon. Six 
color-bearers of this party had fallen, when Langdon, 
waving forward his men and leaping over the crest, 
was instantly shot down. The breach, however, had 
been made, and the brigades of Hazen and Willich 
were soon on the summit. These were quickly fol- 
lowed by the brigades of Sheridan's division, Sheridan 
himself taking an active part and specially command- 
ing the attention of General Grant, by his wonderful 
command of his men and his intrepid bearing. 

The National advance was within a few hundred 
yards of Bragg's headquarters. There were still des- 
perate hand-to-hand struggles after the Nationals 
had reached the summit. But as the shouting victors 
came pouring into the works, bayonetting the cannon- 
eers at their guns, the bold and resolute front gave 
way. It was now sunset. The Confederates were in 
full retreat, their own guns turned upon them by the 
triumphant Nationals. It was only with difficulty that 
Bragg was able to make good his escape, along with 
Breckenridge, who by this time had joined him. Mis- 



348 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

sionary Ridge was now occupied and held by the 
National troops. 

Sherman Drives the Enemy. 

Hooker, as we have seen, had been victorious on 
the right; Sherman had held his ground, and, after 
a gallant and protracted struggle against superior 
numbers, had driven the enemy from his front; and 
now the brave and well-trusted soldiers of the Armyi, 
of the Cumberland had pierced and routed the Con-j 
federate centre. The battle of Chattanooga had. 
been fought and won. 

The modesty of Grant, the utter absence of vain-i^ 
glory, is strikingly revealed in the despatch which hei 
sent to General Halleck immediately after the batde. 
"Although the- battle lasted," he says, "from early 
dawn till dark this evening, I believe I am not prema- 
ture in announcing a complete victory over Bragg. 
Lookout Mountain top, all the rifle-pits in Chattanooga 
Valley, and Missionary Ridge entire have been carried 
and are now held by us." 

The Last Strug-gle. 

The final struggle of the day was in the neighbor- 
hood of the tunnel on Thomas's left and in Sherman's 
front. At that point the Confederates made a most 
obstinate resistance. This resistance and the dark- 
ness which intervened prevented an immediate pur- 
suit. During the night Missionary Ridge blazed with 
Union camp-fires, the Confederates having fallen back 
in the direction of Ringgold by the way of Chicka- 
mauga Station. Bragg left behind him some six hun- 



VALOR AT CHATTANOOGA. 349 

dred prisoners, besides a large number of stragglers, 
forty guns, upward of seven thousand small-arms, and 
a large quantity of ammunition. 

Next morning Sherman, Palmer, and Hooker were 
in eager pursuit. Sherman pushed on toward Grays- 
ville, passing Chlckamauga Station, where he found 
everything In flames. The Immediate result of the 
victory at Chattanooga was the relief of Knoxville. 
Burnslde, It will be remembered, after having been 
relieved of the command of the Army of the Potomac, 
was assigned on the 26th of March to the command 
of the Department of the Ohio. His headquarters 
were at Cincinnati, and his army, about twenty thou- 
sand strong, was at Camp Nelson, near Richmond, 
Kentucky. When Rosecrans commenced his onward 
movement toward Chattanooga, Burnslde, who had 
been ordered to co-operate with him and to effect a 
junction between his own right and the left of Rose- 
crans, commenced on the i6th of August his march 
for East Tennessee. That district of country was 
then held by the Confederate general Buckner, whose 
headquarters were at Knoxville. 

The Situation at Knoxville. 

Burnslde, more intent on restoring the authority of 
the National Government In East Tennessee, moved 
in the direction of Knoxville, although repeatedly 
ordered to reinforce Rosecrans, believing It to be all- 
Important that the place should be permanently occu- 
pied by National troops. 

If Kno?cville was to be taken, It must be taken by 



350 GENERAL SHERMAN. '^ 

Storm. Preparations for a final effort were accord 
ingly hurried forward. The point chosen for attack 
was Fort Sanders, on the north-west angle of the 
fortifications and commanding an approach by the 
river. It was a work of great strength, the ditch 
being ten feet deep and the parapet of more than 
ordinary height. Around and in front of it several 
acres of thick pine timber had been slashed, and a 
perfect entanglement of wirework had been formed 
by connecting stump with stump. There were besides 
numerous rifle-pits and abattis. 

The fort was occupied by the Seventy-ninth New 
York, the Twenty-ninth Massachusetts, two companies 
of the Second and one of the Twentieth Michigan. 
The armament consisted of four twenty-pounder 
Parrott guns, Lieutenant Benjamin, Burnside's chief 
of artillery ; four light twelve-pounders, commanded 
by Buckley ; and two three-inch guns. The assault- 
ing party was composed of three brigades of McLaws' 
division, with those of Wolford, Humphreys, Ander- 
son, and Bogart. They were picked men, the fiower 
of Longstreet's army. 

The Confederate Yell. 

In the gray of the morning of the 29th the assault 
•was made, with a vigor and determination not sur- 
passed in the previous history of the war. What with 
the fierce yells of the Confederates, the ratde of mus- 
ketry, the screaming of shells, the thunder of artillery, 
the tumult for a time was awful. The Confederates, 
as they approached, were received with a deadly fire 




\jr AVt rv-o 



352 GENERAL ^ERMAN. 

from the batteries of the fort. Nothing daunted, how- 
ever, by the destructive missiles which flew thick and 
fast around them or by the sight of their fallen com- 
rades, on they pressed, through the abattis, across the 
ditch and up the parapet, some of them forcing their 
way through the embrasures. The obstacles encoun- 
tered, the wire network particularly, made their prog- 
ress slow, and consequently kept them long exposed 
to the double-shotted guns which Ferrero, the com- 
mander of the fort, kept in active play. 

The Assault Fails. 

When the assailants reached the parapet their 
ranks were greatly thinned, but their spirits were not 
subdued. One officer actually reached the summit, 
and, planting upon it the flag of the Thirteenth Mis- 
sissippi, called for surrender. It was a vain call, for 
the next moment his body, pierced by a dozen bullets, 
the flag still in his hand, was rolling into the ditch. 
Hand-grenades were freely used by the defenders, 
and they had terrible effect. 

The assault, gallant as it was, proved a complete 
failure. It was tried a second time by another 
column, but the result was the same. The fighting 
was discontinued. A truce was granted to the Con- 
federates to carry away their wounded and to bury 
their dead. Longstreet, still hoping against hope 
and unwilling to retire, maintained the siege. 

The ground in front of the fort was strewn with 
the dead and wounded. In the ditch alone were over 
two hundred dead and wounded, "In this terrible 



VALOR AT CHATTANOOGA. IV^^ 

ditch," says Pollard, "the dead were piled eic^ht or 
ten feet deep. In a comparatively short time we lost 
seven hundred men in killed and wounded and dhr- 
oners. Never, excepting at Gettysburg, was there m 
the history of the war a disaster adorned with the 
glory of such devout courage as Longstreet's repulse 
at Knoxville." 

Meanwhile, relief was coming from Grant to Burn- 
side. Why was this relief so long delayed ? On the 
evening of the 25th, as soon as success at Chatta- 
nooga had been assured, Grant had ordered General 
Gordon Granger to start for the relief of Knoxville 
with his own Fourth corps and detachments fromi 
others — twenty thousand in all. Granger was to 
move with four days' rations, arrangements having 
been made to send after him a steamer with supplies. 
<*You will Assume Conimaiid." 

When Grant returned from the front on the 28th 
he found, much to his astonishment, that Granger 
had not yet got off, and that he was preparing to 
move "with reluctance and complaints." Grant fell 
back upon Sherman, who was ever willino- and ever 
ready. "I am inclined to think," said Grant, in a 
letter to Sherman, "I shall have to send you. In 
plain words, you will assume command of all the 
forces now moving up the Tennessee." 

Wlien he received the letter from Grant, Sherman 
was at Calhoun, at the railroad crossing of the Hia- 
wassee. If he had been less of a soldier he mieht 
easily nave found cause of complaint. It was only 



354 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

seven days since he had marched his troops from 
the west side of the Tennessee, with only two days' 
rations, without change of clothing, with but a single 
blanket or coat to a man from himself to the private 
soldier. What provisions they had were picked up 
by the way. 

Slierman Hastening to the Rescue. 

Murmur or complaint, however, with Sherman, 
there was none. To hear was to obey. It was 
enough for him that twelve thousand of his fellow- 
soldiers were beleaguered at Knoxville, eighty-four 
miles away, and that if not relieved within three days 
they might be at the mercy of the enemy. 

With his hardy and untiring veterans Sherman i 
was quickly on his way. The roads were bad, and, 
as the pontoon-bridge at Loudon had been destroyed, | 
there was unexpected difficulty and consequent delay. 
After considerable progress had been made the troops 
were compelled to turn to the east and to trust to 
General Burnside's bridge at Knoxville. A bridge 
was flung across the Little Tennessee at Morgan- 
town, and by daybreak on the 5th of December the 
entire Fifteenth corps was over. Meanwhile, the 
cavalry command, which had moved forward in ad^ 
vance, had reached Knoxville on the 3d of December, 
the very day on which Burnside expected his supplies 
would give out. 

The Siege Ended. 

On the night of the 5th a messenger from Burnside 
arrived at Sherman's headquarters, announcing tl.ai 



VALOR AT CHATTANOOGA. 355 

Longstreet was in full retreat toward Virginia and 
that the National cavalry were in pursuit. As soon 
as Sherman's cavalry appeared, Longstreet, discover- 
ing that his flank was turned, raised the siege and 
retreated toward Russellville in the direction of Vir 
ginia. The National cavalry followed for some dis- 
tance in close pursuit. This ended the siege of 
Knoxville. 

Burnside had offered a noble resistance and had 
retrieved some of the laurels lost at Fredericksburg. 
He was not without oblioations to Sherman, nor was 
he ungrateful. In a letter to that general he fully 
acknowledged those obligations, and thanked both 
him and his command for so promptly coming to his 
relief. " I am satisfied," he said, " that your approacJ/ 
served to raise the siege." 

Sherman, too, had great reason to be proud of 
himself and his command. They had been constantly 
in motion since they left the Big Black in Missisippi. 
For long periods they had been without regular 
rations, and the men had marched through mud and 
over rocks, sometimes barefooted, without a murmur 
and without a moment's delay. 

Marvels of Acliieveiiient. 

After a march of over four hundred miles, without 
sleep for three successive nights, they crossed the 
Tennessee, fought their part in the battle of Chatta- 
nooga, pursued the enemy out of Tennessee, and 
then turned more than one hundred and twenty 
miles north and compelled Longstreet to raise the 



356 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

siege of Knoxville. After the siege was raised, 
Sherman, with the consent of Burnside, leaving only 
Granger's command, fell back to the line of the 
Hiawassee. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

General Sherman's Fascinating Story of the 
Battle of Chattanooga. 

Having in the preceding chapter described the 
great general features of the battle of Chattanooga, 
havincr followed the combined Union armies or to 
their magnificent victory, we now take pleasure in 
presenting the reader with an intensely interesting 
account of the sanguinary conflict from General Sher- 
man's own pen. This clear and graphic report re^ 
lates especially his own part in the terrible yet 
glorious deeds on that world-renowned battle-field. 
The report is as follows : 

Headquarters Department and Army of the Tennessee. 
Bridgeport, Alabama, December 19, 1863. 

Brigadier- General ]oYi^ A. Rawlins, Chief of Staff to 
General Grant, Chattanooga : 

General: For the first time I am now at leisure 
to make an official record of events with which the 
troops under my command have been connected 
during the eventful campaign which has just closed. 

During the month of September last the Fifteenth 
army corps, which I had the honor to command, lay in 
camps along the Big Black, about twenty miles east 
of Vicksburg, Mississippi. It consisted of four divis- 
ions. The First, commanded by Brigadier-General 

367 



^58 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

P. J. Osterhaus, was composed of two brigades, led 
by Brigadier-General C. R. Woods and Colonel J. A. 
Williamson (of the Fourth Iowa). 

The Second, commanded by Brigadier-General 
Morgan L. Smith, was composed of two brigades, led 
by Brigadier-Generals Giles A. Smith and J. A. J. 
Lightburn. 

The Third, commanded by Brigadier-General J, 
M. Tuttle, was composed of three brigades, led by 
Brigadier-Generals J. A. Mower and R. P. Buckland 
and Colonel J. J. Wood (of the Twelfth Iowa). 

The Fourth, commanded by Brigadier-General 
Hugh Ewing, was composed of three brigades, led by 
Brigadier-General J. M. Corse, Colonel Loomis 
(Twenty-sixth Illinois), and Colonel J. R. Cockerell 
\of the Seventieth Ohio). 

Off for Chattanooga. 

On the 2 2d day of September, I received a tele- 
graphic despatch from General Grant, then at Vicks- 
burg, commanding the Department of the Tennessee, 
requiring me to detach one of my divisions to march 
to Vicksburg, there to embark for Memphis, where it 
vva-- to form a part of an army to be sent to Chatta- 
nooga to reinforce General Rosecrans. I designated 
the First division, and at 4 p. M. the same day it 
marched for Vicksburg, and embarked the next 
day. 

On the 23d of September, I was summoned to Vicks- 
burg by the general comirianding, who showed me 
several despatches from th" i;e'neral-in-chief, which 



STORY OF CHATTANOOGA. 359 

leii him to suppose he would have to send me and my 
whole corps to Memphis and eastward, and I was in- 
structed to prepare for such orders. It was explained 
to me that in consequence of the low stage of water in 
the Mississippi boats had arrived irregularly, and had 
brought despatches that seemed to conflict in their 
meaning, and that General John E. Smith's division 
(of General McPherson's corps) had been ordered 
up to Memphis, and that I should take that divis- 
ion, and leave one of my own in its stead to hold 
the line of the Big Black. I detailed my Third division 
(General Tuttle) to remain and report to Major-Gen- 
eral McPherson, commanding the Seventeenth corps, 
at Vicksburg ; and that of General John E. Smith, 
already started for Memphis, was styled the Third 
division, Fifteenth corps, though it still belongs to the 
Seventeenth army corps. This division is also com- 
posed of three brigades, commanded by General 
Mathias, Colonel J. B. Raum (of the Fifty-sixth 
Illinois), and Colonel J. I. Alexander (of the Fifty- 
ninth Indiana). 

A River Fleet. 

The Second and Fourth divisions were started for 
Vicksburg the moment I was notified that boats were 
in readiness, and on the 27th of September I embarked 
in person in the steamer Atlantic for Memphis, fol- 
lowed by a fleet of boats conveying these two divisions. 
Our progress was slow, on account of the unprece- 
dentedly low water in the Mississippi and the scarcity 
of coal and wood. We were compelled at places to 



fl 

860 GENERAL SHERMAK. ! 

gather fence-rails and to land wagons and haul wood : 
from the interior to the boats ; but I reached Memphis 
during the night of the 2d of October, and the other 
boats came in on the 3d and 4th. 

On arrival at Memphis, I saw General Hurlbut, and 
read all the despatches and letters of instruction of 
General Halleck, and therein derived my instructions, 
which I construed to be as follows: 

To conduct the Fifteenth army corps, and all other 
troops which could be spared from the line of the 
Memphis and Charleston railroad, to Athens, Ala- 
bama, and thence report by letter for orders to 
General Rosecrans, commanding the Army of the 
Cumberland at Chattanooga ; to follow substantially 
the railroad eastward, repairing it as I moved ; to look 
to my own line for supplies ; and in no event to de- 
pend on General Rosecrans for supplies, as the roads 
to his rear were already overtaxed to supply his 
•^resent army. 

] learned from General Hurlbut that General Oster- 

•mus's division was already out in front of Corinth. 

md that General John E. Smith was still at Memphis, 

noving his troops and material by railroad as fast as 

ts limited stock would carry them. General J. D. 

Webster was superintendent of the railroad, and was 

enjoined to work night and day and to expedite the 

movement as rapidly as possible ; but the capacity of 

the road was so small that I soon saw that I could 

move horses, mules, and wagons faster by land, and 

therefore I despatched the artillery and wagons by the. 



STORY OF CHATTANOOGA. 361 

road under escort, and finally moved the entire Fourth 
division by land. 

Harassed by the Enemy. 

The enemy seems to have had early notice of this 
movement, and he endeavored to thwart us from the 
start. A considerable force assembled in a threaten- 
ing attitude at Salem, south of Salisbury Station, and 
General Carr, who commanded at Corinth, felt com- 
pelled to turn back and use a part of my troops, that 
had already reached Corinth, to resist the threatened 
attack. 

On Sunday, October nth, having put in motion my 
whole force, I started myself for Corinth, in a special 
train, with the battalion of the Thirteenth United 
States regulars as escort. We reached Collierville 
Station about noon, just in time to take part in the 
defence made of that station by Colonel D. C. An- 
thony of the Sixty-sixth Indiana against an attack 
made by General Chalmers with a force of about three 
thousand cavalry, with eight pieces of artillery. He 
was beaten off, the damage to the road repaired, and 
we resumed our journey the next day, reaching Corinth 
at night. 

I immediately ordered General Blair forward to 
luka with the First division, and as fast as I eot 
troops up pushed them forward of Bear Creek, the 
bridge of which was completely destroyed, and an 
engineer regiment, under command of Colonel Flad, 
was engaged in its repairs. 

Quite a considerable force of the enemy was assem- 



5tt'2 GENERAL ^EEMAN. 

bled in our front, near Tuscumbia, to resist oui ad- 
vance. It was commanded by General Stephen D. 
Lee, and composed of Roddy's and Ferguson's 
brigades, with irregular cavalry, amounting in the 
aggregate to about five thousand. 

In person I moved from Corinth to Burnsville on 
the 1 8th, and to luka on the 19th of October. 

Admiral Porter. 

Osterhaus's division was in the advance, constantly 
skirmishing with the enemy; he was supported by 
General Morgan L. Smith's, both divisions under the 
general command of Major-General Blair. General 
John E. Smith's division covered the working-party 
engaged in rebuilding the railroad. 

Foreseeing difficulty in crossing the Tennessee 
River, I had written to Admiral Porter at Cairo, 
asking him to watch the Tennessee and send up 
some eunboats the moment the staore of water ad- 
mitted ; and had also requested General Allen, quar- 
termaster at St. Louis, to despatch to Eastport a 
steam ferry-boat. 

The admiral, ever prompt and ready to assist us, 
had two fine gunboats at Eastport, under Captain 
Phelps, the very day after my arrival at luka ; and 
Captain Phelps had a coal-barge decked over with 
which to cross our horses and wagons before the 
arrival of the ferry-boat. 

Still following literally the instructions of General 
Halleck, I pushed forward the repairs of the railroad, 
and ordered General Blair, with the two leading divis- 



STORY OF CHATTANOOGA. 363 

tons, to drive the enemy beyond Tuscumbla. This 
he did successfully, after a pretty severe fight at Cane 
Creek, occupying Tuscumbia on the 27th of October. 
In the mean time many important changes in com- 
mand had occurred, which I must note here to a 
proper understanding of the case. 

The Coniniands Assig-iiecl. 

General Grant had been called from Vicksburg and 
sent to Chattanooga to command the military Division 
of the Mississippi, composed of the three Depart- 
ments of the Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee, and 
the Department of the Tennessee had been devolved 
on me, with instructions, however, to retain command 
of the army in the field. At luka I made what 
appeared to me the best disposition of matters relat- 
ing to the department, giving General McPherson full 
powers in Mississippi and General Hurlbut in West 
Tennessee, and assigned General Blair to the com- 
mand of the Fifteenth army corps, and summoned 
General Hurlbut from Memphis and General Dodge 
from Corinth, and selected out of the Sixteenth corps 
a force of about eight thousand men, which I directed 
General Dodge to organize with all expedition, and 
with it to follow me eastward. 

On the 27th of October, when General Blair, with 
two divisions, was at Tuscumbia, I ordered General 
Ewing, with the Fourth division, to cross the Ten- 
nessee (by means of the gunboats and scow) as 
rapidly as possible at Eastport, and push forward to 
Florence, which he did : and the same day a messen- 



364 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

ger from General Grant floated down the Tennessee 
over Muscle Shoals, landed at Tuscumbia, and was 
sent to me at luka. He bore a short message from 
the general to this effect: "Drop all work on the rail- 
road east of Bear Creek ; push your command toward 
Bridgeport till you meet orders," etc. 

Crossing" the Tennessee. 

Instantly the order was executed ; the order of 
march was reversed, and all the columns were directed 
to Eastport, the only place where we could cross the 
Tennessee. At first we only had the gunboats and 
coal-barge ; but the ferry-boat and two trai\ 'sports 
arrived on the 31st of October, and the work of 
crossing was pushed with all the vigor possible. In 
person I crossed, and passed to the head of the column 
at Florence on the ist of November, leaving the rear 
divisions to be conducted by General Blair, and 
marched to Roo^ersville and Elk River. This was 
found impassable. To ferry would have consumed 
too much time, and to build a bridge still more ; so 
there was no alternative but to turn up Elk River by 
way of Gilbertsboro, Elkton, etc., to the stone bridge 
at Fayetteville, where we crossed the Elk and pro- 
ceeded to Winchester and Deckerd. 

At Fayetteville, I received orders from General 
Grant to come to Bridgeport with the Fifteenth army 
corps, and to leave General Dodge's command at 
Pulaski and aloncr the railroad from Columbia to 
Decatur. I instructed General Blair to follow with 
the Second and First divisions by way of New Mar- 



STOEY OF CHATTANOOGA. 865 

ket, Larkinsville, and Bellefonte, while I conducted the 
' other two divisions by way of Deckerd ; the Fourth 
division crossing the mountain to Stevenson, and the 
Third by University Place and Swedon's Cove. 
' In person I proceeded by Swedon's Cove and 
Battle Creek, reaching Bridgeport on the night of 
November 13th. I immediately telegraphed to the 
^ commanding general my arrival and the positions of 
j my several divisions, and was summoned to Chatta- 
nooga. I took the first steamboat during the night 
of the 14th for Kelly's Ferry, and rode into Chatta- 
nooga on the 15th. 

I The Arena of Conflict. 

^hen learned the part assigned me in the coming 
drama, was supplied with the necessary maps and in- 
formation, and rode during the i6th, in company with 
Generals Grant, Thomas, W. F. Smith, Brannan, and 

■ others, to the positions occupied on the west bank of 
the Tennessee, from which could be seen the camps 
of the enemy compassing Chattanooga and the line 
of Missionary Hills, with its terminus on Chickamauga 

; Creek, the point that I was expected to take, hold, and 
fortify. Pontoons, with a full supply of balks and 
chesses, had been prepared for the bridge over the 
Tennessee, and all things had been prearranged with 
a foresight that elicited my admiration. From the 
hills we looked down on the amphitheatre of Chatta- 
nooga as on a map, and nothing remained but for me 
to put my troops in the desired position. The plan 
contemplated that. In addition to crossing the Ten- 



366 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

nessee River and making a lodgment on the terminus 
of Missionary Ridge, I should demonstrate against 
Lookout Mountain near Trenton with a part of my 
command. 

All in Chattanooga were impatient for action, ren- 
dered almost acute by the natural apprehensions felt 
for the safety of General Burnside in East Tennessee. 

My command had marched from Memphis, three 
hundred and thirty miles, and I had pushed them as 
fast as the roads and distance would admit, but I saw 
enough of the condition of men and animals in Chat- 
tanooga to inspire me with renewed energy. I 
immediately ordered my leading division (General 
Er/ing's) to march via Shellmound to Trenton, dem- 
onstrating against Lookout Ridge, but to be prepared 
to turn quickly and follow me to Chattanooga; 
and in person I returned to Bridgeport, rowing a 
boat down the Tennessee from Kelly's Ferry, and 
immediately on arrival put in motion my divisions in 
the order in which they had arrived. 

Preparing- for the Attack. 

The bridge of boats at Bridgeport was frail, and, 
though used day and night, our passage was slow, 
and the road thence to Chattanooga was dreadfully 
:ut up and encumbered with the wagons of the other 
troops stationed along the road. I reached General 
Hooker's headquarters during a rain in the after- 
noon of the 20th, and met General Grant's orders for 
the general attack on the next day. It was simply 
impossible for me to fulfil my part in time ; only one 



STORY OF CHATTANOOGA. 367 

division (General John E. Smith's) was in position. 
General Ewing was still at Trenton, and the other 
two were toiling along; the terrible road from Shell- 
mound to Chattanooga. No troops ever were or 
could be in better condition than mine, or who la- 
bored harder to fulfil their part. On a proper rep 
resentation General Grant postponed the attack 
On the 2 1 St I got the Second division over Brown's 
Ferry bridge, and General Ewing got up ; but the 
bridge broke repeatedly, and delays occurred which 
no human sagacity could prevent. 

All labored night and day, and General Ewing got 
over on the 23d, but my rear division was cut off by 
the broken bridge at Brown's Ferry and could not join 
me. I offered to go into action with my three divis- 
ions, supported by General Jeff C. Davis, leaving 
one of my best divisions (Osterhaus's) to act with 
General Hooker against Lookout Mountain. That 
division has not joined me yet, but I know and feel that 
it has served the country well, and that it has reflected 
honor on the Fifteenth army corps and the Army of 
the Tennessee. I leave the record of its history to 
General Hooker or whomsoever has had its services 
during the late memorable events, confident that all 
will do it merited honor. 

Silent Movements. 

At last, on the 23d of November, my three divis 
ions lay behind the hills opposite the mouth of the 
Chickamauga. I despatched the brigade of the 
Second division commanded by General Giles A 



368 (4ENERAL SHERMAN. 

Smith, under cover of the hills, to North Chicka 
mauga Creek, to man the boats designed for the 
pontoon-bridge, with orders (at midnight) to drop 
down silently to a point above the mouth of the 
South Chickamauga, there land two regiments, who 
were to move along the river-bank quietly and cap- 
ture the enemy's river-pickets. 

General Giles A. Smith then was to drop rapidly 
below the mouth of the Chickamauga, disembark the 
rest of his brigade, and despatch the boats across for 
fresh loads. These orders were skilfully executed, and 
every rebel picket but one was captured. The bal- 
ance of General Morgan L. Smith's division was tlien 
rapidly ferried across ; that of General John E. Smith 
followed, and by daylight of November 24th two 
divisions of about eight thousand men were on the 
east bank of the Tennessee, and had thrown up a 
very respectable rifle-trench as a tete-du-pont. 

As soon as the day dawned some of the boats 
were taken from the use of ferrying, and a pontoon- 
bridge was begun under the immediate direction of 
Captain Dresser, the whole planned and supervised 
by General William F. Smith in person. A pontoon= 
bridge was also built at the same time over Chick 
amauga Creek near its mouth, giving communication 
with the two regiments which had been left on the 
north side, and fulfilling a most important purpose at 
a later stage of the drama. I will here bear my will- 
ing testimony to the completeness of this whole 
business. 



^rORY OF CHATTANOOGA. 369 

AH the officers charged with the work were pres- 
ent, and manifested a skill which I cannot praise too 
highly. I have never beheld any work done so 
quietly, so well ; and I doubt if the history of war 
can show a bridge of that extent (viz. thirteen hun- 
dred and fifty feet) laid so noiselessly and well in so 
short a time. I attribute it to the genius and intelli 
gence of General William F. Smith. The steamer 
Dunbar arrived up in the course of the morning, and 
relieved Ewing's division of the labor of rowing 
across ; but by noon the pontoon-bridge was done, 
and my three divisions were across, with men, horses, 
artillery, and everything. 

The Columns Formed. 

General Jeff. C. Davis's division was ready to take 
die bridge, and I ordered the columns to form in 
order to carry the Missionary Hills. The movement 
had been carefully explained to all division command- 
ers, and at one p. m. we marched from the river in 
three columns in echelon — the left, General Morgan 
L. Smith, the column of direction, following substan- 
tially Chickamauga Creek ; the centre. General John 
E. Smith, in columns doubled on the centre, at one 
brigade interval, to the right and rear ; the righi 
General Ewing, in column at the same distance to 
the right rear, prepared to deploy to the right, on the 
supposition that we would meet an enemy in that 
direction. Each head of column was covered by a 
good line of skirmishers, with supports. A light, 
drizzling rain prevailed and the clouds hung low, 

24 



370 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

cloaking our movement from the enemy's tower of 
observation on Lookout Mountain. 

Pushing to the Top of the Hill. 

We soon gained the foot-hills ; our skirmishers 
crept up the face of the hills, followed by their sup- 
ports, and at 3.30 p. m. we had gained, with no loss» 
the desired point. A brigade of each division was 
pushed rapidly to the top of the hill, and the enemy 
for the first time seemed to realize the movement, but 
too late, for we were in possession. He opened with 
artillery, but General Ewing soon got some of Captain 
Richardson's guns up that steep hill, and gave back 
artillery, and the enemy's skirmishers made one or 
two ineffectual dashes at General Lightburn, who had 
swept round and got a farther hill, which was the real 
continuation of the ridge. 

From studying all the maps I had inferred that 
Missionary Ridge was a continuous hill, but we found 
ourselves on two high points, with a deep depression 
between us and the one immediately over the tunnel, 
which was my chief objective point. The ground we 
had gained, however, was so important that I could 
leave nothing to chance, and ordered it to be fortified 
during the night. One brigade of each division was 
left on the hill, one of General Morgan L. Smith's 
closed the gap to Chickamauga Creek, two of Genera! 
John E. Smith's were drawn back to the base in 
reserve, and General Ewing's right was extended 
down into the plain, thus crossing the ridge in a 
general line, facing south-east. 



STORY OF CHATTANOOGA. 371 

Th<^ enemy felt our left flank about 4 p. m.» and a 
pretty smart engagement with artillery and muskets 
ensued, when he drew off; but it cost us dear, for 
General Giles A. Smith was severely wounded, and 
had to go to the rear ; and the command of the 
brigade devolved on Colonel Tupper (One-hundred- 
and-Sixteenth Illinois), who managed it with skill dur- 
ing the rest of the operations. At the moment of my 
crossing the bridge General Howard appeared, having 
come with three regiments from Chattanooga along 
the east bank of the Tennessee, connecting my new 
position with that of the main army in Chattanooga. 
He left the three regiments attached temporarily to 
General Ewing's right, and returned to his own corps 
?^ Chattanooga. 

Orders fo/ **DawD of Day." 

As night closed in I ordered General Jeff. C. 
l>avis to keep one c/ hb brigades at the bridge, one 
close up to my position, and one intermediate. Thus 
we passed the night, heavy details being kept busy 
at work on the increnchments on the hill. During 
the night the sky cleared away bright, a cold frost 
filled the air and our camp-fires revealed to the 
enemy and to our friends in Chattanooga our position 
on Missionary Ridge. About midnight I received, at 
the hands of Major Rowley (of General Grant's 
staff), orderhr to attack the enemy at ''dawn of day," 
with notice that General Thomas would attack ii; 
force early in the day. Accordingly, before day I was 
in the saddle, attended by all my staff; rode to the 



372 GENERAL SHERMAN, 

extreme left of our position near Chickamauga Creek, 
thence up the hill held by General Lightburn, and 
round to the extreme right of General Ewing. Catch- 
ing as accurate an idea of the ground as possible by 
the dim light of morning, I saw that our line of 
attack was in the direction of Missionary Ridge, with 
wings supporting on either flank. Quite a valley lay 
between us and the next hill of the series, and this hill 
presented steep sides, the one to the west partially 
cleared, but the other covered with the native forest. 

The crest of the ridee was narrow and wooded The 
<_> 

farther point of this hill was held by the enemy with a 
breastwork of logs and fresh earth, filled with men 
and two guns. 

The Bugle Sounds ** Forward ! " 

The enemy was also seen in great force on a still 
higher hill beyond the tunnel, from which he had a 
fine plunging fire on the hill in dispute. The gorge 
between, through which several roads and the rail- 
road tunnel pass, could not be seen from our position, 
but formed the Vi^iXwr^X place d' amies, where the ene- 
my covered his masses to resist our contemplated 
movement of turning his right flank and endangerino; 
his communications with his depot at Chickamauga 
Station. 

As soon as 'possible the following dispositions were 
made : The brigrades of Colonels Cockerell and Alex- 
ander and General Lio^htburn were to hold our hill as 
the key-point. General Corse, with as much of his 
brigade as could operate along the narrow ridge, was 



STOKY OF CHATTANOOGA. 373 

to attack from our right centre. General Lightburn 
was to despatch a good regiment from his position to 
co-operate with General Corse ; and General Morgan 
L. Smith was to move along the east base of Mis- 
sionary Ridge, connecting with General Corse ; and 
Colonel Loomis in like manner to move along the 
'\ est base, supported by the two reserve brigades of 
general John E. Smith. 

Furious Fighting. 

The sun had hardly risen before General Corse 
had completed his preparations and his bugle sounded 
the " Forward ! " The Fortieth Illinois, supported by 
the Forty-sixth Ohio, on our right centre, with the 
Thirtieth Ohio (Colonel Jones), moved down the face 
of our hill and up that held by the enemy. The line 
advanced to within about eighty yards of the in- 
trenched position, where General Corse found a 
secondary crest, which he gained and held. To this 
point he called his reserves, and asked for reinforce- 
ments, which were sent; but the space was narrow, 
and it was not well to crowd the men, as the enemy's 
artillery and musketry fire swept the approach to his 
position, giving him great advantage. 

As soon as General Corse had made his prepara- 
tions he assaulted, and a close, severe contest ensued 
which lasted more than an hour, gaining and losing 
ground, but never the position first obtained, from 
which the enemy in vain attempted to drive him. 
General Morgan L. Smith kept gaining ground on 
the left spurs of Missionary Ridge, and Colonel 



374 GENERAL SHEEMAN. 

Loomis got abreast of the tunnel and railroad em- 
bankment on his side, drawing the enemy's fire, and 
to that extent relieving the assaulting-party on the 
hill-crest. Captain Callender had four of his guns 
on General Ewing's hill, and Captain Woods his 
Napoleon battery on General Lightburn's ; also, two 
guns of Dillon's battery were with Colonel Alexan- 
der's brigade. All directed their fire as carefully as 
possible to clear the hill to our front without endan- 
gering our own men. The fight raged furiously about 
lo A. M., when General Corse received a severe 
wound, was brought ofT the field, and the command 
of the brigade and of the assault at that key-point 
devolved on that fine young, gallant officer. Colonel 
Walcutt, of the Forty-sixth Ohio, who fulfilled his part 
manfully. He continued the contest, pressing for- 
ward at all points. Colonel Loomis had made good 
progress to the right, and about 2 p. m. General John 
E. Smith, judging the battle to be most severe on the 
hill, and being required to support General Ewing, 
ordered up Colonel Raum's and General Mathias's 
brigades across the field to the summit that was 
being fought for. They movea p under a heavy fire 
of cannon and musketry, and joined Colonel Walcutt ; 
but the crest was so narrow that they necessarily 
occupied the west face of the hill. 
"It was Not So." 
The enemy, at the time being massed in great 
strength in the tunnel gorge, moved a large force 
under cover of the oround and the thick bushes, and 



STORY OF CHATTANOOGA. 375 

suddenly appeared on the right rear of this command. 
The suddenness of the attack disconcerted the men, 
exposed as they were in the open field ; they fell back 
in some disorder to the lower edge of the field and 
re-formed. These two brigades were in the nature 
of supports, and did not constitute a part of the real 
attack. The movement, seen from Chattanooga (five 
miles off) with spy-glasses, gave rise to the report, 
which even General Meigs has repeated, that we were 
repulsed on the left. It was 7iot so. The real attacking 
columns of General Corse, Colonel Loomis, and Gen- 
eral Smith were not repulsed. They engaged in a 
close struggle all day persistently, stubbornly, and 
well. When the two reserve brigades of General 
John E. Smith fell back as described, the enemy made 
a show of pursuit, but were in their turn caught in 
flank by the well-directed fire of our brigade on the 
wooded crest, and hastily sought cover behind the 
hill. 

Thus matters stood about 3 p. m. The day was 
bright and clear, and the amphitheatre of Chattanooga 
lay in beauty at our feet. I had watched for the attack 
of General Thomas '' early in the day 

Column after column of the enemy was streaming 
toward me ; gun after gun poured its concentric shot 
on us from every hill and spur that gave a view of 
any part of the ground held by us. An occasional 
shot from Fort Wood and Orchard Knob, and some 
musketry-fire and artillery over about Lookout Moun- 
tain, was all that I could detect on our side; but about 



376 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

3 P. M. I noticed the white Hne of musketry-fire in 
front of Orchard Knoll, extending farther and farther 
right and left and on. We could only hear a faint 
echo of sound, but enough was seen to satisfy me that 
General Thomas was at last moving on the centre. I 
knew that our attack had drawn vast masses of the 
enemy to our flank, and felt sure of the result. Some 
guns which had been firing on us all day were ^lent 
or were turned in a different direction. 

The Victory Won. 

The advancing line of musketry-fire from Orchard 
Knoll disappeared to us behind a spur of the hill, and 
could no longer be seen ; and it was not until night 
closed in that I knew that the troops in Chattanooga 
had swept across Missionary Ridge and broken the 
enemy's centre. Of course the victory was won, and 
pursuit was the next step. 

I ordered General Morcran L. Smith to feel to the 

«!!> 

tunnel, and it was found vacant, save by the dead and 
wounded of our own and the enemy commingled. 
The reserve of General Jeff C. Davis was ordered to 
march at once by the pontoon-bridge across Chicka- 
mauga Creek at its mouth and push forward for the 
depot. 

General Howard had reported to me in the early 
part of the day with the remainder of his army corps 
(the Eleventh), and had been posted to connect my 
left with Chickamauo^a Creek. He was ordered to 
repair an old broken bridge about two miles up the 
Chickamauga, and to follow General Davis at 4 a. m., 



STORY OF CHATTANOOGA. 377 

and the Fifteenth army corps was ordered to follow 
at daylight. But General Howard found that to repair 
the bridge was more of a task than was at first sup- 
posed, and we were all compelled to cross the Chicka- 
mauga on the new pontoon-bridge at its mouth. 

By about 1 1 a. m. General Jeff. C. Davis's division 
reached the depot just in time to see it in flames. He 
found the enemy occupying two hills, partially in- 
trenched, just beyond the depot. These he soon 
drove away. The depot presented a scene of deso- 
lation that war alone exhibits — corn-meal and corn in 
huge burning piles, broken wagons, abandoned cais- 
sons, two thirty-pounder rifled guns with carriages 
burned, pieces of pontoons, balks and chesses, etc., 
destined doubtless for the famous invasion of Ken- 
tucky, and all manner of things burning and broken. 
Still, the enemy kindly left us a good supply of forage 
for our horses, and meal, beans, etc. for our men. 

Hot Pursuit. 

Pausing but a short while, we passed on, the road 
filled with broken wagons and abandoned caissons, 
till night. Just as the head of the column emerged 
from a dark, miry swamp we encountered the rear- 
guard of the retreating enemy. The fight was sharp, 
but the night closed in so dark that we could not 
move. General Grant came up to us there- At day- 
light we resumed the march, and at GraysviUe, where 
a good bridge spanned the Chickamauga, we found 
the corps of General Palmer on the south bank, who 
informed us that General Hooker was on a road still 



378 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

farther south, and we could hear his guns near Ring- 
gold. 

As the roads were iVlled with all the troops they 
could possibly accommodate, 1 turned to the east, to 
fulfil another part of the general plan — viz. to break 
up all communication between Bragg and Longstreet 

We had all sorts of rumors as to the latter, but it 
was manifest that we should interpose a proper force 
between these two armies. I therefore directed Gen- 
eral Howard to move to Parker's Gap, and thence 
send rapidly a competent force to Red Clay, or the 
Council-Ground, there to destroy a large section of 
the railroad which connects Dalton and Cleveland. 
This work was most successfully and fully accomplished 
that day. The division of General Jeff. C. Davis was 
moved close up to Ringgold to assist General Hooker 
if needed, and the Fifteenth corps was held at Grays- 
ville for anything that might turn up. 
Tennessee Redeemed. 

About noon I had a message from General Hooker, 
saying he had had a pretty hard fight at the mountain- 
pass just beyond Ringgold, and he wanted me to 
come forward to turn the position. He was not 
aware at the time that Howard by moving through 
Parker's Gap toward Red Clay, Lad already turned 
it. So I rode forward to Ringgold in person, and 
found the enemy had already fallen back to Tunnel 
Hill. He was already out of the valley of the Chicka- 
mauga, and on ground whence the waters flow to the 
Coosa. He was out of Tennessee. 



STORY OF CHATTANOOGA. 37S 

I found General Grant at Ringgold, and, after some 
explanations as to breaKing up the railroad from 
Rino-aold back to the State line as soon as some 
carj loaded with wounded men could be pushed 
back to Chickamauga depot, I was ordered to move 
slowly and leisurely back to Chattanooga. 

On the following day the Fifteenth corps destroyed 
absolutely and effectually the railroad from a point 
halfway between Ringgold and Graysville back to the 
State line ; and General Grant, coming to Graysville, 
consented that, instead of returning direct to Chatta- 
nooga, I might send back all my artillery-wagons and 
impediments and make a circuit by the north as far 
as the Hiawassee River. 

On the March to Knoxville. 

Accordingly, on the morning of November 29th, 
General Howard moved from Parker's Gap to Cleve- 
land, General Davis by way of McDaniel's Gap, and 
General Blair, with two divisions of the Fifteenth 
corps, by way of Julien's Gap, all meeting at Cleve- 
land that night. Here another good break was made 
in the Dalton and Cleveland road. On the 30th the 
army moved to Charleston, General Howard approach- 
ing so rapidly that the enemy evacuated with haste. 
leaving the bridge but partially damaged, and five 
car-loads of flour and provisions on the north bank 
of the Hiawassee. 

This was to have been the limit of our operations. 
Officers and men had brought no baggage or pro- 
visions and the weather was bitter cold. I had al- 



380 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

ready reached the town of Charleston, when General 
Wilson arrived with a letter from General Grant at 
Chattanooga informing- me that the latest authentic 
accounts from Knoxville were to the 27th, at which 
time General Burnside was completely invested, and 
had provisions only to include the 3d of December; 
that General Granger had left Chattanooga for Knox- 
ville by the river-road, with a steamboat following 
him in the river ; but he feared that General Granger 
could not reach Knoxville in time, and ordered me to 
take command of all troops moving for the relief of 
Knoxville and hasten to General Burnside. Seven 
days before we had left our camps on the other side 
of the Tennessee with two days' rations, without a 
change of clothing — stripped for the fight, with but a 
single blanket or coat per man, from myself to the 
private included. 

Of course, we then had no provisions save what 
we gathered by the road, and were ill supplied for 
such a march. But we learned that twelve thousand 
of our fellow-soldiers were beleaguered in the moun- 
tain-town of Knoxville, eighty-four miles distant — that 
they needed relief, and must have it in three days. 
This was enough, and it had to be done. General 
Howard that night repaired and planked the railroad- 
bridge, and at daylight the army passed over the 
Hiawassee and marched to Athens, fifteen miles. 
I had supposed rightly that General Granger was 
about the mouth of the Hiawassee, and had sent him 
notice of my orders — that General Grant had sent me 



STORY OF CHATTANOOGA. 381 

a copy of his written instructions, which were full and 
complete, and that he must push for Kingstor,, near 
which we would make a junction. 

Swift Cavalry Movements. 

But by the time I reached Athens I had better 
studied the geography, and sent him orders, which 
found him at Decatur, that Kingston was out of our 
way, that he should send his boat to Kingston, but 
with his command strike across to Philadelphia, and 
report to me there. I had but a small force of 
cavalry, which was, at the time of my receipt of 
General Grant's orders, scouting over about Benton 
and Columbus. I left my aide, Major McCoy, at 
Charleston, to communicate with this cavalry and 
hurry it forward. It overtook me in the night at 
■Athens. 

On the 2d of December the army moved rapidly 

' north toward Loudon, twenty-six miles distant. About 

II A. M. the cavalry passed to the head of the column, 

was ordered to push to Loudon, and, if possible, to 

save a pontoon-bridge across the Tennessee held 

by a brigade of the enemy commanded by General 

Vaughn. The cavalry moved with such rapidity as to 

capture every picket ; but the brigade of Vaughn had 

'i\ artillery in position, covered by earthworks, and dis 

played a force too respectable to be carried by a 

cavalry dash, so that darkness closed in before Gen- 

; eral Howard's infantry got up. The enemy aban- 

I doned the place in the night, destroying the pontoons, 

>| 'running three locomotives and forty-eight cars into 



382 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

the Tennessee River, and abandoned much provision, 
four guns, and other material, which General Howard 
took at daylight. But the bridge was gone, and we 
were forced to turn east and trust to General Burn- 
side's bridge at Knoxville. It was all-important that 
General Burnside should have notice of our coming, 
and but one day of the time remained, 

Surmounting Obstacles. 

Accordingly, at Philadelphia, during the night of 
the 2d of December, I sent my aide (Major Auden- 
ried) forward to Colonel Long, commanding the 
brigade of cavalry at Loudon, to explain to him how 
all-important it was that notice of our approach should 
reach General Burnside within twenty-four hours, 
ordering him to select the best materials of his com- 
mand, to start at once, ford the Litde Tennessee, anc' 
push into Knoxville at whatever cost of life ani 
horse-fiesh. Major Audenried was ordered to gd 
along. The distance to be tiavelled was about forty 
miles and the roads villainous. Before day they were 
off, and at daylight the Fifteenth corps was turned 
from Philadelphia for the Little Tennessee at Morgan- 
town, where my maps represented the river as being 
very shallow ; but it was found too -deep for fording, 
and the water was freezing cold — width two hundred 
and forty yards, depth from two to five feet ; horses 
could ford, but artillery and men could not. A bridge 
was indispensable. General Wilson (who accom- 
panied me) undertook to superintend the bridge, and 
I am under many obligations to him, as I was withr*>* 



STORY OF CHATTANOOGA. S83 

an engineer, having sent Captain Jenney back from 
Graysville to survey our field of battle. We had our 
pioneers, but only such tools as axes, picks, and 
spades. 

Needless Haste. 

General Wilson, v^orking partly with cut wood and 
partly with square trestles (made of the houses of the 
late town of Morgantown), progressed apace, and by 
dark of December 4th troops and animals passed 
over the bridge, and by daybreak of the 5th the Fif- 
teenth corps (General Blair's) was over, and Gen- 
erals Granger s and Davis's divisions were ready to 
j pass ; but the diagonal bracing was imperfect for want 
of spikes, and the bridge broke, causing delay. I 
had ordered General Blair to move out on the Marys- 
ville road five miles, there to await notice that Gen- 
era' Granger was on a parallel road abreast of him, 
and in person I was at a house where the roads 
parted, when a messenger rode up, bringing me a 
few words from General Burnside to the effect that 
Colonel Long had arrived at Knoxville with his cav- 
alry, and that all was well with him there ; Longstreet 
still lay before the place, but there were symptoms 
of his speedy departure. 

I felt that I had accomplished the first great step in 
the problem for the relief of General Burnside's 
army, but still urged on the work. As soon as the 
bridge was mended all the troops moved forward. 
General Howard had marched from Loudon, had 
found a pretty good ford for his horses and wagers 



384 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

at Davis's, seven miles below Morgantown, and had 
made an ingenious bridge of the wagons left by Gen- 
eral Vaughn at Loudon on which to pass his men. 
He marched by Unitia and Louisville. 

" The Deadly Bullet." 

On the night of the 5th all the heads of columns 
communicated at Marysville, where I met Major Van 
Buren (of General Burnside's staff), who announced 
that Longstreet had the night before retreated on 
the Rutledge, Rogersville, and Bristol road, leading 
to Virginia; that General Burnside's cavalry was on 
his heels ; and that the general desired to see me in 
person as soon as I could come to Knoxville. I or- 
dered all the troops to halt and rest, except the two 
divisions of General Granger, which were ordered to 
move forward to Litde River, and General Granger 
to report in person to General Burnside for orders. 
His was the force originally designed to reinforce 
General Burnside, and it was eminently proper that 
it should join in the stern-chase after Longstreet. 

On the morning of December 6, 1 rode from Marys- 
ville into Knoxville, and met General Burnside. Gen- 
eral Granger arrived later in the day. We examined 
his lines of fortifications, which were a wonderful 
production for the short time allowed in their selec- 
tion of ground and construction of work. It seemed 
to me that they were nearly impregnable. We exam- 
ined the redoubt named " Sanders," where on the 
Sunday previous three brigades of the enemy had 
assaulted and met a bloody repulse. Now, all was 



STORY OF CHATTANOOGA. 385 

peaceful and quiet ; but a few hours before the 
deadly bullet sought its victim all around about that 
hilly barrier. 

Burnside's Statement. 
The general explained to me fully and frankly 
what he had done and what he proposed to do. He 
asked of me nothing but General Granger's command, 
and suggested, in view of the large force I had 
brought from Chattanooga, that I should return with 
due expedition to the line of the Hiawassee, lest 
Bragg, reinforced, might take advantage of our ab- 
I sence to resume the offensive. I asked him to reduce 
this to writing, which he did, and I here introduce V 
as part of my report : 

Headquarters Army of the Ohio, > 
Knoxville, December 7, 1863. J 

Major- General W. T. Sherman, commanding, etc. : 

General: I desire to express to you and your 

command my most hearty thanks and gratitude fo| 

[I your promptness in coming to our relief during the 

siege of Knoxville, and I am satisfied your approach 

served to raise the siege. The emergency having 

I passed, I do not deem, for the present, any other por- 

tj tion of your command but the corps of General 

Granger necessary for operations in this section \ 

and, inasmuch as General Grant has weakened the 

forces immediately with him in order to relieve us 

(thereby rendering the position of General Thomas 

less secure). I deem it advisable that all the troops 

'lb 



586 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

now here, save those commanded by General 
Granger, should return at once to within supporting 
distance of the forces in front of Bragg's army. In 
behalf of my command I desire again to thank you 
and your command for the kindness you have 
done us. 

I am, general, very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

A. E. BURNSIDE, 

Major- General commanding. 

Accordingly, having seen General Burnside's forces 
move out of Knoxville in pursuit of Longtreet and 
General Granger's move in, I put in motion my own 
command to return. General Howard was ordered 
to move, via Davis's Ford and Sweetwater, to Athens, 
with a guard forward at Charleston to hold and 
repair the bridge, which the enemy had retaken after 
our passage up. General Jeff C. Davis moved to 
Columbus, on the Hiawassee, via Madisonville, and 
the two divisions of the Fifteenth corps moved to 
Tellico Plains, to cover a movement of cavalry across 
the mountains into Georgia to overtake a wagon- 
train which had dodged us on our way up, and had 
escaped by way of Murphy. 

Return to Chattanoog-a. 

Subsequently, on a report from General Howard 
that the enemy held Charleston, I diverted General 
Ewing's division to Athens, and went in person to 
Tellico with General Morjjan L. Smithes division. By 



STORY OF CHATTANOOGA. 387 

the 9th all our troops were in position^ and we held 
the rich country between the Little Tenivtissee and the 
Hiawassee. The cavalry, under Colonel Long, passed 
the mountain at Tellico, and preceded about seven- 
teen miles beyond Murphy, when Colonel Long", 
deeming his further pursuit of the wagon-train use- 
less, returned on the 12th to Tellico. I then ordered 
him and the division of General Morgan L. Smith to 
move to Charleston, to which point I had previously 
ordered the corps of General Howard. 

Conferring- with Grant. 

On the 14th of December ail of my command in 
the field lay along the Hiawassee. Having communi- 
cated to General Grant the actual state of affairs, I 
received orders to leave on the line of the Hiawassee 
all the cavalry, and come to Chattanooga with the rest 
of my command. I left the brigade of cavalry com- 
manded by Colonel Long, reinforced by the Fifth Ohio 
Cavalry (Lieutenant-Colonel Heath) — the only cavalry 
properly belonging to the Fifteenth army corps — at 
Charleston, and with the remainder moved by easy 
marches, by Cleveland and Tyner's Depot, into Chat- 
tanooga, where I received in person from General 
Grant orders to transfer back to their appropriate 
commands the corps of General Howard and the 
division commanded by General JefT. C. Davis, and to 
conduct the Fifteenth army corps to its new field oi 
operations. 

It will thus appear that we have been constantly in 
motion since our departure from the Big Black in 



388 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Mississippi until the present moment. I have been 
unable to receive from subordinate commanders the 
usual full, detailed reports of events, and have, there- 
fore, been compelled to make up this report from my 
own personal memory ; but as soon as possible sub- 
ordinate reports will be received and duly forwarded. 
In reviewing the facts I must do justice to the men 
of my command for the patience, cheerfulness, and 
courage which officers and men have displayed 
throughout in battle, on the march, and in camp 
For long periods without regular rations or supplies 
of any kind, they have marched through mud and 
>ver rocks, sometimes barefooted, without a murmur. 

Courag-e even to Rashness. 

Without a moment's rest after a march of over four 
hundred miles, without sleep for three successive 
nights, we crossed the Tennessee, fought our part of 
the battle of Chattanooga, pursued the enemy out of 
Tennessee, and then turned more than a hundred and 
twenty miles north and compelled Longstreet to raise 
the siege of Knoxville, which gave so much anxiety 
to the whole country. It is hard to realize the im- 
portance of these events without recalling the memory 
of the general feeling which pervaded all minds at 
Chattanooga pnor to our arrival. I cannot speak of 
the Fifteenth r.rmy corps without a seeming vanity; 
but, ?..s I am no longer its commander, I assert that 
there is no p'Jtter body of soldiers in America than 
that. I v;iF> all to feel a just pride in its real honors. 

To <^enr'ial Howard and his command, to General 



4 



STORY OF CHATTANOOGA. 389 

JefF. C. Davis and his, I am more than usually Indebted 
for the intelligence of commanders and fidelity of 
commands. The brigade of Colonel Bushbeck, be- 
lono-Ing to the Eleventh corps, which was the first to 
come out of Chattanooga to my flank, fought at the 
Tunnel Hill, in connection with General Ewing's divis- 
ion, and displayed a courage almost amounting to 
rashness. Following the enemy almost to the tunnel- 
gorge, it lost many valuable lives, prominent among 
them Lieutenant-Colonel Taft, spoken of as a most 
gallant soldier. 

In General Howard throughout I found a polished 
and Christian gentleman, exhibiting the highest and 
most chivalric traits of the soldier. General Davis 
handled his division with artistic skill, more especially' 
at the moment we encountered the enemy's rear-guard 
near Graysville at nightfall. I must award to this 
division the credit of the best order during our move- 
ment through East Tennessee, when long marches and 
the necessity of foraging to the right and left gave 
some reason for disordered ranks. 

The Test of Fire. 

Inasmuch as exception may be taken to my expla- 
nation of the temporary confusion during the battle 
of Chattanooga of the two brigades of General Ma- 
thias and Colonel Raum, I will here state that I saw 
the whole and attach no blame to any one. Accidents 
will happen in battle, as elsewhere ; and at the point 
where they so manfully went to relieve the pressure 
on other parts of our assaulting line, they exposed 



390 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

themselves unconsciously to an enemy vastly superior 
in force and favored by the shape of the ground. 
Had that enemy come out on equal terms, those 
brigades would have shown their mettle, which had 
been tried more than once before and stood the test 
of fire. They re-formed their ranks and were ready 
to support General Ewing's division in a very few 
minutes ; and the circumstance would have hardly 
called for notice on my part had not others reported 
what was seen from Chattanooga, a distance of nearly 
five miles, from where could only be seen the troops 
in the open field in which this affair occurred. 

I now subjoin the best report of casualties I am 
able to compile from the records thus far received, 
which makes our total loss 1949. 

Among the killed were some of our most valuable 
officers : Colonels Putnam, Ninety-third Illinois ; 
O'Meara, Ninetieth Illinois; and Torrence, Thirtieth 
Iowa ; Lieutenant-Colonel Taft of the Eleventh corps, 
and Major Bushnell, Thirteenth Illinois. 

Amone the wounded are Brioradier-Generals Giles 
A. Corse and Mathias ; Colonel Raum ; Colonel 
Waugelin, Twelfth Missouri; Lieutenant-Colonel Par- 
tridge, Thirteenth Illinois ; Major P. I. Welsh, Fifty- 
sixth Illinois ; and Major Nathan McAlla, Tenth Iowa. 

Amone the missinor is Lieutenant-Colonel Archer, 
Seventeenth Iowa. 

My report is already so long that I must forbear 
mentioning acts of individual merit. These will be 
recorded in the reports of division commanders, which 



STORY OP CHATTANOOGA. 391 

I will cheerfully indorse ; but I must say that it is but 
justice that colonels of regiments, who have so long 
and so well commanded brigades, as in the following 
cases, should be commissioned to the grade which 
they have filled with so much usefulness and credit to 
the public service : Colonel J. R. Cockerell, Seven- 
tieth Ohio ; Colonel J. M. Loomis, Twenty-sixth 
Illinois ; Colonel C. C. Walcutt, Forty-sixth Ohio ; 
Colonel J. A. Williamson, Fourth Iowa; Colonel G. 
B. Raum, Fifty-sixth Illinois ; Colonel J. I. Alexander, 
Fifty-ninth Indiana. 

My personal staff, as usual, have served their 
country with fidelity and credit to themselves through- 
out these events, and have received my personal 
thanks. 

Inclosed you will please find a map of that part of 
the battle-field of Chattanooga fought over by the 
troops under my command, surveyed and drawn by 
Captain Jenney, engineer on my staff I have the 
honor to be, your obedient servant, 

W. T. Sherman, Major- General commanding, 

[General Order No. 68.] 

War Department, Adjutant-General's Office, 
Washington, February 21, 1864. 

Public Resolution — No. i: 

Joint Resolutio7i tendering the thaiiks of Congress to 
Major -General IV. T. Sherman and others. 

Be it resolved by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States of America i7i Congress as- 



;592 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

sembled, That the thanks of Congress and of the 
people of the United States are due, and that the same 
are hereby tendered, to Major-General W. T. Sher- 
man, commander of the Department and Army of the 
Tennessee, and the officers and soldiers who served 
under him, for their gallant and arduous services in 
marching to the relief of the Army of the Cumberland, 
and for their gallantry and heroism in the battle of 
Chattanooga, which contributed in a great degree ta 
the success of our armies in that glorious victory. 
Approved February 19, 1864. 

By order of the Secretary of War: 
E. D. TowNSEND, Assistant Adjutant- General, 



CHAPTER XIX. 

The Great Atlanta Campaign. -^Grand Forward 
Movement. 

General Grant in an open letter to General 
Sherman, March 2, 1864, acknowledged his gratitude 
for the co-operation and skill which had so largely 
contributed to his own success. Congress also ten- 
dered its thanks for his services in the Chattanooga 
campaign. When Grant was made lieutenant-general 
he assigned Sherman to the command of the military 
Division of the Mississippi, including the Departments 
of the Ohio, the Tennessee, the Cumberland, and the 
Arkansas, with temporary headquarters at Nashville. 
Sherman assumed command March 25. 

Two weeks later he received instructions for his 
movements against Atlanta. Then began the great 
campaign — the march to the sea — which stands in 
many respects unrivalled in military history. The 
story still lives, and will ever live in the memory of 
all men. 

The great campaign in Georgia was undertaken 
without specific orders. There was opposed to Sher- 
man, Joe Johnston's army, numbering sixty-two thou- 
sand men. Grant's instructions to Sherman, given 
April 4, 1864, embraced only these few words: 

" You I propose to move against Johnston's army, 

'in 



394 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

to break it up, and to get Into the interior of the 
enemy's country as far as you can, Inflicting all the 
damage you can against their war-resources. I do 
not propose to lay down for you a plan of campaign, 
but simply to lay down the work it is desirable to 
have done, and leave you free to execute it in your 
own way. Submit to me, however, as early as you 
can, your plan of operations." 

The task assigned Sherman was a part of Grant's 
great plan of campaign for 1864. Banks, then at 
New Orleans, was to move on Mobile, Sherman was 
to strike the enemy near the heart of the Confed- 
eracy, while Grant was to engage Lee in Virginia. 
Each of the three commanders aimed to act so vigor- 
ously on the offensive that It would be impossible 
for the enemy to concentrate his forces against either. 

Pusliing- Johnston, 

Neither Atlanta nor Augusta nor Savannah was 
the objective of Sherman's army, but the army of 
Joe Johnston, go where it might. Some words from 
Sherman's loyal response to his superior are worth 
quoting: 

*'That we are now all to act upon a common plan, 
converging on a common centre, looks like enlight- 
ened war. Like yourself, you take the biggest load, 
and from me you shall have thorough and hearty 
co-operation. 1 will not let side issues draw me off 
from your main plans, in which I am to knock Joseph 
Johnston and to do as much damage to the resources 
)f the enemy as possible If Banks can at the 



ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 395 

same time carry Mobile and open up the Alabama 
River, he will in a measure solve the most difficult 
part of my problem — viz. ' provisions.' But in that 
I must venture. Georgia has a million of inhabitants. 
If they can live, we should not starve. If the enemy 
interrupt our communications, I will be absolved from 
all oblio^ations to subsist on our own resources, and 
will feel perfectly justified in taking whatever and 
wherever we can find. I will inspire my command, if 
successful, with the feeling that beef and salt are all 
that is absolutely necessary to life, and that parched 
corn once fed General Jackson's ^rmy on that very 
ground." 

Atlanta Threatened. 

Never did an army start upon a great Invasion with 
less impedimenta. Tents there were none, even for 
the officers, and absolutely nothing was carried except 
food, clothing, arms, and ammunition. The advance 
began on May 5th, and the enemy was first encoun> 
tered at Dalton, strongly intrenched. McPherson's 
troops flanked them by a sudden surprise and threat- 
ened their communications. Johnston abandoned 
Dalton and fell steadily back, fighting several quite 
serious engagements as he withdrew. Sherman's 
superior force of ninety-nine thousand men and two 
hundred and fifty-four guns could not be safely en- 
gaged in a general battle except under strong advan- 
tages of position and defences. 

Sherman, in thus compelling Johnston to evacuate 
a position of such extraordinary strength as that of 



396 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Dalton, demonstrated his ability to make his way to 
Atlanta, between which and Dalton no position was 
likely to be held by the Confederates which might not 
be as easily turned. 

On the morningr of the 14th the Confederates 
were in complete readiness to receive an attack, hav- 
ing spent the previous night in strengthening their 
already formidable earthworks. General Hardee 
held their right, General Hood their centre, and 
General Polk their left. At an early hour skirmish- 
ing commenced. A body of infantry with cavalry 
was sent across the Oostanaula to threaten Calhoun 
in the rear, farther south on the railroad, by which 
movement General Sherman hoped to turn Johnston's 
left, and thus cut off his retreat, but this the nature of 
the ground rendered impossible. 

Deadly Fire. 

At noon there was heavy firing along the whole 
line. About one o'clock an attempt was made by 
Palmer's corps from the left centre to break the 
enemy's line and force him from an elevated position 
in the immediate front. To reach the point aimed at 
it was necessary to descend the slope of a hill com- 
manded by the enemy's artillery, to ford a stream 
bordered with a thick growth of bushes and vines, 
and then to cross a space intersected by ditches and 
otherwise obstructed. 

Under a murderous fire of musketry and artillery 
the hill was descended and the stream crossed ; but 
the troops, becoming confused among the ditches and 




MAP 



CJTY OF MOBILF 



DEFENCES 



398 GENEKAL SHEEMAN. 

obstructions, and finding no shelter from which the 
plunging fire of the enemy might be returned, were 
forced to retire, after losing one thousand of their 
number. Farther to the left, about the same time, 
General Judah's division of the Twenty-third corps 
and Newton's division of the Fourth drove the enemy 
from an important position on their outer line. By 
this means, although the position taken was not held, 
the National line was advanced. Artillery was also 
got into a position which prevented the enemy from 
occupying the works. At both extremities of the line 
heavy skirmishing took place, the density of the 
woods and undergrowth preventing the use o( 
artillery. 

The Gallant Fifteenth. 

About three in the afternoon General Johnston 
massed a heavy force on the road to Tilton, with the 
view of turning the National left flank, held by Stan- 
ley's division of the Fourth corps. The attack was 
made with overwhelming numbers, who rushed on 
with loud yells, and with such impetuosity that Stan- 
ley's troops were forced in confusion from the hill on 
which they were posted. The movement ordered by 
Johnston had been detected early enough to permit 
of Hooker's corps being moved from the centre to 
reinforce the National left. The enemy's advance 
was soon checked, and, Stanley's troops having been 
rallied, the Confederates were about dusk driven 
back to their lines with severe loss. 

Whilf' this movement was going on, General Mc- 



ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 39* 

Pherson sent the Fifteenth corps, with a portion of thq 
Sixteenth, across Camp Creek, to carry a hill and rifle- 
pits on the enemy's left In front '^f Resaca. This was 
effected, and with loss. As this position commanded 
the works, the railroad, and the tresde-brldges across 
fhe Oostanaula, desperate efforts were made by the 
f^nemy after dark to retake it, but In vain. Heavy 
columns with fixed bayonets moved up to the very 
crest of the hill, but were compelled to retire In con- 
fusion before the steady fire of the National troops. 
At ten o'clock fighting was over for the day. 

"The Troops Rushed in." 

Both armies strengthened their positions during 
the night; and on the morning of the 15th, under 
cover of severe skirmishing, preparations were made 
by General Sherman for an assault upon two fortified 
hills on the enemy's extreme right, the key of the 
whole position. General Hooker's corps was moved 
to the extreme left, Howard's, Schofield's, and Palm- 
er s to the I'Ight. Soon after one o'clock Hooker sent 
Butterfield's division forward as the assaulting column, 
supported by the divisions of Geary and Williams. 
After several attacks the Confederates were driven 
from a portion of their lines, and a lodgment was se. 
cured under the projecting works of a lunette mount- 
ing four guns. 

Further advance, however, was found impossible, 
owing to a severe fire from neighboring rifle-pits, and 
the troops, seeking such shelter as was available, con- 
tented themselves with holding the position gained 



400 GENERAI SHERMAN. 

Toward the close of the afternoon General Hood's 
corps made an unavailing effort to dislodge them. 
Later, under cover of night and in spite of a sharp fire 
from the Confederates, the ends were dug out of the 
works and the guns hauled out with ropes. As soon 
as a breach was made the troops rushed in, and after 
a fierce struggle made themselves masters of the 
lunette. 

Too Late. 

General Johnston abandoned his position during 
the night, leaving behind another four-gun battery and 
a quantity of stores, and retreated toward Kingston, 
thirty-two miles south of Resaca, on the railroad. 
Resaca was immediately occupied by the troops of 
General Thomas, who succeeded in saving the wagon- 
road bridge. The railroad-bridge, however, had been 
burned. Johnston's army owed its escape from Sher- 
man at Resaca to the impracticable nature of the 
valley between the town and Snake Creek Gap, which 
gready retarded the passage of troops, and afforded 
the Confederate army time to march from Dalton by 
comparatively good roads, which Johnston with wise 
foresight had kept in order. Had the National army 
arrived first at Resaca, nothing could have saved the 
army of the Confederates. 

Once in their strong posidon at Resaca, it cost 
much severe fighdng to make them abandon it. The 
total National loss in the two days' fighting was not 
less than four thousand killed and wounded, while 
that of the Confederates probably did not exceed two 



ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 401 

thousand five hundred, as diey fought for the most 
part behind eardiworks. The Confederate loss in- 
cluded about one thousand prisoners. 

The whole army started in pursuit of Johnston, 
General Thomas directly on his rear, crossing the 
Oostanaula at Resaca, General McPherson at Lay's 
Ferry, a few miles to the south-west, while General 
Schofield, makinor a wide detour to the left of Thomas, 
marched by obscure roads across the Conasauga and 
Coosawattee rivers, which unite near Resaca to form 
the Oostanaula. On the 1 7th the march was continued 
southward by as many roads as could be found, in a 
direction parallel with the railroad, but no enemy was 
seen till within the vicinity of Adairsville, thirteen 
miles south-west of Resaca, between the railroad and 
the Oostanaula. There, about sunset, the advance 
division under General Newton had a sharp skirmish 
with the enemy's rear-guard. Next morning the 
Confederates had disappeared, but were found again 
in force four miles beyond Kingston, on ground com- 
paratively open and well adapted for a grand battle. 
They held strong works at Cassville, five miles east 
of Kingston, and on the 19th dispositions were made 
for a general engagement. 

Supplies at Hand. 

While, however, Sherman was converging on the 
Confederate position, Johnston retreated in the night 
across the Etowah, burning the bridges at Carters- 
ville, thus leaving the country north of the Etowah in 
the possession of General Sherman. It had, how- 

26 



402 GENERAL SHEEMAN. 

ever, been completely stripped of supplies. Sherman 
now gave his troops a few days' rest, the army of 
Thomas lying near Cassville, McPherson's about 
Kingston, and Schofield's at Cassville depot and 
toward the Etowah Bridge. In the mean time, the 
railroad, which had received but little injury, was re- 
stored to running order. Trains laden with suppHes 
arrived at Kingston on the 20th, and the wounded 
were sent back to Chattanooga, with which place 
telegraphic communication also was kept up as the 
army had advanced. 

General Jefferson C. Davis had on the 17th marched 
toward Rome, at the confluence of the Oostanaula 
and Etowah, fifteen miles west of Kingston. After a 
sharp fight on the 19th he got possession of the town, 
several forts, eight or ten large guns, and large quan- 
tities of stores, as well as valuable mills and foundries 

Slierinan Hurrying- Forward. 

General Johnston retired upon Allatoona Pass, an 
almost impregnable position on the railroad, about 
five miles south of the Etowah River. General Sher- 
man determined not even to attempt the pass in 
front, but to turn it. Accordingly, on the 23d, leaving 
garrisons at Rome and Kingston, and carrying with 
him in wagons supplies for twenty days, he put the 
army in motion for Dallas, a town about fifteen miles 
south-south-west of Allatoona Pass and eighteen 
miles direcdy west of Marietta, hoping by thus threat- 
ening Marietta to compel Johnston to evacuate the 
oass. The roads throuo^h the rucrored and densely 







iNESBORO 

MAP OF COUNTRY EF.T'.VEEM CHATTANOOGA, TENN., ANl. ATLANTA CA- 

403 



404 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

wooded region to be traversed were few and bad, and 
he march was necessarily slow. 

The movement and Its objects were soon detected 
by Johnston, who also set his troops in motion toward 
Dallas to protect the approaches to Marietta. In the 
march upon Dallas, McPherson, holding- the National 
right, made a detour south-westward by Van Wert, 
about fourteen miles west of Dallas, while Thomas 
moved nearly due south, with Schofield on his left. 
On the 25th, Hooker's corps, the advance of General 
Thomas, moving on the main road to Dallas, when 
near Pumpkin Vine Creek met portions of Hood's 
and Hardee's corps, and a severe contest took place 
for a position at New Hope Church, where three 
roads meet from Ackworth, Marietta, and Dallas. 

The Eiieiny Intrenched. 

The enemy, however, having hastily thrown up 
earthworks, and night coming on accompanied by 
heavy rain, he retained possession of the roads. 
Hooker lost six hundred men in this affair. Next 
morning the Confederates were found well intrenched, 
substantially in front of the road leading from Dallas 
to Marietta. It was necessary, therefore, to make 
dispositions on a larger scale. McPherson was 
moved up to Dallas, Thomas was deployed against 
New I lope Church, and Schofield moved toward the 
left, so as to strike and turn the enemy's right. 

Ov/Ing to the difficult nature of the country, these 
novoments occupied two days and were attended 
^ith heavy skirmishing ; but as the vicinity was foi' 



ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 405 

the most part densely wooded, artillery could not be 
used, and the casualties were comparatively few. 
On the 28th, just as McPherson was closing- up to 
Thomas in front of New Hope Church, he was re- 
peatedly and desperately attacked by a large Con- 
federate force, and the contemplated movement 
was temporarily checked, but the enemy was finally 
driven back with a loss of two thousand killed and 
wounded. 

The Pass Captured. 

After the delay of a few days the movement toward 
the left was resumed, McPherson taking up the posi- 
tion in front of New Hope Church which Thomas had 
previously occupied, Thomas and Schofield taking 
positions still farther to the left. This movement was 
effected on the ist of June. All the roads leading 
back to Allatoona and Ackworth were occupied. 
General Stoneman's cavalry pushed into the east end 
of Allatoona Pass, and General Garrard's marched 
around by the rear to its west entrance. These move 
ments being effected without opposition, the pass fel 
into Sherman's possession. 

Still working toward the left, General Sherman de- 
termined on the 4th to leave Johnston in his intrenched 
position at New Hope Church, and moved toward the 
railroad above Ackworth, which was reached on the 
6th of June. 

Between Big Shanty and Marietta intervenes a 
mountainous district full of defensible positions, cover- 
i.ng perfectly the town of Marietta and the railroad aa 



406 GENEEAL SHERMAN. 

far as the Chattahoochee. Three conical peaks in 
this region, Hnks in a continuous forest-covered chain, 
form prominent features in the landscape. These are 
Kenesaw Mountain, Pine Mountain, and Lost Moun- 
tain. 

The National lines were gradually advanced toward 
the Confederate positions. By the nth the lines were 
close up, and dispositions were then made to break 
the enemy's line of defence between Kenesaw a::d 
Pine mountains. 

Hooker Attacked. 

On the 2 2d the enemy made a sudden attack on 
portions of Hooker's and Schofield's corps on the 
National right near the Kulp House. The blow fell 
mostly on the divisions of Generals Williams and 
Hascall. The ground was comparatively open ; but 
though the skirmish-lines and an advanced regiment 
of General Schofield's — sent out to hold the enemy in 
check until preparations for his reception could be 
completed — were driven in, yet when the enemy 
reached the National line of battle he received a terri- 
ble repulse. Many prisoners were taken, and the 
Confederates were compelled to abandon their dead 
and wounded. The National centre was now estab- 
lished in front of Kenesaw Mountain. 

General Sherman determined to assault. His reason 
for a departure from the course which had hitherto 
been so successful was, that an army to be efficient 
must not settle down to one single mode of offence, 
but must be prepared to execute any plan likely to 



ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 407 

result in success. The part of the enemy's lines 
selected to be assaulted was the left centre. A strong 
column, if thrust through at that point and pushed on 
boldly two and a half miles, would reach the railroad 
below Marietta and cut off the enemy's right and 
centre from the line of retreat, which could then be 
overwhelmed and destroyed. 

Sherman's Assault. 

On the 24th of June, therefore, General Sherman 
ordered that an assault should be made at two points 
south of Kenesaw Mountain on the 27th, thus afford- 
ing three days for preparation and reconnoissance. 
One of these assaults was to be made near Little 
Kenesaw by General McPherson's troops, the other 
about a mile farther south by those of General 
Thomas. 

On the morning of the 27th, at the hour and in tha 
manner prescribed, the assaults were made, but both 
failed, and many valuable lives were lost, including 
that of General Harker. At six in the morning 
Blair's corps, holding the extreme left of McPherson's 
line, moved on the east side of the mountain, while 
the corps of Dodge and Logan assaulted the adjoin- 
ing northern slope. The brunt of the attack was 
borne by three brigades of Logan's corps, v/hich, 
pushing impetuously up the hill, scattered the Confed- 
erate skirmishers and captured some of their rifle- 
pits, taking also some prisoners. These troops pressed 
forward till they arrived at the foot of a precipitous 
cliff thirty feet high, from which the enemy poured a 



40S GENERAL SHERMAN. 

plunging fire and rolled down huge stones. Here the 
line retired and fortified on the extreme rieht. For 
the second and more important attack portions of 
the divisions of Newton and Davis were selected. 
When the signal was given the troops charged up the 
slope of the mountain in face of a murderous fire 
from a battery on the summit, penetrated two lines 
of abattis, carried a line of rifle-pits beyond, and 
reached the works ; but a destructive fire of musketry 
and artillery from the enemy soon made it necessary 
to recall the men. General Newton's troops returned 
to their original line, while the brigade of Davis threw 
up breastworks between those they had carried and 
the main line of the enemy. The entire contest 
lasted little more than an hour, but it cost General 
Sherman three thousand men in killed and wounded, 
while the enemy, fighting behind breastworks, suffered 
litde. 

General Sherman could not rest long under the 
imputation of defeat or failure. He almost immedi- 
ately commenced preparations to turn the enemy's 
left. The effect was instantaneous. The object of 
the movement was at once detected by General John- 
ston, who without further delay prepared to evacuate 
Kenesaw Mountain and fall back to the Chattahoochee. 
Simultaneously with McPherson's movement, John- 
ston's rear-guard abandoned the works which for three 
weeks had been so resolutely defended, and before 
dawn on the morning of the 3d the National pickets 
occupied the crest of Kenesaw. 



ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 



409 



General Johnston was obliged to leave his new 
position by another flank movement, and on the night 
of the 4th he fell back to the Chattahoochee, which he 
crossed with the main body of his army, leaving 
Hardee's corps on the right bank. 

The sudden abandonment of his fonriidable line of 
defences on the left bank of the river by General 
Johnston occasioned the utmost dissatisfaction with 
his conduct of the campaign, especially in Atlar.ta, 
where it was expected he would 
make z stand on the Chattahoo- 
chee, which it was argued he 
could easily do, being in the im- 
mediate neighborhood of his 
supplies. His retreat from the 
Chattahoochee was the crowninor 
offence with the enemies of this 
able general, whose inferiority 
of force had made it impossible 
to avoid Sherman's outflanking 

movements, but who had nevertheless kept his army 
in a compact body with insignificant losses of guns or 
material of war. His removal was loudly demanded, 
and on the 17th, in accordance with orders from the 
Confederate War Department, he turned over his 
command to General Hood, retaining command of 
one division. 

The whole of General Sherman's army crossed the 
Chattahoochee on the T7th, with the exception of 
Davis's division of the Fourteenth corps, left to watch 




GEN. JOHN B. HOOD. 



410 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

the railroad-bridge and protect the rear, and prepara- 
tions were made to move upon Atlanta. 

Fighting continued at various points, and in one of 
the bloody combats the gallant McPherson received 
his death-wound, devolving the command of the Army 
of the Tennessee upon General Logan. This was 
July 22d. Sherman's army sustained an irreparable 
loss in the death of General McPherson. " He was," 
said Sherman, "a noble youth, of striking personal 
appearance, of the highest professional capacity, and 
with a heart abounding in kindness that drew to him 
the affections of all men." His body was recovered 
and carried in the heat of battle to General Sherman, 
who sent it, in charge of his personal staff, back to 
Marietta, on its way to his Northern home. 

Hood was not long in finding out that the army of 
Sherman was swinmno round toward the Macon rail- 
road, and massed troops in the same direction to 
oppose the movement. At noon on the 28th the 
Confederates moved out of Atlanta by the Bell's 
Ferry road, formed in the open fields behind a rising 
ground, and advanced in parallel lines directly against 
the Fifteenth corps, expecting to find it detached and 
unsupported. Fortunately, Logan's troops had thrown 
up breastworks, and, though the advance of the Con- 
federate columns was " magnificent," as Sherman, who 
witnessed it, said, it was only to be followed by a recoil 
before steady volleys of musketry and incessant dis- 
charges of grape and canister. In spite of the efforts 
of their officers the men broke and fled, and though 



ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 



411 



rallieJ *'ip;ain and again, at some parts of the line as 
often as six. times, they were, about four o'clock in the 
afternoon, compelled to retire, with a loss of not less 
than five thousand. Logan's loss was reported at less 
than six hundred. Had Davis's division come up at 




GENERAL SHERMAN DESTROYING THE MACCtN RAILROAD. 

any time before four o'clock, this complete repulse of 
the enemy might have been made a disastrous rout. 
Sherman then began the destruction of the Macon 
railroad, thus cutting off Hood's supplies. 

On the 31st the Confederates moved out of their 
works at Joncsboro and attacked the position of 



412 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Howard, but were steadily and repeatedly repulsed. 
After a contest of two hours' duration they withdrew, 
losing in killed, wounded, and captured three thou- 
sand men, besides general officers, including Major- 
General Anderson, mortally wounded. Howard's loss 
was sliorht, as his men fouorht behind breastworks. 
It was observed on this occasion that the Confederate 
troops had begun to lose the enthusiasm and dash 
which had hitherto characterized their attacks. 

Hearing the sounds of battle about noon, Sherman 
renewed his orders to push the other movements on 
the left and centre. Orders were given for the whole 
army to move on Jonesboro. The troops advanced 
to the attack across open fields under a withering 
artillery and musketry fire. After a desperate fight, 
which lasted two hours, they drove the Confederates 
from their works, capturing two four-gun batteries — 
one of them Loomis's, lost at Chickamauga — some 
battle-flags, and a large number of prisoners, includ- 
ing the greater part of Govan's brigade, with its 
commander, which had formed part of the celebrated 
" fiorhtinor division " of Cleburne. 

Repeated orders were sent, urging the rapid ad- 
vance of Stanley and Schofield, but the want of roada 
and the difficult nature of the country prevented their 
coming up and getting into position for attack before 
further operations were rendered impracticable by 
the approach of night. Had they been able to close 
in upon Hardee a few hours earlier his entire force 
would in all probability have been captured. As it 




GENERAL SHERMAN AT ATLANTA. 



414 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

was, Hardee had to evacuate the place during the 
night and fall back seven miles to Lovejoy's, where 
he intrenched in a naturally strong position. About 
two o'clock in the morning the \t'atchers in Sherman's 
camp heard in the direction of Atlanta, about twenty 
miles distant, the sounds of heavy explosions, followed 
by a succession of minor reports resembling the rapid 
firing of cannon and musketry. About four o'clock 
similar sounds were heard, indicating a night-attack 
on the city by Slocum, or that Hood was blowing up 
his magazines and preparing to evacuate Evidently 
important events were at hand. 

In Atlanta the utmost consternation and excitement 
had arisen when it became known that the main army 
of Sherman had got between Hardee's force and the 
city. Hood immediately gave orders for the evacua- 
tion of his works and the removal of as much of the 
ammunition and stores as was possible with his limited 
means of transportation, and for the destruction of the 
rest. Large quantities of provisions in the public 
store-houses were distributed to the inhabitants and 
to the troops. The rolling stock of the railroads, 
consisting of about one hundred cars and six loco- 
motives, was gathered together near the rolling-mill 
in the evening, by which time all the troops (except 
the rear-guard had got away. The cars were then 
laden with the surplus ammunition, and, together with 
the depots, store-houses, and all that could be of use 
to the National army, set on fire about midnight. This 
occasioned the series of explosions that had been heard 



ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 415 

in Sherman's camp. Slocum, at the Chattahoochee 
bridge, also hearing these sounds, sent out early in the 
morning of the 2d of September a strong reconnoitring 
column, which, pushing forward without meeting any 
opposition, arrived at Adanta about nine o'clock, 
when the mayor made a formal surrender of the city^ 
only requesting the security of private property and 
protection for non-combantants, which were readily 
guaranteed. Sherman's great victory electrified the 
country. It was a grand military achievement and 
proved his genius and patriotism. 

This success, gained on the ist of September, 1864, 
was received throughout the country with great en- 
thusiasm. President Lincoln sent this message of 
thanks and congratulation : 

The national thanks are rendered by the President 
to Major-General W. T. Sherman and the gallant 
officers and soldiers of his command before Atlanta 
for the distinguished ability and perseverance dis- 
played in the campaign in Georgia, which, under 
divine favor, has resulted in the capture of Atlanta. 
The marches, battles, sieges, and other military opera- 
tions that have signalized the campaign must render 
it famous in the annals of war, and have entitled 
those who have participated therein to the applause 
and thanks of the nation. 

Abraham Lincoln, 
President of the United States, 

General Grant was prompt also in his tribute to 



416 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

the great exploit, and telegraphed as follows from 
City Point: 

Major-General Sherman : 

I have just received your despatch announcing the 
capture of Adanta. In honor of your great victory I 
have ordered a salute to be fired with shotted guns 
from every battery bearing upon the enemy. The 
salute will be fired within an hour amid great 
rejoicing, U. S. Grant, 

Lieutenant- General, 



CHAPTER XX, 

From Atlanta to the Sea. — The Famous 
March. 

It has been a matter of great interest to the Amer- 
ican people to obtain the opinion of European gen- 
erals, men who are considered authority on all mili- 
tary affairs, concerning the relative merits of our 
commanders who made themselves famous during our 
sanguinary struggle. By universal consent General 
Sherman's wonderful march to the sea stands as one 
of the crowning achievements in the history of modern 
warfare. 

It was unparalleled. No other march can be com- 
pared with it, and there are good authorities who 
maintain that it was the boldest, best planned, most 
important undertaking in our civil war, and one which, 
being carried to an issue completely successful, 
stamped the hero of it as the greatest of all our 
commanders, and one unsurpassed in the annals of 
war. 

In this chapter we favor the reader with General 
Sherman's own graphic narrative of his famous maro^ 
to the sea. 

The thrilling narrative is as follows: 

27 417 



1 



418 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Headquarters of the Military Division of the Mississippi, 
IN THE Field, Savannah, Georgia, January ist, 1865. 

Major-General H. W. Halleck, Chief of Staffs 

Washington City, D. C : 

General : I have the honor to offer my report of 
the operations of the armies under my command, since 
the occupation of Atlanta in the early part of Sep- 
tember last up to the present date. 

As heretofore reported, in the month of September 
the Army of the Cumberland, Major-General Thomas 
commanding, held the city of Atlanta ; the Army of 
the Tennessee, Major-General Howard commanding, 
was grouped about East Point ; and the Army of the 
Ohio, Major-General Schofield commanding, held 
Decatur. Many changes occurred in the composition 
of these armies in consequence of the expiration of 
the time of service of many of the regiments. The 
opportunity was given us to consolidate the frag- 
ments, reclothe and equip the men, and make prepa- 
rations for the future campaign. I also availed myself 
of the occasion to strengthen the garrisons to our 
rear, to make our communications more secure, and 
sent Wagner's division of the Fourth corps and Mor= 
gan's division of the Fourteenth corps back to Chatta- 
nooga, and Corse's division of the Fifteenth corps to 
Rome. Also a thorough reconnoissance was made 
of Atlanta, and a new line of works begun, which 
required a smaller garrison to hold. 

During this month the enemy, whom we had left at 
Lovejoy's Station, moved westward toward the Chat- 
tahoochee, taking position facing us, and covering the 



420 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

West Point railroad about Palmetto Station. He also 
threw a pontoon-bridge across the Chattahoochee, and 
sent cavalry detachments to the woods in the direction 
of Carrollton and Powder Springs. About the same 
time President Davis visited Macon and his army at 
Palmetto, and made harangues referring to an active 
campaign against us. Hood still remained in com- 
mand of the Confederate forces, with Cheatham, S. 
D. Lee, and Stewart commanding his three corps, and 
Wheeler in command of his cavalry, which had been 
largely reinforced. 

Making Preparations. 

My cavalry consisted of two divisions: one was 
stationed at Decatur, under the command of Brigadier- 
General Garrard ; the other, commanded by Brigadier- 
General Kilpatrick, was posted near Sandtown, with 
a pontoon-bridge over the Chattahoochee, from which 
he could watch any movement of the enemy toward 
the west. 

As soon as I became convinced that the enemy in- 
tended to assume the offensive — namely, September 
28 — I sent Major-General Thomas, second in com- 
mand, to Nashville, to organize the new troops ex- 
pected to arrive and to make preliminary preparations 
to meet such an event. 

About the ist of October some of the enemy's 
cavalry made their appearance on the west of the 
Chattahoochee, and one of his infantry corps was 
reported near Powder Springs, and I received authen- 
tic intelligence that the rest of his infantry was cross- 
ing to the west of the Chattahoochee. I at once made 



MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA. 42? 

my orders that Atlanta and the Chattahoochee railroad- 
bridge should be held by the Twentieth corps, Major- 
General Slocum, and on the 4th of October put in 
motion the Fifteenth and Seventeenth corps, and 
the Fourth, Fourteenth, and Twenty-third corps, to 
Smyrna camp-ground, and on the 5th moved to the 
strong position about Kenesaw. The enemy's cavalry 
had, by a rapid movement, got upon our railroad at 
Big Shanty and broken the line of telegraph and rail- 
road, and with a division of infantry (French's) had 
moved against Allatoona, where were stored about 
a million of rations. Its redoubts were garrisoned 
by three small regiments under Colonel Tourtellotte, 
Fourth Minnesota. 

The Smoke of Battle. 

I had anticipated this movement, and had, by signal 
and telegraph, ordered General Corse to reinforce that 
post from Rome. 

General Corse had reached Allatoona with a brigade 
during the night of the 4th, just in time to meet the 
attack by French's division on the morning of the 5th. 
In person I reached Kenesaw Mountain about 10 a. m. 
of the 5th, and could see the smoke of batde and 
hear the faint sounds of artillery. The distance, eigh- 
teen miles, was too great for me to make in time to 
share in the batde, but I directed the Twenty-third 
corps, Brigadier-General Cox commanding, to move 
rapidly from the base of Kenesaw due west, aiming 
to reach the road from Allatoona to Dallas, threatening 
the rear of the forces attacking Allatoona. I succeeded 



422 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

in getting a signal message to General Corse during his 
fight, notifying him of my presence. The defence of 
Allatoona by General Corse was admirably conducted, 
and the enemy repulsed with heavy slaughter. His 
description of the defence is so graphic that it leaves 
nothing for me to add, and the movement of General 
Cox had the desired effect of causing the withdrawal 
of French's division rapidly in the direction of Dallas. 

Strategic Movements. 

On the 6th and 7th I pushed my cavalry well toward 
Burnt Hickory and Dallas, and discovered that the 
enemy had moved westward, and inferred that he 
would attempt to break our railroad again in the 
neighborhood of Kingston. Accordingly, on the 
morning of the 8th I put the army in motion through 
Allatoona Pass to Kingston, reaching that point on the 
loth. There I learned that the enemy had feigned on 
Rome, and was passing the Coosa River on a pontoon- 
bridge about eleven miles below Rome. I therefore 
on the nth moved to Rome, and pushed Garrard's 
cavalry and the Twenty-third corps, under General 
Cox, across the Oostanaula, to threaten the flanks of 
the enemy passing north. Garrard's cavalry drove 
a cavalry brigade of the enemy to and beyond the 
Narrows, leading into the valley of the Chattooga, 
capturing two field-pieces and taking some prisoners. 

The enemy had moved with great rapidity, and 
made his appearance at Resaca, and Hood had in 
person demanded its surrender I had from. Kingston 
reinforced Resaca by two regiments of the Army of 



MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA. 423 

the Tennessee. I at first intended to move the army 
into the Chattooga Valley, to interpose between the 
enemy and his line of retreat down the Coosa, but 
feared that General Hood would in that event turn 
eastward by Spring Place and down the Federal road, 
and therefore moved against him at Resaca. Colonel 
Weaver at Resaca, afterward reinforced by Gen- 
eral Raum's brigade, had repulsed the enemy from 
Resaca, but he had succeeded in breaking the rail- 
road from Tilton to Dalton, and as far north as the 
tunnel. 

Arriving at Resaca on the evening of the 14th, I 
determined to strike Hood in flank or force him to 
battle, and directed the Army of the Tennessee, Gen- 
eral Howard, to move to Snake Tree Gap, which was 
held by the enemy, while General Stanley, with the 
Fourth and Fourteenth corps, moved by Tilton across 
the mountains to the rear of Snake Creek Gap, in the 
neighborhood of Villanow. 

The Army of the Tennessee found the enemy occu- 
pying our old lines in the Snake Creek Gap, and on 
the 15th skirmished for the purpose of holding him 
there until Stanley could get to his rear. But the 
enemy gave way about noon, and was followed through 
the gap, escaping before General Stanley had reached 
the farther end of the pass. The next day, the i6th, 
the armies moved directly toward La Fayette with a 
view to cut off Hood's retreat. We found him in- 
trenched in Ship's Gap, but the leading division 
(Wood's) of the Fifteenth corps rapidly carried the 



424 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

advanced posts held h>y two companies of a South 
Carolina regiment, making them prisoners. The re- 
maining eight companies escaped to the main body 
near La Fayette. 

Hood's Rapid March. 

The next morning we passed over into the valley 
of the Chattooga, the Army of the Tennessee moving 
in pursuit by La Fayette and Alpine toward Blue 
Pond ; the Army of the Cumberland by Summerville 
and Melville post-office to Gaylesville ; and the Army 
of the Ohio and Garrard's cavalry from Villanow, 
Dirttown Valley, and Gooer's Gap to Gaylesville. 
Hood, however, was little encumbered with trains and 
marched with great rapidity, and had succeeded in 
getting into the narrow gorge formed by the Lookout 
Range abutting against the Coosa River in the neigh- 
borhood of Gadsden. He evidently wanted to avoid 
a fio^ht. 

On the 19th all the armies were grouped about 
Gaylesville, in the rich valley of the Chattooga, 
abounding in corn and meat, and I determined to 
pause in my pursuit of the enemy, to watch his move- 
ments, and live on the country. I hoped that Hood 
would turn toward Guntersville and Bridgeport. The 
Army of the Tennessee was posted near Little River, 
with instructions to feel forward in support of the 
cavalry, which was ordered to watch Hood in the 
neighborhood of Will's Valley, and to give me the 
earliest notice possible of his turning northward. The 
Army of the Ohio was posted at Cedar Bluff, with 



MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA. 425 

orders to lay a pontoon across the Coosa, and to feel 
forward to Centre and down in the direction of Blue 
Mountain. The Army of the Cumberland was held 
in reserve at Gaylesville, and all the troops were in- 
structed to draw heavily for supplies from the surround- 
ing country. In the mean time, communications were 
opened to Rome, and a heavy force set to work in re- 
pairing the damages done to our railroads. Atlanta 
was abundantly snpplied with provisions, but forage 
was scarce, and General Slocum was instructed to 
send strong foraging-parties out in the direction of 
South River and collect all the corn and fodder possi- 
ble, and to put his own trains in good condition for 
further service. 

A Wary Foe. 

Hood's movements and strategy had demonstrated 
that he had an army capable of endangering at all 
times my communications, but unable to meet me in 
open fight. To follow him would simply amount to 
being decoyed away from Georgia, with little prospect 
of overtaking and overwhelming him. To remain on 
the defensive would have been bad policy for an army 
of so great value as the one I then commanded, and I 
was forced to adopt a course more fruitful in results 
than the naked one of following him to the South-west. 
I had previously submitted to the commander-in-chief 
a general plan, which amounted substantially to the 
destruction of Atlanta and the railroad back to Chat- 
tanooga, and, sallying forth from Atlanta through the 
heart of Georgia, to capture one or more of the great 



426 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Atlantic seaports. This I renewed from Gaylesville, 
modified somewhat by the change of events. 

On the 26th of October, satisfied that Hood had 
moved westward from Gadsden across Sand Moun- 
tain, I detached the Fourth corps, Major-General 
Stanley, and ordered him to proceed to Chattanooga 
and report to Major-General Thomas at Nashville. 

Subsequently, on the 30th of October, I also de- 
tached the Twenty-third corps, Major-General Scho- 
field, with the same destination, and delegated to 
Major-General Thomas full power over all the troops 
subject to my command, except the four corps with 
which I designed to move into Georgia. This gave 
him the two divisions under A. J. Smith, then in Mis- 
souri, but eti route for Tennessee, the two corps named, 
and all the garrisons in Tennessee, as also all the 
cavalry of my military division, except one division 
under Brigadier-General Kilpatrick, which was ordered 
to rendezvous at Marietta. 

Defence of the Railroad. 

Brevet Major-General Wilson had arrived from the 
Army of the Potomac to assume command of the 
cavalry of my army, and I despatched him back to 
Nashville with all dismounted detachments, and orders 
as rapidly as possible to collect the cavalry serving in 
Kentucky and Tennessee, to mount, organize, and 
equip them, and to report to Major-General Thomas 
for duty. These forces I judged would enable Gen- 
eral Thomas to defend the railroad from Chattanooga 
back, including Nashville and Decatur, and give him 



MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA. 427 

an army with which he could successfully cope with 
Hood should the latter cross the Tennessee north- 
ward. 

By the ist of November, Hood's army had moved 
from Gadsden, and made its appearance in the neigh- 
borhood of Decatur, where a feint was made ; he then 
passed on to Tuscumbia and laid a pontoon-bridge 
opposite Florence. I then began my preparations for 
the march through Georgia, having received the sanc- 
tion of the commander-in-chief for carrying into effect 
my plan, the details of which were explained to all 
my corps commanders and heads of staff departments, 
with strict injunctions of secrecy. I had also com- 
municated full details to General Thomas, and had 
informed him I would not leave the neighborhood of 
Kingston until he felt perfectly confident that he was 
entirely prepared to cope with Hood should he carry 
into effect his threatened invasion of Tennessee and 
Kentucky. I estimated Hood's force at thirty-five 
thousand infantry and ten thousand cavalry. 

Crippling the Enemy. 

I moved the Army of the Tennessee by slow and 
easy marches on the south of the Coosa back to the 
neighborhood of the Smyrna camp-ground, and the 
Fourteenth corps, General Jeff. C. Davis, to Kingston, 
whither I repaired in persoi. n the 2d of November. 
From that point I directea J.1I surplus artillery, all 
baggage not needed for my contemplated march, all 
the sick and wounded, refugees, etc., to be sent back 
to Chattanooga ; and the Fourteenth corps above- 



428 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

mentioned, with Kilpatrick's cavalry, was put in the 
most efficient condition possible for a long and 
difficult march. This operation consumed the time 
until the nth of November, when, everything being 
ready, I ordered General Corse, who still remained at 
Rome, to destroy the bridges there, all foundries, 
mills, shops, warehouses, or other property that 
could be useful to an enemy, and to move to 
Kinorston. 

At the same time the railroad in and about Atlanta 
and between the Etowah and the Chattahoochee was 
ordered to be utterly destroyed. The garrisons from 
Kingston northward were also ordered to draw back 
to Chattanooga, taking with them all public property 
and all railroad stock, and to take up the rails from 
Resaca back, saving them, ready to be replaced 
whenever future interests should demand. 

The railroad between the Etowah and the Oosta- 
naula was left untouched, because I thought it more 
than probable that we would find it necessary to 
reoccupy the country as far forward as the line of the 
.Etowah. 

Atlanta itself Is only of strategic value as long as it 
is a railroad-centre ; and as all the railroads leading 
to it are destroyed, as well as all its foundries,, 
machine-shops, warehouses, depots, etc., etc., It is of 
no more value than any other point In Northern 
Georgia ; whereas the line of the Etowah, by reason 
of its rivers and natural features, possesses an im- 
portance which will always continue. From it all 



MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA. 429 

parts of Georgia and Alabama can be reached by 
armies marching with trains down the Coosa or the 
Chattahoochee Valley. 

All Coniniunication Cut Off, 

On the 1 2th of November my army stood detached 
and cut off from all communication with the rear. It 
was composed of four corps : the Fifteenth and Seven- 
teenth, constituting the right wing, under Major-Gen- 
eral O. O, Howard ; the Fourteenth and Twentieth 
corps, constituting the left wing, under Major-General 
H. W. Slocum — of an aggregate strength of sixty 
thousand infantry ; one cavalry division, in aggregate 
strength five thousand five hundred, under Brigadier- 
General Judson Kilpatrick; and the artillery reduced 
to the minimum, one gun per one thousand men. 

The whole force was moved rapidly, and grouped 
about Atlanta on the 14th of November. 

In the mean time, Captain O. M. Poe had thoroughly 
destroyed Atlanta, save its mere dwelling-houses and 
churches, and the right wing, with General Kilpat- 
rick's cavalry, was put in motion in the direction of 
Jonesboro and McDonough, with orders to make a 
strong feint on Macon, to cross the Ocmulgee about 
Planters' Mills, and rendezvous in the neighborhood 
of Gordon in seven days, exclusive of the day of 
march. On the same day General Slocum moved 
with the Twentieth corps by Decatur and Stone 
Mountain, with orders to tear up the railroad from 
Social Circle to Madison, to burn the large and im- 
portant railroad-bridge across the Oconee, east of 



480 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Madison, and turn south and reach Milledgeville on 
the seventh day, exclusive of the day of march. In 
person I left Atlanta on the i6th, in company with 
the Fourteenth corps, Brevet Major-General Jeff. C. 
Davis, by Lithonia, Covington, and Shady Dale, 
directly on Milledgeville. All the troops were pro- 
vided with good wagon-trains loaded with ammunition 
and supplies, approximating twenty days' bread, forty 
days' sugar and coffee, a double allowance of salt for 
forty days, and beef cattle equal to forty days' sup- 
plies. The wagons were also supplied with about 
three days' forage in grain. All were instructed by 
a judicious system of foraging to maintain this order 
of things as long as possible, living chiefly if not 
solely upon the country, which I knew to abound in 
corn, sweet potatoes, and meats. 

Atlanta Doomed. 

My first object was of course to place my army in 
the very heart of Georgia, interposing between Macon 
and Augusta, and obliging the enemy to divide his 
forces to defend not only those points, but Millen, 
Savannah, and Charleston. All my calculations were 
fully realized. During the 2 2d, General Kilpatrick 
made a good feint on Macon, driving the enemy 
within his intrenchments, and then drew back to 
Griswoldville, where Walcutt's brigade of infantry 
joined him to cover that flank, while Howard's trains 
were closing up and his men scattered breaking up 
railroads. The enemy came out of Macon and at- 
tacked Walcutt in position, but was so roughly 



MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA. 431 

handled that he never repeated the experiment. On 
the eighth day after leaving Atlanta — namely, on the 
23d — General Slocum occupied Milledgeville and the 
important bridge across the Oconee there, and Gen- 
erals Howard and Kilpatrick were in and about 
Gordon. 

RescuiH§r Prisoners. 

General Howard was then ordered to move east- 
ward, destroying the railroad thoroughly in his 
progress, as far as Tennille Station, opposite Sanders- 
Wile, and General Slocum to move to Sandersville by 
two roads. General Kilpatrick was ordered to Mil- 
ledgeville and thence move rapidly eastward to 
break the railroad which leads from Millen to 
Augusta, then to turn upon Millen and rescue our 
prisoners of war supposed to be confined at that 
place. 

I accompanied the Twentieth corps from Milledge- 
ville to Sandersville, approaching which place on the 
25th we found the bridges across Buffalo Creek 
burned, which delayed us three hours. The next day 
we entered Sandersville, skirmishing with Wheeler's 
cavalry, which offered little opposition to the advance 
of the Twentieth and Fourteenth corps, entering the 
place almost at the same moment. 

General Slocum was then ordered to tear up and 
destroy the Georgia Central railroad from Station 13 
(Tennille) to Station lo, near the crossing of the 
Ogeechee, one of his corps substantially following the 
railroad, the other by way of Louisville, in support of 



432 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Kilpatrick*s cavalry. In person I shifted to the right 
wing, and accompanied the Seventeenth corps, Gen- 
eral Blair, on the south of the railroad till abreast of 
Station 9^ (Barton) — General Howard in person, 
with the Fifteenth corps, keeping farther to the right 
and about one day's march ahead, ready to turn 
against the flank of any enemy who should oppose 
our progress. 

Gallant Kilpatrick, 
At Barton I learned that Kilpatrick's cavalry had 
reached the Augusta railroad about Waynesboro, 
where he ascertained that our prisoners had been 
removed from Millen, and therefore the purpose of 
rescuing them, upon which we had set our hearts, was 
an impossibility. But as Wheeler's cavalry had hung 
around him, and as he had retired to Louisville to 
meet our infantry, in pursuance of my instructions not 
to risk battle unless at great advantage, I ordered 
him to leave his wagons and all encumbrances with 
the left wing, and, moving in the direction of Augusta 
if Wheeler gave him an opportunity, to indulge him 
with all the fighting he wanted. General Kilpatrick, 
supported by Baird's division of infantry of the Four- 
teenth corps, again moved in the direction of Waynes 
boro, and, encountering Wheeler in the neighborhood 
of Thomas's Station, attacked him in position, driving 
him from three successive lines of barricades hand- 
somely through Waynesboro and across Brier Creek, 
the bridges over which he burned, and then, with 
Baird's division, rejoined the left wing, which in the 



434 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

mean time had been marching by easy stages of ten 
miles a day in the direction of Lumpkin's Station and 
Jacksonboro. 

The Seventeenth corps took up the destruction of 
the railroad at the Ogeechee near Station lo, and 
continued it to Millen, the enemy offering little or no 
opposition, although preparations had seemingly been 
made at Millen. 

On the 3d of December the Seventeenth corps, 
which I accompanied, was at Millen ; the Fifteenth 
corps, General Howard, was south of the Ogeechee, 
opposite Station 7 (Scarboro) ; the Twentieth corps, 
General Slocum, on the Augusta railroad, about four 
miles north of Millen, near Buckhead Church ; and 
the Fourteenth corps, General Jeff. C. Davis, in the 
neighborhood of Lumpkin's Station, on the Augusta 
railroad. 

Aiming for Savannah. 

All were ordered to march in the direction of 
Savannah, the Fifteenth corps to continue south of 
the Ogeechee, the Seventeenth to destroy the railroad 
as far as Ogeechee Church ; and four days were 
allowed to reach the line from Ogeechee Church to 
the neighborhood of Halley's Ferry on the Savannah 
River. All the columns reached their destination on 
time, and continued to march on their several roads — 
General Davis following the Savannah River road. 
General Slocum the middle road by way of Spring- 
field, General Blair the railroad, and General Howard 
still south and west of the Ogeechee, with orders to 



MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA. 43ji 

cross to the east bank opposite " Eden Station," or 
Station No. 2. 

As we approached Savannah the country became 
more marshy and difficult, and more obstructions 
were met in the way of felled trees where the roads 
crossed the creek-swamps on narrow causeways. 
But our pioneer companies were well organized, and 
removed these obstructions in an incredibly short 
time. No opposition from the enemy worth speak- 
ing of was encountered until the heads of the columns 
were within fifteen miles of Savannah, where all the 
roads leading to the city were obstructed more or less 
by felled timber, with earthworks and artillery. But 
these were easily turned and the enemy driven away, 
so that by the loth of December the enemy was 
driven within his lines at Savannah. These followed 
substantially a swampy creek which empties into the 
Savannah River about three miles above the city 
across to the head of a corresponding stream which 
empties into the Little Ogeechee. 

The City Invested. 

These streams were singularly favorable to the 
enemy as a cover, being very marshy and bordered 
by rice-fields, which were flooded either by the tide- 
water or by inland ponds, the gates to which were 
controlled and covered by his heavy artillery. The 
only approaches to the city were by five narrow cause- 
ways — namely, the two railroads, and the Augusta, 
the Louisville, and the Ogeechee dirt roads — all of 
which were commanded by heavy ordnance, too 



436 GENERAL SHERMAN, 

Strong for us to fight with our Hght field-guns. To 
assault an enemy of unknown strength at such a dis- 
advantage appeared to me unwise, especially as I had 
so successfully brought my army, almost unscathed, 
so great a distance, and could surely attain the same 
result by the operation of time. 

I therefore instructed my army commanders to 
closely invest the city from the north and west, and 
to reconnoitre well the ground in their fronts respect- 
ively, while I gave my personal attention to open- 
ing communication with our fleet, which I knew was 
waiting for us in Tybee, Wassaw, and Ossabaw 
sounds. 

In approaching Savannah, General Slocum struck 
the Charleston railroad near the bridge, and occupied 
the river-bank as his left flank, where he had captured 
two of the enemy's river-boats, and had prevented 
two others (gunboats) from coming down the river to 
communicate with the city ; while General Howard, 
by his right flank, had broken the Gulf railroad at 
Fleming's and Way Station, and occupied the railroad 
itself down to the Little Ogeechee near Station i, so 
that no supplies could reach Savannah by any of its 
accustomed channels. 

Ample Supplies. 

We, on the contrary, possessed large herds of 
cattle, which we had brought alono- or orathered in 
the country, and our wagons still contained a reason- 
able amount of breadstuffs and other necessaries, and 
the fine rice-crops of the Savannah and Ogeechee 



MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA. 437 

fivers furnished to our men and animals a large 
amount of rice and rice-straw. 

We also held the country to the south and west of 
the Ogeechee as fo raging-ground. 

Still, communication with the fleet was of vital im-^ 
portance, and I directed General Kilpatrick to cross 
the Ogeechee by a pontoon-bridge, to reconnoitre 
Fort McAllister, and to proceed to St. Catharine's 
Sound in the direction of Sunbury or Kilkenny Bluff, 
and open communication with the fleet. General 
Howard had previously, by my direction, sent one 
of his best scouts down the Ogeechee in a canoe for 
a like purpose. But more than this was necessary. 
We wanted the vessels and their contents, and the 
Ogeechee River, a navigable stream close to the rear 
of our camps, was the proper avenue of supply. 

Quick Work. 

The enemy had burned the road-bridge across the 
Ogeechee, just below the mouth of the Camochee, 
known as " Kino^'s Bridore." This was reconstructed 
in an incredibly short time in the most substantial 
manner by the First Missouri Reserves, Fifteenth 
corps, under the direction of Captain Reese of the 
Engineer Corps, and on the morning of the 13th 
December the second division of the Fifteenth corps, 
under command of Brig-adler-General Hazen, crossed 
the bridge to the west bank of the Ogeechee, and 
marched down with orders to carry by assault Fort 
McAllister, a strong inclosed redoubt manned by two 
companies of artillery and three of infantry, in all 



438 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

about two hundred men, and mounting twenty-three 
guns en bai^bette and one mortar. 

General Hazen reached the vincinity of Fort Mc- 
Allister about one p. m., deployed his division about 
the place, with both flanks resting upon the river, 
posted his skirmishers judiciously behind the trunks 
of trees whose branches had been used for abattis, 
and about five p. m. assaulted the place with nine 
regiments at three points, all of them successfully. 
I witnessed the assault from a rice-mill on the oppo- 
site bank of the river, and can bear testimony to the 
handsome manner in which it was accomplished. 

Up to this time we had not communicated with our 
fleet. From the signal-station at the rice-mill our 
officers had looked for two days over the rice-fields 
and salt marsh in the direction of Ossabaw Sound, 
but could see nothing of it. But while watching the 
preparations for the assault on Fort McAllister we 
discovered in the distance what seemed to be the 
smoke-stack of a steamer, which became more and 
more distinct, until at about the very moment of the 
assault she was plainly visible below the fort, and our 
signal was answered. 

At the Fort. 

As soon as I saw our colors fairly planted upon 
the walls of McAllister, in company with General 
Howard, 1 went in a small boat down to the fort, and 
met General Hazen, who had not yet communicated 
with the gunboat below, as it was shut out to him by 
a point of timber. Determmed to communicate that 



MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA. 439 

night, I got another small boat and a crew, and pulled 
down the river till I found the tug Dandelion, Captain 
Williamson, U. S. N., who informed me that Captain 
Duncan, who had been sent by General Howard, had 
succeeded in reaching Admiral Dahlgren and General 
Foster, and that he was expecting them hourly in 
Ossabaw Sound. After making communications to 
those officers and a short communication to the War 
Department, I returned to Fort McAllister that night, 
and before daylight was overtaken by Major Strong 
of General Foster's staff, advising me that General 
Foster had arrived in the Ogeechee near Fort Mc- 
Allister, and was very anxious to meet me on board 
his boat. I accordingly returned with him, and met 
General Foster on board the steamer Nemaha, and, 
after consultation, determined to proceed with him 
down the sound, in hopes to meet Admiral Dahlgren. 
But we did not meet him until we reached Wassaw 
Sound, about noon. I there went on board the 
admiral's flag-ship, the Harvest Moon, after having 
arranged with General Foster to send us from Hilton 
Head some siege ordnance and some boats suitable 
for navigating the Ogeechee River. 

Admiral Dahlgren very kindly furnished me with 
all the data concerning his fleet and the numerous 
forts that guarded the inland channels between the 
sea and Savannah. I explained to him how com- 
pletely Savannah was invested at all points save only 
the plank-road on the South Carolina shore, known 
as the " Union Causeway," which I thought I could 



440 GENERAL SHERMAi. 

reach froR. my left flank across the Savannah River 
I explained to him that if he would simply engage the 
attention of the forts along Wilmington Channel at 
Beaulieu and Rosedew, I thought I could carry the 
defences of Savannah by assault as soon as the heavy 
ordnance arrived from Hilton Head. 

On the 15th the admiral carried me back to Fort 
McAllister, whence I returned to our lines in the rear 
of Savannah. 

Surrender Refused. 

Having received and carefully considered all the 
reports of division commanders, I determined to 
assault the lines of the enemy as soon as my heavy 
ordnance came from Port Royal, first making a formal 
demand for surrender. On the 17th a number of 
thirty-pounder Parrott guns having reached King's 
Bridge, I proceeded in person to the headquarters 
of Major-General Slocum on the Augusta road, and 
despatched thence into Savannah, by flag of truce, 
a formal demand for the surrender of the place, and 
on the following day received an answer from Gen- 
eral Hardee, refusing to surrender. 

In the mean time, further reconnoissances from our 
left flank had demonstrated that it was impracticable 
or unwise to push any considerable force across the 
Savannah River, for the enemy held the river oppo- 
site the city with iron-clad gunboats, and could destroy 
any pontoons laid down by us between Hutchinson's 
Island and the South Carolina shore, which would 
isolate any force sent over from that flank. 



MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA. 441 

I therefore ordered General Slocum to get into 
position the siege-guns and make all the preparations 
necessary to assault, and to report to me the earliest 
moment when he could be ready, while I should pro- 
ceed rapidly round by the right and make arrange- 
ments to occupy the Union causeway from the direc- 
tion of Port Royal. General Foster had already 
established a division of troops on the peninsula or 
neck between the Coosahatchie and Tullifinney rivers, 
at the head of Broad River, from which position he 
could reach the railroad with his artillery. 

Preparing for an Assault. 

I went to Port Royal in person and made arrange- 
ments to reinforce that command by one or more 
divisions under a proper officer, to assault and carry 
the railroad, and thence turn toward Savannah until 
it occupied the causeway in question. I went on 
board the admiral's flag-ship, the Harvest Moon, 
which put to sea the night of the 20th. But the wind 
was high and Increased during the night, so that the 
pilot judged Ossabaw Bar impassable, and ran into 
Tybee, whence we proceeded through the inland 
channels into Wassaw Sound, and thence through 
Romney Marsh. But the ebb-tide caught the Harvest 
Moon, and she was unable to make the passage. 
Admiral Dahlgren took me In his barge, and, pulling 
in the direction of Vernon River, we met the army- 
tug Red Legs, bearing a message from my adjutant, 
Captain Dayton, of that morning, the 21st, to the 
effect that our troops were In possession of the 



442 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

enemy's lines, and were advancing without opposi- 
tion into Savannah, the c ntmy having evacuated the 
place during the previous niglu. 

Admiral Dahlgren proceeded up the Vernon River 
in his barge, while I transferred to the tug, in which I 
proceeded to Fort McAhister, and thence to the rice- 
mill, and on the morning of the 2 2d rode into the city 
of Savannah, already occupied by our troops. 

Hardee Escapes. 

I was very much disappointed that Hardee had 
escaped with his garrison, and had to content myself 
with the material fruits of victory without the cost of 
hfe which would have attended a general assault. The 
substantial results will be more clearly set forth in the 
tabular statements of heavy ordnance and other 
pubHc property acquired, and it will suffice here to 
state that the important city of Savannah, with its 
valuable harbor and river, was the chief object of the 
campaign. 

With it we acquired all the forts and heavy ordnance 
,n its vicinity, with large stores of ammunition, shot 
^nd shells, cotton, rice, and other valuable products 
of the country. We also gain locomotives and cars, 
which, though of little use to us in the present condi- 
tion of the railroads, are a serious loss to the enemy, 
as well as four steamboats gained, and the loss to the 
enemy of the iron-clad Savannah, one ram, and three 
transports blown up or burned by them the night 
before. 

Formal demand havlnor been made for the surren- 



MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA. 



443 



der, and having been refused, I contend that every- 
thing within the line of intrenchments belongs to the 
Unired States, and I shall not hesitate to use it, if 
necessary, for public purposes. But, inasmuch as the 




SAVANNAH, GEORGIA. 



inhabitants generally have manifested a friendly dis- 
position, I shall disturb them as little as possible con- 
sistently with the military rights of present and future 
military commanders, without remitting in the least 
our just rights as captors. 



^44 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Our Army in Savannah. 

After having made the necessary orders for the 
disposition of the troops in and about Savannah, I 
ordered Captain O. M. Poe, chief engineer, to make 
a thorough examination of the enemy's works in and 
about Savannah, with a view to makinor it conform to 
our future uses. New Hnes of defences will be built, 
embracing the city proper, Forts Jackson, Thunder- 
bolt, and Pulaski retained, with slight modifications in 
;heir armament and rear defences. All the rest of 
the enemy's forts will be dismantled and destroyed, 
and their heavy ordnance transferred to Hilton Head, 
where it can be more easily guarded. 

Our base of supplies will be established in Savannah 
as soon as the very difficult obstructions placed in the 
river can be partially removed. These obstructions 
at present offer a very serious impediment to the 
commerce of Savannah, consisting of cribwork of logs 
and timber heavily bolted together and filled with the 
cobble-stones which formerly paved the streets of 
Savannah. All the channels below the city were found 
more or less filled with torpedos, which have been re- 
moved by order of Admiral Dahlgren, so that Savan- 
nah already fulfils the important part it was designed 
in our plans for the future. 

In thus sketching the course of events connected 
with this campaign, I have purposely passed lightly 
over the march from Atlanta to the seashore, because 
it was made in four or more columns, sometimes at 
a distance of fifteen or twenty miles from each other, 



MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA. 445 

and it was impossible for me to attend but one. I 
would merely sum up the advantages which I conceive 
have accrued to us by this march. 

Fruits of the Grand March. 

Our former labors in North Georgia had demon- 
strated the truth that no large army, carrying with it 
the necessary stores and baggage, can overtake and 
capture an inferior force of the enemy in his own 
country; therefore no alternative was left me but the 
one I adopted — namely, to divide my forces, and with 
the one part act offensively against the enemy's re- 
sources, while with the other I should act defensively 
and invite the enemy to attack, risking the chances of 
batde. 

In this conclusion I have been singularly sustained 
by the results. General Hood, who, as I have here- 
tofore described, had moved to the westward, near 
Tuscumbia, with a view to decoy me away from 
Georgia, finding himself mistaken, was forced to 
choose either to pursue me or to act offensively 
against the other part, left in Tennessee. He accepted 
the latter course, and General Thomas has wisely and 
well fulfilled his part of the grand scheme in drawing 
Hood well up into Tennessee until he could concen- 
trate all his own troops, and then turn upon Hood, as 
he has done, and destroy or fatally cripple his army. 
That part of my army is so far removed from me that 
I leave, with perfect confidence, it management and 
history to General Thomas. 

1 was thereby left with a well-appointed army to 



^6 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

sever the enemy's only remaining railroad communi- 
cations eastward and westward for over one hundred 
miles — -namely, the Georgia State railroad, which is 
broken up from Falrburn Station to Madison and the 
Oconee, and the Central railroad from Gordon clear 
to Savannah, with numerous breaks on the latter road 
from Gordon to Eatonton and from Millen to Augusta, 
and the Savannah and Gulf railroad. We have also 
consumed the corn and fodder In the region of country 
thirty miles on either side of a line from Atlanta to 
Savannah, as also the sweet potatoes, cattle, hogs, 
sheep, and poultry, and have carried away more than 
ten thousand horses and mules, as well as a countless 
number of their slaves. I estimate the damage done 
to the State of Georgia and its military resources at 
one hundred millions of dollars, at least twenty mil- 
lions of which has Inured to our advantage, and the 
remainder is simple waste and destruction. This may 
seem a harsh species of warfare, but it brings the sad 
realities of war home to those who have been directly 
or indirectly instrumental in involving us in its attend- 
ant calamities. 

The campaign iias also placed this branch of my 
army in a position from which other great military re- 
sults may be attempted, besides leaving in Tennessee 
and North Alabama a force which is amply sufficient 
to meet all the chances of war in that region of our 
country. 

Since the capture of Atlanta my staff is unchanged, 
save that General Barry, chief of artillery, has been 



MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA. 447 

absent, sick, since our leaving Kingston. Surgeon 
Moore, United States army, is chief medical director, 
in place of Surgeon Kittoe, relieved to resume his 
proper duties as a medical inspector. 

Major Hitchcock, A. A. G., has also been added to 
my staff, and has been of great assistance in the field 
and office. 

Captain Dayton still remains as my adjutant-gen- 
eral. All have, as formerly, fulfilled their parts to my 
entire satisfaction. 

A Splendid Army. 

In the body of my army I feel a just pride. Gen- 
erals Howard and Slocum are gentlemen of singular 
capacity and intelligence, thorough soldiers and 
patriots, working day and night, not for themselves, 
but for their country and their men. 

General Kilpatrick, who commanded the cavalry of 
this army, has handled it with spirit and dash to my 
entire satisfaction, and kept a superior force of the 
enemy's cavalry from even approaching our infantry 
columns or wagon-trains. His report is full and 
graphic. All the division and brigade commanders 
merit my personal and official thanks, and I shall spare 
no efforts to secure them commissions equal to the 
rank they have exercised so well. As to the rank 
and file, they seem so full of confidence in themselves 
that I doubt if they want a compliment from me ; but 
I must do them the justice to say that, whether called 
on to fight, to march, to wade streams, to make roads, 
clear out obstructions, build bridges, make " corduroy," 



448 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

or tear up railroads, they have done it with alacrity and 
a degree of cheerfulness unsurpassed. A litde loose 
in foraging, they " did some things they ought not to 
have done," yet, on the whole, they have supplied the 
wants of the army with as little violence as could be ex- 
pected and as litde loss as I calculated. Some of these 
foraging-parties had encounters with the enemy which 
would in ordinary times rank as respectable battles. 

The behavior of our troops in Savannah has been 
so manly, so quiet, so perfect, that I take it as the best 
evidence of discipline and true courage. Never was 
a hostile city, filled with women and children, occupied 
by a large army with less disorder, or more system, 
order, and good government. The same general and 
generous spirit of confidence and good feeling pervades 
the army which it has ever afforded me especial pleas- 
ure to report on former occasions. 

I avail myself of this occasion to express my heart- 
felt thanks to Admiral Dahlgren and the officers and 
men of his fleet, as also to General Foster and his 
command, for the hearty welcome given us on our 
arrival at the coast, and for their ready and prompt 
co-operation in all measures tending to the result 
accomplished. 

Your obedient servant, 

W. T. Sherman, ]\faj or- General, 

President Lincoln's Christmas Present. 

When Savannah was evacuated General Sherman 
sent this brief message to President Lincoln : 

"I beg to present to you as a Christmas gift the 



MAKCHING THKOUGH GEORGIA. 449 

city of Savannah, with one hundred and fifty heavy 
guns, plenty of anniiunition, and twenty-five thousand 
bales of cotton." 

To which the President responded: 

"Many, many thanks for your Christmas gift — the 
capture of Savannah. When you were about to leave 
Atlanta for the Atlantic coast, I was anxious, if not fear- 
ful ; but feeling that you were the better judge, and' 
remembering that ' nothing risked, nothing gained,* 
I did not interfere. Now, the undertaking being a 
success, the honor is all yours, for I believe none of us 
went farther then to acquiesce. And, taking the work 
of General Thomas into account, as it should be taken, 
it is indeed a great success. Not only does it afford the 
obvious and immediate military advantages, but in 
showing to the world that your army could be divided, 
putting the stronger part to an important new service^ 
and yet leaving enough to vanquish the old opposing 
forces of the whole — Hood's army — it brings those 
who sat in darkness to see ereat lio-ht. Please make 
my grateful acknowledgments to your whole army, 
officers and men." 

General Sherman is most famous as the hero of the 
** march to the sea," but in military importance that 
movement was of less consequence than his campaigns 
just before and after. To use his own words : " Were 
I to express my measure of the relative importance of 
the march to the sea and of that from Savannah north- 
ward, I should place the former at one and the latter 
at ten or the maximum." 

29 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Brilliant Campaign of the CarolinaSe 

Leaving Savannah, General Sherman moved his 
army northward, and put the finishing strokes upon 
his magnificent achievementr. which were one contin- 
uous series of successes from the time he started on 
his great march toward Atlanta. Following is his 
interesting account of his campaign through the 
Carolinas : 

Headquarters of the Military Division of the Mississippi, ) 
GoLDSBORO, N. C, April 4, 1865. / 

General : I must now endeavor to group the events 
of the past three months connected with the armies 
under my command, in order that you may have as 
clear an understanding of the late campaign as the 
case admits of 

I have heretofore explained how, in the progress 
of our arms, I was enabled to leave in the West an 
army under Major-General George H. Thomas of 
sufificient strength to meet emergencies in that quar- 
ter, while in person I conducted another army, com- 
posed of the Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Seventeenth, and 
Twentieth corps and Kilpatrick's division of cavalry, 
to the Atlantic slope, aiming to approach the grand 
theatre of war in Virginia by the time the season 

450 



CAMPAIGN OF THE CAEOLINAS. 



451 



would admit of military operations In that latitude. 
The first lodgment on the coast was made at Savan- 
nah, strongly fortified and armed, and valuable to us 
as a good seaport, with Its navigable stream Inland. 
Refitting- the Army. 

Nearly a month was consumed there in refitting 
the army and in making the proper disposition of 
captured property and other local matters ; but by the 
15th of January I was all ready to resume the march. 
Preliminary to this, General Howard, commanding the 
right wing, was ordered to em- 
bark his command at Thunder- 
bolt, transport It to Beaufort, 
South Carolina, and thence by 
the 15th of January make a 
lodgment on the Charleston 
railroad at or near Pocotaligo. 
This was accomplished punc- 
tually, at little cost, by the Sev- 
enteenth corps, Major-General 
Blair, and a depot for supplies 
was established near the mouth of Pocotaligo Creek, 
with easy water-communication back to Hilton Head. 

On the 1 8th of January I transferred the forts and 
city of Savannah to Major-General Foster, command- 
ing the Department of the South, imparted to him my 
plans of operation, and Instructed him how to follow 
my movements inland by occupying in succession the 
city of Charleston and such other points along the sea- 
coast as would be of any military value to us. The 




BRIG.-GEN. A. TERRY. 



452 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

combined naval and land forces under Admiral Porter 
and General Terry had, on the 15th of January, cap- 
tured Fort Fisher and the rebel forts at the mouth of 
Cape Fear River, giving me an additional point of se- 
curity on the seacoast. But I had already resolved in 
my own mind, and had so advised General Grant, that 
I would undertake at one stride to make Goldsboro, 
and open communication with the sea by the New- 
bern railroad, and had ordered Colonel W. W. Wright, 
superintendent of military railroads, to proceed in 
advance to Newbern, and to be prepared to extend 
the railroad out from Newbern to Goldsboro by the 
15 th of March. 

** Forward, March ! " 

On the 19th of January all preparations \vere 
complete, and the orders of march w^ere given. 
On the 25th a demonstration was made against the 
Combahee ferry and railroad-bridge across the Sal- 
kahatchie, merely to amuse the enemy, who had 
evidently adopted that river as his defensive line 
against our supposed objective, the city of Charleston. 
I reconnoitred the line in person, and saw that the 
heavy rains had swollen the river, so that water stood 
in the swamps for a breadth of more than a mile at a 
depth of from one to twenty feet 

Not having the remotest intention of approaching 
Charleston, a comparatively small force was able, by 
seeming preparations to cross over, to keep in their 
front a considerable force of the enemy disposed tc 
contest our advance on Charleston. On the 27th I 




MAP SHOWING THE ROUTE OF SHERMAN'S ARMY THROUGH SOUTH CAROUNA. 



454 GENERAL GERMAN. 

rode to the camp of General Hatch's division of 
Foster's command, on the Tullifinney and Coosa- 
hatchie rivers, and directed those places to be evacu- 
ated, as no longer of any use to us. That division 
was then moved to Pocotaligo to keep up the feints 
already begun, until we should, with the right wing, 
move higher up and cross the Salkahatchie about 
River's or Broxton's Bridge. 

The Seventeenth and Fifteenth corps drew out of 
camp on the 31st of January, but the real march 
began on the ist of February. All the roads north- 
ward had for weeks been held by Wheeler's cavalry, 
who had, by details of negro laborers, felled trees, 
burned bridges, and made obstructions to impede our 
march. But so well organized were our pioneer bat- 
talions, and so strong and intelligent our men, that 
obstructions seemed only to quicken their progress. 
Felled trees were removed and bridges rebuilt by the 
heads of columns before the rear could close up. 

Driving- the Enemy. 

On the 1 2th the Seventeenth corps found the enemy 
intrenched in front of the Orangeburg bridge, but 
swept him away by a dash, and followed him, forcing 
him across the bridge, which was partially burned. 
Behind the bridge was a battery in position, covered 
by a cotton and earth rampart, with wings as far as 
could be seen. General Blair held one division (Giles 
A. Smith's) close up to the Edisto, and moved the 
other two to a point about two miles below, where 
\ie crossed Force's division by a pontoon-bridge, hold- 



CfAMPAlGN OF THE CAKOLINAS. 455 

ing Mowc/*s in support. As soon as Force emerged 
from the swamp the enemy gave ground, and Giles 
Smith's division gained the bridge, crossed over, and 
occupied the enemy's parapet. He soon repaired 
the bridge, and by four p. m. the whole corps was in 
Orangeburg, and had begun the work of destruction 
on the railroad. Blair was ordered to destroy this 
railroad effectually up to Lewisville, and to push the 
enemy across the Congaree and force him to burn the 
bridges, which he did on the 14th; and without wast- 
ing time or labor on Branchville or Charleston, which 
I knew the enemy could no longer hold, I turned all 
the columns straight on Columbia 

Early on the morning of February i6th the head 
of the column reached the bank of the Congaree op- 
posite Columbia, but too late to save the fine bridge 
which spanned the river at that point. It was burned 
by the enemy. While waiting for the pontoons to 
come to the front we could see people running about 
the streets of Columbia, and occasionally small bodies 
of cavalry, but no masses. A single gun of Captain 
De Grass's battery was firing at their cavalry squads, 
but I checked his firing, limiting him to a few shots at 
the unfinished State-house walls and a few shells at 
the railroad depot, to scatter the people who were 
seen carrying away sacks of corn and meal that we 
needed. There was no white flag or manifestation 
of surrender. I directed General Howard not to 
cross directly in front of Columbia, but to cross the 
Saluda at the factory, three miles above, and after- 



456 GENERAL SilERMAN. 

ward Broad River, so as to approach Columbia from 
the nordi. Within an hour of the arrival of Gen- 
eral Howard's head of column at the river opposite 
Columbia the head of column of the left wing also 
appeared. 

Capture of Columbia. 

In anticipation of the occupation of the city, I had 
made written orders to General Howard touching the 
conduct of the troops. These were to destroy abso- 
lutely all arsenals and public property not needed 
for our own use, as well as all railroads, depots, and 
machinery useful in war to an enemy, but to spare all 
dwellings, colleges, schools, asylums, and harmless 
private property. I was the first to cross the pontoon - 
bridge, and in company with General Howard rode 
into the city. The day was clear, but a perfect tem- 
pest of wind was raging. The brigade of Colonel 
Stone was already in the city, and was properly 
posted. Citizens and soldiers were on the streets 
and general good order prevailed. 

General Wade Hampton, who commanded the Con- 
federate rear-guard of cavalry, had, in anticipation of 
our capture of Columbia, ordered that all cotton, 
public and private, should be moved Into the streets 
(and fired, to prevent our making use of It. Bales 
were piled everywhere, the rope and bagging cut, and 
tufts of coti:on were blown about In the wind, lodged 
in the trers and against houses, so as to resemble a 
snow-storm. Some of these piles of cotton were burn- 
ing, especially one In the very heart of the city near 




CHARLESTON HARBOR AND ITS APPROACHES, SHOWING FORTS SUMTER ANA» 
WAGNER. JAMES ISLAND. Etc., Etc. 

457 



45S GENERAL SHEKMAN. 

the court-house, but the fi.re was partially subdued by 
the labor of our soldiers. During the day, the Fit- 
teenth corps passed through Columbia and out on the 
Camden road. The Seventeenth did not enter the 
town at all, and the left wing and cavalry did not 
come within ten miles of the town. 

Before one single public building had been fired by 
order, the smouldering fires set by Hampton's order 
were rekindled by the wind and communicated to the 
Ouiidings around. About dark they began to spread, 
-nd got beyond the control of the brigade on duty 
within the city. The whole of Wood's division was 
brought in, but it was found impossible to check the 
flames, which by midnight had become unmanageable, 
and raged until about four a. m., when, the wind sub- 
siding, they were got under control. 

The Town Fired by Confederates. 

I was up nearly all night, and saw Generals How- 
ard, Logan, Wood, and others laboring to save houses 
and to protect families thus suddenly deprived of 
"helter and of bedding and wearing apparel. I dis- 
claim on the part of my army any agency in this fire, 
but, on the contrary, claim that we saved what of Co- 
lumbia remains unconsumed. And, without hesitation, 
I charge General Wade Hampton with having burned 
his own city of Columbia, not with a malicious intent 
or as the manifestation of a silly " Roman stoicism," 
out from folly and want of sense In filling It with lint, 
cotton, and tinder. Our officers and men on duty 
worked well to extinguish the flames; but others not 




MAP SHOWING THE ENTRANCE TO CAPE FEAR RIVER AND APPROACHES 
TO WILMINGTON. N. C. 

459 



460 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

on duty, including the officers who had long been 
imprisoned there, rescued by us, may have assisted 
in spreading the fire after it had once begun, and may 
have indulged in unconcealed joy to see the ruin of 
the capital of South Carolina. During the i8th and 
igth the arsenal, railroad depots, machine-shops, 
foundries, and other buildings were properly de- 
stroyed by detailed working-parties, and the railroad 
track torn up and destroyed to Kingsville and the 
Wateree bridge and up in the direction of Winnsboro. 
Without unnecessary delay the columns were again 
put in motion, directed on Fayetteville, North Carolina, 
the right wing crossing the Pedee at Cheraw and the 
left wing and cavalry at Sneedsboro. General Kil- 
patrick was ordered to keep well on the left flank, and 
the Fourteenth corps, moving by Love's Bridge, was 
given the right to enter and occupy Fayetteville first 
The weather continued unfavorable and the roads bad, 
but the Fourteenth and Seventeenth corps reached 
Fayetteville on the 1 1 th of March, skirmishing with 
Wade Hampton's cavalry, that covered the rear of 
Hardee's retreating army, which, as usual, had crossed 
Cape Fear River, burning the bridge. During the 
march from the Pedee, General Kilpatrick had kept 
Ais cavalry well on the left and exposed flank. 

Hampton's Sudden Attack. 

During the night of the 9th March his three brigades 
were divided to picket the roads. General Hampton, 
detecting this, dashed in at daylight and gained pos- 
session of the camp of Colonel Spencer's brigade and 



OAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS. 461 

itx^ house In which General Kilpatrlck and Colonel 
Spe-ricer had their quarters. The surprise was com- 
plete, but General Kilpatrlck quickly succeeded in 
rallying his men on foot in a swamp near by, and, 
by a prompt attack, well followed up, regained his 
artillery, horses, camp, and everything, save some 
prisoners whom the enemy carried off, leaving their 
dead on the grround. 

The lith, 13th, and 14th were passed at Fayette- 
ville, destroying absolutely the United States arsenal 
and the vast amount of machinery which had formerly 
belonged to the old Harper's Ferry United States 
arsenal. Every building was knocked down and 
burned, and every piece of machinery utterly broken 
up and nained, by the First regiment Michigan En- 
gineers, under the immediate supervision of Colonel 
O. M. Pof^ chief engineer. Much valuable property 
of great use to an enemy was here destroyed or cast 
into the river. 

Up to this period I had perfecdy succeeded In Inter- 
posing my superior army between the scattered parts 
of my enemy. But I was then aware that the frag- 
ments that had left Columbia under Beauregard had 
been reinforced by Cheatham's corps from the West 
and the garrison of Augusta, and that ample time had' 
been given to move them to my front and flank about 
Raleigh. Hardee had also succeeded in getting across 
Cape Fear River ahead of me, and could therefore 
complete the junction with the other armies of John- 
ston and Hoke in North Carolina. 



462 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Johnston in Front. 

And the whole, under the command of the skilful 
and experienced Joe Johnston, made up an army su- 
perior to me in cavalry, and formidable enough in 
artillery and infantry to justify me in extreme caution 
in making the last step necessary to complete the 
march I had undertaken. Previous to reaching Fay- 
etteville, I had despatched to Wilmington from Laurel 
Hill Church two of our best scouts with intelligence of 
our position and my general plans. Both of these 
messengers reached Wilmington, and on the morning 
of the 1 2th of March the army-tug Davidson, Captain 
Ainsworth, reached Fayetteville from Wilmington, 
bringing me full intelligence of events from the outer 
world. 

All the signs induced me to believe that the ene 
my would make no further opposition to our prog- 
ress, and would not attempt to strike us in flank 
while in motion. I therefore directed Howard to 
move his right wing by the new Goldsboro road, which 
goes by way of Falling Creek Church. I also left 
Slocum and joined Howard's column, with a view to 
open communications with General Schofield, coming 
up from Newbern, and Terry from Wilmington. By 
subsequent reports I learned that General Slocum's 
head of column had advanced from its camp of March 
i8th, and first encountered Dibbrell's cavalry, but 
soon found its progress impeded by infantry and ar- 
tillery. The enemy attacked his head of column, 
gaining a temporary advantage, and took three guns 



CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS. 463 

and caissons of General Carlin's division, driving the 
two leading brigades back on the main body. As 
soon as General Slocum realized that he had in his 
front the whole Confederate army, he promptly de- 
ployed the two divisions of the Fourteenth corps, 
General Davis, and rapidly brought up on their lefr 
the two divisions of the Twentieth corps, General 
Williams. These he arranged on the defensive, and 
hastily prepared a line of barricades. General Kil- 
patrick also came up at the sound of artillery and 
massed on the left. In this position the left wing re- 
ceived six distinct assaults by the combined forces of 
Hoke, Hardee, and Cheatham, under the immediate 
command of General Johnston himself, without giving 
an inch of ground, and doing good execution on the 
enemy's ranks, especially with our artillery, the enemy 
having little or none. 

Johnston's Rapid Move. 

Johnston had moved by night from Smithfield with 
great rapidity and without unnecessary wheels. Intend- 
ing to overwhelm my left flank before It could be 
relieved by its co-operating columns. But he " reck- 
oned without his host." I had expected just such a 
movement all the way from Fayetteville, and was pre- 
pared for it. By four p. m. of the 20th a complete 
and strong line of battle confronted the enemy in his 
intrenched position, and General Johnston, instead of 
catching us in detail, was on tlie defensive, with Mill 
Creek and a single bridge to his rear. Nevertheless, 
we had no object to accomplish by a battle, unless at 



4(34 



tJENERAL SHERMAN. 



an advantage, and therefore my general Instructions 
were to press steadily with skirmishers alone, to use 
artllleiy pretty strongly on the wooded space held by 
the er.erny, and to feel pretty strongly the flanks of 
his position, which were, as usual, covered by the end- 
less swamps of this region of country. 

Thus matters stood about Bentonville on the 21st 
of March. On the same day General Schofield en- 
tered Goldsboro with litde or no opposidon, and Gen^ 

eral Terry had got possession 
of the Neuse River at Cox's 
Bridge, ten miles above, with 
a pontoon-bridge laid and a 
brigade across ; so that the 
three armies were in actual 
connection, and the great ob- 
ject of the campaign was 
accomplished. 

On the 2ist a steady rain 
prevailed, during which Gen- 
eral Mower's division of the Seventeenth corps, on 
the extreme right, had worked well to the right around 
the enemy's flank, and had nearly reached the bridge 
across Mill Creek, the only line of retreat open to the 
enemy. Of course there was extreme danger that 
the enemy would turn on him all his reserves, and, It 
might be, let go his parapets to overwhelm Mower. 
Accordingly, I ordered at once a general attack by 
our skirmish-line from left to right. 

Quite a noisy batde ensued, during which General 




6RIG.-GENERAL SCHOFIELD. 




CAMPAIGN OF THE CAEOLINAS. AQb 

Mower was enabled to regain his connection with his 

own corps by moving to his left rear. Still, he had 

developed a weakness in the enemy's position of which 

advantage might have been 

taken ; but that night the 

enemy retreated on Smithfield, 

leaving his pickets to fall into 

our hands, with many dead 

unburied, and wounded in his 

field hospitals. At daybreak 

of rhe 2 2d pursuit was made 

two miles beyond Mill Creek, 

, 1111 1 MAJOR-GENERAL E. O. OR* 

but checked by my order. 

General Johnston had utterly failed in his attempt. 

and we remained in full possession of the field of 

batde. 

General Slocum reports the losses of the left wing 
about Bentonville at 9 officers and 145 men killed, 51 
officers and 816 men wounded, and 3 officers and 223 
men missing, taken prisoners by the enemy; total, 
1247. He buried on the field 167 rebel dead and 
took 2f3^ prisoners. 

General Howard reports the losses of the right 
wing at 2 officers and 35 men killed, 12 officers and 
289 men wounded, and i officer and 60 men missing; 
total, 399. He also buried 100 rebel dead and took 
1287 prisoners. 

The cavalry of Kilpatrick was held in reserve, ajid 
lost but few, if any, of which I have no report as yet 
Our aggregate loss at Bentonville was 1646 

30 



466 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

It was all-important that I should have an interview 
with the general-in-chief ; and, presuming that he could 
not at this time leave City Point, I left General Scho- 
field in chief command, and proceeded with all expe- 
dition by rail to Morehead City, and thence by steamer 
to City Point, reaching General Grant's headquarters 
on the evening of the 27th of March. I had the good 
fortune to meet General Grant, the President, Gen- 
erals Meade, Ord, and others of the Army of the 
Potomac, and soon learned the general state of the 
military world, from which I had been in a great meas- 
ure cut off since January. Having completed all 
necessary business, I re-embarked on the navy steamer 
Bat, Captain Barnes, which Admiral Porter placed at 
my command, and returned via Hatteras Inlet and 
Newbern, reaching my own headquarters in Golds- 
boro during the night of the 30th. During my ab- 
sence full supplies of clothing and food had been 
brought to camp, and all things were working 
well. 

A Crowuin^ Success. 

I have thus rapidly sketched the progress of out 
columns from Savannah to Goldsboro, but for more 
minute details must refer to the reports of subordinate 
commanders and of staff officers, which are not yet 
ready, but will in due season be forwarded and filed 
with this report. I cannot, even with any degree of 
precision, recapitulate the vast amount of injury done 
the enemy or the quantity of guns and materials of 
war captured and destroyed. In general terms, we 



CAMPAIGN OF THE CAKOLINAS. 467 

have traversed the country from Savannah to Golds- 
boro, with an average breadth of forty miles, consum- 
ing all the forage, cattle, hogs, sheep, poultry, cured 
meats, corn-meal, etc. The public enemy, instead of 
drawing supplies from that region to feed his armies, 
will be compelled to send provisions from other quar- 
ters to feed the inhabitants. 

Of course, the abandonment to us by the enem^ 
of the whole seacoast from Savannah to Newbern, 
North Carolina, with its forts, dockyards, gunboats, 
etc., was a necessary incident to our occupation and 
destruction of the inland routes of travel and sup- 
ply ; but the real object of this march was to place 
this army in a position easy of supply, whence It could 
take an appropriate part in the spring and summer 
campaign of 1865. This was completely accomplished 
on the 2 1st of March by the junction of the three 
armies and occupation of Goldsboro. 

In conclusion, I beg to express in the most em- 
phatic manner my entire satisfaction with the tone 
and temper of the whole army. Nothing seems to 
dampen their energy, zeal, cr cheerfulness. It Is Im- 
possible to conceive a march involving more labor 
and exposure, yet I cannot recall an instance of bad 
temper by the way or hearing an expression of doubt 
as to our perfect success In the end. I believe that 
this cheerfulness and harmony of action reflects upon 
all concerned quite as much real honor and fame as 
'* battles gained " or " cities won," and I therefore com- 
meAid all — generals, staff, officers, and men — for these 



i68 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

high qualities, in addition to the more soldierly ones 
of obedience to orders and the alacrity they have 
always manifested when danger summoned them 
" to the front." I have the honor to be your obe- 
dient servant, 

W. T. Sherman, Major- General Commanding, 

Major -General H. W. Halleck, Chief of Staff, Washington City, D. C. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Surr'^nder of Johnston to Sherman. — Capture 
of Fifty Thousand Men. 

The closing act in General Sherman^s superb 
career was his capture of the entire Confederate 
army under Johnston. We give the account of it in 
his own words : 

On the 15th day of April, 1865, I was at Raleigh 
in command of three armies, the Army of the Ohio, 
the Army of the Cumberland, and the Army of the 
Tennessee ; my enemy was General Joseph E. Johns- 
ton of the Confederate Army, who commanded fifty 
thousand men, retreating along the railroad from 
Raleigh by Hillsboro, Greensboro, Salisbury, and 
Charlotte. I commenced pursuit by crossing the 
curve of that road in the direction of Ashboro and 
Charlotte ; after the head of my column had crossed 
the Cape Fear River at Aven's Ferry, I received a 
communication from General Johnston, and answered 
it, copies of which I most prompdy sent to the War 
Department, with a letter addressed to the Secretary 
of War, as follows : 

*• Headquarters Military Division of the Mississippi, 1 
IN THE Field, Raleigh, N. C, April 15, 1865. / 

"General U. S. Grant and Secretary of War; 
I send copies of a correspodence to you with General 



470 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

Johnston, which I think will be followed by terms of 
capitulation. I will grant the same terms General 
Grant gave Lee, and be careful not to complicate 
any points of civil policy. If any cavalry has started 
toward me, caution them to be prepared to find our 
work done. It is now raining in torrents, and I shall 
await General Johnston's reply here, and will pre= 
pare to meet him in person at Chapel Hill. 

" I have Invited Governor Vance to return to Ral- 
eigh with the civil officers of his State. I have met 
ex-Governor Graham, Messrs. Badger, Moore, Hold- 
en, and others, all of whom agree that the war is 
over, and that the States of the South must resume 
their allegiance, subject to the Constitution and laws 
of Congress, and must submit to the national arms. 
This great fact once admitted, the details are of easy 
arrangement. 

"W. T. Sherman, Majo7'- General!' 

I met General Johnston In person at a house five 
miles from Durham Station, under a flag of truce. 
After a few preliminary remarks he said to me, since 
Lee had surrendered his army at Appomattox Court- 
house, of which he had just been advised, he looked 
upon further opposition by him as the greatest possi- 
ble of crimes ; that he wanted to know whether 1 
could make him any general concessions, anything 
by which he could maintain his hold and control of 
his army and prevent its scattering, anything to sat- 
isfy the great yearning of their people ; if so, h^ 



JOHNSTON'S SURRENDER. 471 

thought he could arrange terms satisfactory to both 
parties. He wanted to embrace the condition and 
fate of all the armies of the Southern Confederacy to the 
Rio Grande — to make one job of it, as he termed it. 

I asked him what his powers were — whether he 
could command and control the fate of all the armies 
to the Rio Grande. He answered that he thought he 
could obtain the power, but he did not possess it at 
that moment ; he did not know where Mr. Davis was, 
but he thought if I could give him the time he could 
find Mr. Breckenridge, whose orders would be obeyed 
everywhere, and he could pledge to me his personal 
faith that whatever he undertook to do would be 
done. 

Can Jolmstou Fill the Contract? 

I had had frequent correspondence with the late 
President of the United States, with the Secretary of 
War, with General Halleck, and with General Grant, 
and the general impression left upon my mind was 
that if a settlement could be made consistent with the 
Constitution of the United States, the laws of Con- 
gress, and the proclamation of the President, they 
would not only be willing, but pleased, to terminate 
the war by one single stroke of the pen. 

I needed time to finish the railroad from the Neuse 
bridge up to Raleigh, and thought I could put in four 
or five days of good time in making repairs to my 
road, even if I had to send propositions to Washing- 
ton ; I therefore consented to delay twenty-four hours, 
CO enable General Johnston to procure what would 



472 GENEBAL SHEKMAN. 

satisfy me as to his authority and ability as a military 
man to do what he undertook to do ; I therefore con- 
sented to meet him the next day, the 17th, at twelve, 
noon, at the same place. 

We did meet again: after a general interchange of 
courtesies he remarked that he was then prepared to 
satisfy me that he could fulfil the terms of our conver- 
sation of the day before. He then asked me what 1 
was willing to do ; I told him, in the first place, 1 
could not deal with anybody except men recognized 
by us as " belligerents," because no military man 
could go beyond that fact. The attorney-general has 
since so decided, and any man of common sense so 
understood it before ; there was no difference upon 
that point as to the men and officers composing the 
Confederate armies. I told him that the President of 
the United States by a published proclamation had 
enabled every man in the Southern Confederate 
army, of the rank of colonel and under, to procure 
and obtain amnesty by simply taking the oath of 
allegiance to the United States and agreeing to go to 
his home and live in peace. The terms of General 
Grant to General Lee extended the same principles 
to the officers of the rank of brigadier-generai and 
upward, including the highest officer in the Confeder- 
ate army — viz. General Lee, the commander-in-chief 
I was therefore willing to proceed with him upon the 
same principles. 

No Wliite Slaves. 

Then a conversation arose as to what form of gov 



JOHNSTON'S SURRENDER. 



47a 



ernment they were to have in the South ? Were the 
States there to be dissevered, and were the people co 
be denied representation in Congress ? Were the 
people there to be, in the common language of the 
people of the South, slaves to the people of the 




GENERAL ROBERT E. LEE. 



North? Of course I said, "No; we desire that you 
shall regain your position as citizens of the United 
States, free and equal to us in all respects, and with 
representation upon the condition of submission to 
the lawful authority of the United States as defined 



474 GENEHAL SHfiRMAK 

by the Constitution, the United States courts, and the 
authorities of the United States supported by those 
courts." He then remarked to me that General 
Breckenridge, a major-general in the Confederate 
army, was near by, and if I had no objection he 
would like to have him present. 

I called his attention to the fact that I had on the 
day before explained to him that any negotiations 
between us must be confined to belligerents. Pie 
replied that he understood that perfectly. '' But," 
said he, " Breckenridge, whom you do not know, save 
by public rumor, as Secretary of War, is, in fact, a 
major-general ; I give you my word for that. Have 
you any objection to his being present as a major- 
general?" I replied, "I have no objection to any 
militaiy officer you desire being present as a part of 
your personal staff." I myself had my own officers 
near me at call, and was willing to grant what I 
claimed for myself. 

Breckenrldee came a strano-er to me, whom I had 
never spoken to in my life, and he joined in the con- 
versation ; while that conversation was going on a 
courier arrived and handed to General Johnston a 
package of papers; he and Breckenridge sat down 
and looked over them for some time, and put them 
away in their pockets ; what they were I know not^ 
but one of them was a slip of paper, written, as Gen- 
eral Johnston told me, by Mr. Reagan, Postmaster- 
General of the Southern Confederacy ; they seemed 
to talk about it sotto voce, and finally handed it to me ; 



JoaNsfoN^s ^URRENDjww. 475 

I gladded over It ; It was preceded by a preamble and 
closed with a few general terms; I rejected It at once. 

Important Conference. 

We then discussed matters — talked about slavery, 
talked about everything. There was a universal assent 
that slavery was as dead as anything could be; that it 
v/as one of the Issues of the war long since deter- 
mined ; and even General Johnston laughed at the 
folly of the Confederate Government In raising negro 
soldiers whereby they gave us all the points of the 
case. I told them that slavery had been treated by 
us as a dead institution — first by one class of men 
from the initiation of the war, and then from the date 
of the Emancipation Proclamation of President Lin- 
coln, and finally by the assent of all parties. 

As to reconstruction, I told them I did not know 
what the views of the Administration were. Mr. 
Lincoln up to that time, In letters and by telegrams to 
me, encouraged me by all the words which could be 
used In general terms to believe not only In his will- 
ingness, but In his desires, that I should make terms 
with civil authorities, governors, and legislators, even 
as far back as 1863. It then occurred to me that I 
might write off some general propositions, meaning 
little or meaning much according to the construction 
of parties — what I would term *' glittering generali- 
ties" — and send them to Washington, which I could 
do in four days. That would enable the new Presi- 
dent to give me a clue to his policy In the Important 
juncture which was then upon us, for the war wai 



476 GENERAL SHEHMAN. 

over; the highest miHtary authorities of the Southern 
Confederacy so confessed to me openly, unconceal- 
edly, and repeatedly. I therefore drew up the memo- 
randum (which has been published to the world) for 
the purpose of referring it to the proper executive 
authority of the United States, and enabling him to 
define to me what I might promise, simply to cover 
the pride of the Southern men, who thereby became 
subordinate to the laws of the United States, civil and 
military. 

Grim Terms of War. 
I made no concessions to General Johnston's army 
or the troops under his direction and immediate con- 
trol ; and if any concessions were made in those gen- 
eral terms, they were made because I then believed, 
and now believe, they would have delivered into the 
hands of the United States the absolute control of 
every Confederate officer and soldier, all their muster- 
rolls, and all their arms. It would save us all the in- 
cidental expense resulting from the military occupation 
of that country by provost-marshals, provost-guards, 
military governors, and all the machinery by which 
nlone military power can reach the people of a civilized 
country. It would have surrendered to us the armies 
of Dick Taylor and Kirby Smith, both of them capable 
of doing infinite mischief to us by exhrmsting the re- 
sources of the whole country upon which we were to 
depend for the future extinguishment of our debt, 
forced upon us by their wrongful and rebellious con- 
duct. 



JOHxSrSTON'S SURRENDER. 477 

I never designed to shelter a human being from any 
liability incurred in consequence of past acts to the civil 
tribunals of our country, and I do not believe a fair 
and manly interpretation of my terms can so construe 
them, for the words " United States courts," " United 
States authorities," " limitations of executive power," 
occur in every paragraph. And if they seemingly 
yield terms better than the public would desire to be 
given to the Southern people, if studied closely and well 
it will be found that there is an absolute submission on 
their part to the Government of the United States, 
either through its executive, legislative, or judicial 
authorities. Every step in the programme of these 
negotiations was reported punctually, clearly, and fully 
by the most rapid means of communication that I had. 

All the Fruits of Victory. 

And yet I neglected not one single precaution 
necessary to reap the full benefits of my position in 
case the Government amended, altered, or absolutely 
annulled those terms. As those matters were neces- 
sarily mingled with the military history of the period. 
I would like at this point to submit to the committee 
my official report, which has been in the hands of the 
proper officer, Brigadier-General Rawlings, chief of 
.tafif of the army of the United States, since about the 
12th instant. It was made by me at Manchester, Va., 
after I had returned from Savannah, whither I went to 
open up the Savannah River and reap the fruits of my 
negotiations with General Johnston, and to give Gen- 
eral Wilson's force in the interior a safe and sure base 



478 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

from which he could draw the necessary supply of 
clodiing and food for his command. It was only after 
I had fulfilled all this thai I learned, for the first time, 
through the public press, that my conduct had been 
animadverted upon, not only by the Secretary of War, 
but by General Halleck and the press of the country 
at large. 

I did feel hurt and annoyed that Mr. Stanton coupled 
with the terms of my memorandum, confided to him, 
a copy of a telegram to General Grant which he had 
never sent to me. He knew, on the contrary, that 
when he was at Savannah I had negotiations with 
civil parties there, for he was present in my room 
when those parties were conferring with me, and I 
wrote him a letter setting forth many points of it, in 
which I said I aimed to make a split in Jeff Davis's 
dominions by segregating Georgia. Those were civil 
negotiadons, and, far from being discouraged from 
making them, I was encouraged by Secretary Stanton 
himself to make them. 

Rig^hteous Indig-nation. 

By coupling the note to General Grant with my 
memorandum he gave the world fairly and clearly to 
infer that I was in possession of it. Now, I was not 
in possession of it, and I have reason to know that 
Mr. Stanton knew I was not in possession of it. Next 
met me General Halleck's telegram, indorsed by Mr. 
Stanton, in which they publicly avowed an act of per- 
fidy — namely, the violation of my truce, which I had a 
right to make, and which, by the laws of war and by 



JOHNSTON'S SUEKENDER. 47J* 

the laws of Congress, is punishable by death and no 
other punishment. 

Next, they ordered an army to pursue my enemy, 
who was known to be surrendering to me, in the pres- 
ence of General Grant himself, their superior officer ; 
and, finally, they sent orders to General Wilson and 
to General Thomas — my subordinates, acting under 
me on a plan of the most magnificent scale, admirably 
executed — to defeat my orders and to thwart the in> 
terests of the Government of the United States. I 
did feel indignant ; I do feel indignant. As to my 
honor, I can protect it. In my letter of the 15th of 
April I used this language : " I have invited Governor 
Vance to return to Raleigh, with the civil officers of 
his State." I did so because President Lincoln had 
himself encourao^ed me to a similar course with the 
governor of Georgia when I was In Atlanta. And 
here was the opportunity which the Secretary of War 
should have taken to put me on my guard against 
making terms with civil authorities, if such were th>^ 
settled policy of our Government. Had President 
Lincoln lived, 1 know he would have sustained me. 

After the War. 

The foregoing narrative by General Sherman 
throws a clear lieht on liIs action — an action which 
was disapproved at Washington. He was anxious to 
stop the flow of blood, and was willing to be magnani- 
mous toward a fallen foe. 

Then followed the grand review of the troops In 
Washington, and on May 30, Sherman took leave of 



480 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

his army In general orders. In the reorganization of 
the army Grant became general and Sherman lieu- 
tenant-general. When Grant became President, 
Sherman was elevated to the highest military office, 
which he retained until his retirement in February, 
1884. 

Appropriately, we may close this part of our vol- 
ume with Charles De Kay's striking poetical tribute 
to the brilliant commander, whose achievements went 
far toward saving the Union at the time of greatest 
peril : 

Rumble and grumble, ye drums, 
Shrill be your throat, O pipes ! 
Writhe, blood-red flag, in your mourning Vand, 
Serpent of harlequin stripes ! 
But, stars in the banner's blue ! 
Smile, for the war-chief true 
Up from the myriad hearts of the land 
Comes — to your haven comes. 

Guns that sullenly boom, 

Mourn for the master's hand 
Dreadful, uplifting the baton of war 
While your hurricane shook the land ! 
Marching, marching, battle and raid. 
Gay and garrulous, unafraid, 
Sherman drove with his brilliant star 
A dragon of eld to its doom. 

Pass, O shade without stain ! 

Sunsets that grimly smile 
Shall paint how your signal flags deploy 
Battalions, mile on mile — 
Horsemen and footmen, rank on rank. 
Sweeping against the foeman's flank, 
Howling full of the strange mad joy 
Of slaughter and fe»r to be slain \ 



BOOK III. 

GENERAL SHERMAN'S DEATH AND 
OBSEQUIES. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

Fatal Illness.— The Giant Shorn of his Strength. 
— Anxiety throughout the Nation. 

General Sherman's last illness began on the loth 
Df February. It was hoped that his iron constitution 
would s^and firmly against the attack, and that the 
hero of many well-fought battles would not have to 
surrender yet to death. The strongest man is finally 
weak ; the bravest soul must some time be van- 
quished ; the great general's foe this time was more 
formidable than ranks bristlinor with steel. The vet- 
eran of hot campaigns had met an enemy too strong 
to be defeated. 

At 1.15 A.M. a messenger left General Sherman's 
house in New York on the run to the nearest drug- 
gist. He carried a message to Senator Sherman, 
saying, " Papa is much worse." It was signed 
" Sherman." 

At 1.20 A. M. R. T. Sherman sent the following 
despatch to Senator John Sherman, brother of the 

31 481 



482 GENERAL SHEEMAN. 



general : " Papa Is very much worse. You had bet- 



ter come. 



At a quarter-past eleven Dr. Alexander, through the 
eeneral's son, handed out the foUowino^ bulletin, show- 
Ing the result of a consultation of physicians: 

" The result of the consultation of Drs. Alexander 
and Janeway shows that there has been no Improve- 
ment In General Sherman's condition. 

" Dr. Alexander." 

All day the battle between death and General 
Sherman was waged with varying fortune. The bed- 
side of the aged sufferer was surrounded by the 
members of his famil)' and loving friends, and all that 
medical science could suggest to ward off the en- 
croachments of the Insidious disease which had 
attacked his face was done. 

The chances were against him. It was his second 
attack of erysipelas, and much more severe than the 
first one. His many years — he celebrated his sev- 
enty-first birthday on the previous Sunday — had 
weakened his iron constitution, and It was certain 
that he had litde reserve force with which to batde 
against It. But his brother and his children, remem- 
bering how he had come forth victorious from many 
a forlorn hope before, refused to lose heart or to 
admit that his case was hopeless, and at noon, as if in 
answer to their faith, he began to rally from his sink- 
ing spell. 

Each succeeding hour brought encouraging news 



FATAL ILLNESS. 483 

from the sick chamber, and at six o'clock Dr. R. H. 
Green, who had been at his bedside all the afternoon, 
said that there was no immediate danorer of death. 
But he held out small hopes of his recovery. Sena- 
tor Sherman clung to the beHef that he would gel 
well, but postponed his intended return to Wash- 
ington. 

Surrounded by Iiis Children. 

All of General Sherman's family, with the exception 
of his son, the Rev. T. E. Sherman, who was study- 
ing in the Jesuit institution in the island of Jersey, 
and who was notified by cable of his father's condi- 
tion, watched by his bedside. His friend. Dr. and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Charles T. Alexander of the army, 
was in constant attendance upon him. Shortly after 
midnight it was noticed that his condition had changed 
for tlie worse and that he was steadily growing weaker 
His face and neck were badly inflamed, and any mo- 
tion seemed to be quite painful. But, a$ a general 
thing, he did not suffer much. He lay in a state of 
semi-coma, and could only be roused at long intervals 
to partake of medicine or nouriF.hrrient. In his con- 
scious moments he seemed to be aware of the dan- 
ger of his situation, but he bore his pains and faced 
the menacing death with the same simple courage 
which had always marked his strong character. He 
waited without trepidation for the dread visitor that 
had often confronted him on the battle-field, and 
whose coming now had no terrors. 

He lay in the front room of his residence, on the 



484 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

second floor. The shades were drawn tighdy down, 
and no noise was permitted to reach him. A notice 
at the door warned callers not to ring the bell, and a 
special attendant was placed there to answer the ques- 
tions of inquirers, who came in great numbers, and. 
to receive the shoals of telecrrams which came from 
all parts of the country. One of these, from Presi- 
dent Harrison, making anxious inquiry, was answered 
by Mr. P. T. Sherman, but most of them were an- 
swered only by the hourly bulletins which were sent 
out by the doctors or by young Mr. Sherman. 

Once in a while the general became slightly deliri- 
ous, and it seemed as if the disease had attacked the 
brain, which was the complication to be feared. But 
He \,ould rally from these attacks and hope would re- 
turn again. 

The Worst Feared. 

As the morning wore on the physicians lost cour- 
age, intimating that he would not live another twenty- 
four hours, and declared that there was no possible 
hope. 

" General Sherman is suffering from facial erysipe- 
las," said Dr. Alexander, "coupled with slow fever. 
It is a simple disease, but difficult to treat, which 
makes it a dangerous one. It is bad enough for a 
younger man, who has the strength and vigor to with- 
stand its insidious attack, but the general has not the 
constitution that he once had. I do not anticipate 
any crisis in this case, for erysipelas does its work 



FATAL ILLNKSS. 485 

by slowly undermining the strength of the patient 
until he has none left to do battle with it." 

Amonor the callers at the house who were admitted 

o 

were General Thomas Ewing, General O. O. Howard, 
and Lieutenant Treat of his staff 

The reports were discouraging during the morning 
hours, but about noon their tenor changed and the 
doctors began to report an improvement. The fol- 
lowing bulletins will tell the story of the day: 

" 11.50 — No change for the better. General Sher- 
man continues to grow weaker." 

" 2 P. M. — General Sherman was worse this moi .x- 
ing, and his condition was considered critical. During 
the day his condition has improved considerably." 

"6.15 P.M. — General Sherman's condition has not 
changed in the least since last bulletin. Still improv- 
ing, very slowly." 

" 9 p. M. — General Sherman is resting easily. His 

family are confident that he will live through the 

night." 

He Knew his Friend. 

General Ewing, who left the house at eventide, said 
that the physicians were feeling much more hopeful, 
though there had been no decided improvement in 
his condition. " General Sherman is fully as strong 
now as he was at six o'clock this morning," he said, 
" and when he is aroused from his lethargy seems to 
be entirely intelligent and free from hallucination. He 
has been in a state of semi-coma for a long time. 



4^6 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

" I have been sitting by his bedside for a full hour. 
His face and neck are much swollen and somewhat 
inflamed, so that he moves his head with difficulty and 
pain. I asked the general if he recognized me. He 
replied, ' Hello, Ewing ! is that you ?' He appeared 
to have considerable difficulty in speaking on account 
of the mucus in his throat and the stiffness of his 
muscles. I do not apprehend his death to-night." 

Thousands of his old friends all over the country 
were praying for his recovery, but there appeared to 
be very little hope that the hero who saved Shiloh, 
and the genius which performed the impossible and 
marched two thousand miles to the sea against the 
prognostications of military men the world over, would 
do more than linger for a few hours or days, at the 
most, before he laid down his colors to the one enemy 
who is unconquerable. 

President Harrison having telegraphed to New 
York for information concerning the condition of Gen- 
eral Sherman, received a telegram from Mr. P. T. 
Sherman, saying that his father's condition was cnt- 
ical, but that there was a slight improvement. Gen- 
eral Schofield also received a telegram from Mr. 
Sherman saying, " My father's condition is still critical, 
but the doctors are hopeful." 

Sympathy from the Grand Army. 

The State Department, Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic, in annual session in Boston, sent the following 
despatch to the daughter o( General Sherman : " The 
Massachusetts Department of the Grand Army of the 



FATAL ILLNESS. 487 

Republic, In convention assembled, watches with so- 
licitude the condition of the last of the three crreat 
leaders of the Union army, and that he may speedily 
be restored to health is the earnest desire of his com^ 
rades." 

The illness of General Sherman was the sole topic 
in New York and throughout the country. The 
earlier reports from his bedside suggested the possi- 
bility of his recovery from the attack, but later on 
February 12th bulletins were put up here and there 
which indicated that his family had really given up 
bope. 

A Touching- Scene. 

In front of all the bulletin-boards in the city throngs 
y^ere assembled during the entire day, but perhap? 
the most suggestive and touching exhibition of thf- 
interest in the great general was shown in front of the 
bulletin which one of the newspapers put up early in 
the afternoon. That was a bulletin from the son of 
Sherman, in which it was stated that the family had 
given up all hope of the general's recovery. 

Not many moments after it was put up there came 
in the throng two persons who stopped and read the 
bulletin. One of them was a man who leaned heavily 
upon his cane, whose white hair was shown beneath 
his tall beaver hat, and whose complexion, swarthy 
and yet clear and indicating abundant health, was 
that seemingly of a native of the tropics. This was 
Hannibal Hamlin, and he was leaning upon the arm 
of his son, General Hamlin. He was unrecoo["nized 



488 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

by the crowd. He stood for a moment, read the bul- 
letin, and then said : " I am afraid my old friend. Gen- 
eral Sherman, has reached the number of his days." 

Ex- Vice President Hamlin seemed to be deeply 
affected. His relations with General Sherman had 
been most cordial, and in the early part of the war 
the great general had no stronger friend in the Ad- 
ministration than Mr. Hamlin showed himself to be. 
Although he was ten years older than Sherman, yet 
he displayed a vigor which the general had not shown 
in the last year or two. 

The lights and the flitting shadows in the death- 
chamber of the old warrior, who was slowly passing 
away, were carefully watched during the entire night 
by a score of newspaper-men, and every bulletin 
issued by Drs. Alexander and Janeway was quickly 
wired all over the continent. 

Death Expected. 

Two policemen were on duty outside, and every- 
thing was kept as quiet as possible in the neighborhood. 
The electric bell was removed from the door, so that 
its jingling would not disturb the rest of the sick man, 
and instructions were given not to admit any one 
except relatives and personal friends. 

The next bulletin said that death was only a ques- 
tion of a few hours. Simultaneously with this came a 
despatch from P. Tecumseh Sherman, the general's 
son, and it was addressed to President Harrison, in- 
forming him that death was momentarily expected. 
From then on the house remained in comparative 



FATAL ILLNESS. 489 

darkness. The solitary policeman silently paced in 
front of the residence, occasionally answering the 
queries of passers-by with the stereotyped answer, 
" Sinking rapidly." When the early morning wagons 
came rattling down the street a wave of the hand from 
the officer on duty caused them to slacken their pace, 
and they crept by in silence, avoiding that noise of 
wheels on the pavements so disagreeable to sick 
persons. 

The scenes about General Sherman's residence 
this morning strongly suggested those of six years 
before, when the death of General Grant was momen- 
tarily expected. The newspapers of New York and 
Brooklyn were represented, some having two or three 
reporters present. On the street corners were groups 
of men waiting apparently to get the latest informa- 
tion from the sick-room. Conversation was carried 
on in whispers, as if fearful of disturbing the dying 
warrior, though half a block removed from his bedside. 
Inside the storm-doors of the front entrance a young 
man scrutinized each card handed in, and none but 
the most intimate family friends were admitted. All 
others merely left their cards and withdrew. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Battling with the Foe.— A Gallant Fight for 

Life, 

All through the day, Thursday, February 12th, 
General Sherman was wresthno- with an invincible 
foe. What a battle it was which was wao-ed in the 
home of the grim old soldier ! Death never tackled 
a tougher adversary. It caught him by the throat 
and tried to stranMe him ; it burned in his veins with 
consuming fire ; it stole stealthily into the seat of his 
intellect. But he met it at every point and wrestled 
Vi^ith it mightily. He was like a tough and sturdy 
oak, swayed but unbroken by the storm. 

It was not that the general feared death. It had 
no terrors to him, with his beloved wife awaiting him 
on the other side. But he wanted to see Tom before 
he went. He was determined to shake hands with 
his first-born, his beloved, who had grown apart from 
him in his religion, but for whom his heart still beat 
loyally. 

He would not die till Tom came, he had said 
before his case got desperate, and he set all the 
powers of his indomitable will to the task of living 
until the Rev. Father Sherman came across the sea 
and clasped him in his arms once more. And this 
resolution never left him, conscious or delirious. 

490 



BATTLING WITH THE FOR 491 

It was that which made him last beyond the ex- 
pectation of his physicians and turned his case into 
a marvel. 

And "Tom" left Queenstown the day before in a 
desperate race with death. Could he possibly win ? 
At times it seemed as if he might. It was Sherman 
that saved the lost battle of Shiloh. It was Sherman 
that performed the "impossible" march to the sea. 
A man of miracles, would his unconquerable will 
hold death itself back when hope itself seemed 
madness ? 

It was like Shiloh. 

The story of the day — what pen will ever tell it? 
What a drama it was in the home of the dying soldier ! 
Hope and despair, hope and despair, chased each other 
in rapid succession across the stage, and each hour 
had its special expectation. Like fast-fluctuating tides 
the flickering life changed all the way from a seeming 
certainty of death within the hour to the semblance 
of sure recovery. The doctors had disagreed a score 
of times, and the partial hopes of friends often built 
high the ramparts of expectation, but the outcome 
of it all was the edict of the men of science that death 
was a certainty and only a matter of time. 

The fright of the early morning, when all nature 
Was at ebb tide and General Sherman's life-force with 
it, was succeeded after daybreak by a period of hope. 
The danger of immediate death grew less patent, and 
the doctor said that at the worst he would live for 
several hours. The fever was not so hio^h nor the 



492 GENEHAL SHERMAN. 

coma so complete. The brain was still unattacked by 
inflammation. Could it be possible to avert the catas- 
trophe, after all ? 

New Danger. 

After a time the doctors were able to alter the diet 
to beef tea, considerable of which was administered 
with success, and the stimulating and strengthening 
effects of which were noticeably felt. 

But now a new danger was made manifest. Mucus 
collected upon the lungs, which General Sherman did 
not have the power to relieve himself of, and there 
was danger of his chokino- to death. At times he 
started up and tried to rise, but his limbs refused their 
office. The physicians sought in every way to relieve 
him, but it seemed in vain, and matters were at a 
desperate stage. 

Without the house a guard was constantly in 
attendance telling each inquirer that hope had almost 
fled. Sturdy workingmen with their tin buckets 
paused to ask after the general, and ladies and gen- 
tlemen in fine carriages rolled up to the curb and sent 
in their cards or went in themselves to ask personally 
how went the tide of battle. 

Eleven o'clock, and the tide at its lowest ebb. 
General Sherman was dying, the doctors said. All 
hope was gone. He had been unconscious some 
time. His lungs were full. His face was purple. 
His breath came in short, quick g^^sps. Mucus 
rattled in his throat. The dew of death gath \red 
on his wrinkled forehead as fast as it coulc^ be 



BATTLING WITH THE FOE. 493 

wiped away. Finis seemed written on the seamed 
face. Only the will remained unconquered. Tom 
had not come ! 

Pathetic Scene. 

The weeping family were gathered about the bed- 
side. The gentle Rachel had her arms about her 
father. The Senator stood leaning on the head- 
board looking into the face of his elder brother. 
The private secretary, who had been hastily sum- 
moned from his vacation, and the grizzled friend, 
General Tom Ewing, were weeping a little apart. 
The doctors bent over the knotted form, lighting as 
stubbornly as the general himself. 

But Tom had not come ! The old soldier had not 
yet surrendered. Again he rallied his forces mightily, 
and the fortunes of war were again in his favor. 

A sudden fit of coughing freed his lungs of a 
large quantity of mucus. He was given a stimulant, 
and the effect was astonishing. The doctors, who 
had sent out bulletins to the effect that he could 
not live another hour, were now putting forth prom- 
ising bulletins. A despatch was sent to President 
Harrison by Senator Sherman saying : " The improve- 
ment of General Sherman at one o'clock to-day 
justifies a faint hope that he will recover." 

When the doctor left the house he said that noth- 
ing but the marvellous vitality of General Sherman 
kept him alive. All through the afternoon hope 
lived again, but it was at one o'clock, only two hours 
after he had seemed to be fairly within the gates of 



494 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

death, that the mast marvellous exhibition of General 
Sherman's will-power was manifested. For some 
time he had been half sitting up, and striving earn- 
estly to rid himself of the incubus on his lungs. He 
was conscious, but frequently wandered off into de- 
lirum. Now he made a sturdy effort to rise, and, 
assisted by the doctors, succeeded in walking across 
the room and sat down in a chair. The exercise 
seemed to help him, and when he reached his bed 
again he seemed clearer and more vigorous than he 
bad been for twenty-four hours. 

Eiicoiirag^iiig' News. 

News of this wonderful exhibition was eiven to the 
newspaper-men by General Horatio C. King, who was 
greatly elated by it. It was promptly confirmed by 
Secretary Barrett and General Ewing, who thought 
it meant recovery. The doctors said no to this, and 
hinted at fears of pneumonia. 

There was a fresh alarm at nightfall, coupled with 
nost alarming bulletins, and carriages rattled up 
from every direction bringing persons who had been 
hasdly summoned. But the prophets of disaster 
again reckoned without their host, and at ten o'clock 
the general was again pronounced out of immdiate 
daneer. 

He was resting quite easily, though breathing with 
difficulty. He was quite conscious and knew those 
present. He had gotten rid of much of the trouble- 
some mucus. At times he had a bandage over his 
eyes to shade them from the light. He still appeared 




SENATOR JOHN SHERMAN. 



495 



496 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

to have a good deal of strength and vitality. If he 
could hold out forty-eight hours longer, the doctors 
held out hopes of his ultimate recovery. His will 
was resolute. 

Senator John Sherman, who spent the previous 
night at the house of Mrs. Hoyt, his niece, decided 
to remain at the Sherman residence. 

At eleven o'clock the servants closed the storm- 
doors and drew down the blinds. Policeman Brown 
was called to the basement door by Private Secretary 
Barrett, and requested to hold until morning all tele- 
grams and messages which arrived after midnight, 
and give the family rest. 

On his Feet for a Moment. 

At eleven o'clock in the evening the general again 
demonstrated his extraordinary will-power, according 
to Lieutenant Fitch, by arising from his bed and 
walking halfway across the room. He was unable 
to speak, but appeared to recognize those who were 
in the room. 

When he reached the middle of the floor he 
stopped and tottered. He was at once supported 
back to bed, and when he lay down appeared to be 
very much exhausted. 

Early, at twenty-five minutes after five in the 
morning, the general's son, P. T. Sherman, sent this 
despatch to the President: 

" My father is growing steadily worse. It appears 
to be only a question of hours. I have given up 
all hope." 



BATTLING WITH THE FOE. 497 

Senator Sherman at one o'clock in the afternoon 
sent this telegram to President Harrison : 

" The improvement of General Sherman at one 
o'clock to-day justifies a faint hope of his recovery." 

The medical bulletin at 8.30 p. m. said: "General 
Sherman's condition is very critical. He is gradually 
growing weaker." 

Profound sympathy was awakened for the dying 
hero, and from all parts of the country came messages 
showing how deeply the nation was moved. 

Prayer in Washing- ton. 

In the course of the opening prayer on February 
1 2th the chaplain of the United States Senate, refer- 
ring to General Sherman's illness, said : 

"Look in mercy upon Thy servant around whose 
sick bed so many hearts lovingly gather, and in this 
time of anxiety give support and grace. Oh, that the 
peace of God which passeth all understanding may 
keep his heart and mind as he casts himself upon the 
mercy of God ! 

" If it so please Thee, spare this life, so long pre 
served, sanctify this affliction, and grant that, as we 
move among the dying and the dead, we may so live 
that when this mortal life shall end we may enter 
upon the Hfe that never ends." 

Thursday night was a grateful relief to the worn- 
out family, for the general slept peacefully, and those 
who had been up all the night before were able to 
retire and eet much-needed rest. He was awakened 
-^very hour and given nourishment, which seemed to 



498 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Strengthen him considerably, and about half-past six 
in the morning he again rose from his bed and sat for 
a few moments on a chair while a nurse made his bed. 
At eleven o'clock he again got out of bed, and his 
attendants had considerable trouble in keeping him 
in bed, especially as he was suffering somewhat from 
his long-time enemy — asthma — and was anxious to 
assume an upright position. 

The Father's Heart. 

At no time during the day was he delirious, and 
though his mind was not at all active, it was quite 
clear and he understood all that was said to him. H^ 
seemed to have but one consuming wish, and that was 
to see Tom. Several times he asked for him and for 
** Cump," the younger son. There were some things 
he wished to talk about, but weakness would not 
permit it. 

The house in West Seventy-first street looked 
peaceful enough at sunrise. All signs of the hurry 
and disorder which prevailed the day before were 
absent. At seven o'clock a smiling housemaid came 
to the door and announced that the general had 
passed a quiet and restful night. He had taken 
considerable nourishment and had slept well, and 
was at that time asleep. The doctors were very 
much encouraged. 

When the tin-pail brigade came and asked its 
questions, the solitary officer was able to give encour- 
aging news, and many a ** Thank God !" was uttered 
as the questioners turned away. 



BATTLING WITH THE FOE. 499 

General Sherman's illness attracted a great deal of 
ihterest, and wherever bulletins were posted hun- 
dreds of people stopped to learn the latest tidings. 
So great was the interest throughout the country that 
the Western Union Telegraph Company found it 
necessary to send bulletins of his condition to eigh- 
teen thousand offices. One did not realize what a 
popular hero " Uncle Billy " was until his peril showed 
how universal was the feeling about him. 

The first official news of Friday was brought out at 
eight o'clock by the general's private secretary, whose 
face wore a hopeful look. He was inclined not to 
promise too much, but he showed that the hopes 
entertained were shared in even by the conservative 
doctors, who had no intention of putting forth any 
rainbow statements. 

No Loss meant a Gain. 

At nine o'clock the following bulletin, the first o\ 
the day, was issued : 

" 9 A. M. — After consultation this morning the phy- 
sicians find that General Sherman has lost nothinof 
during the night." 

This was as far as the doctors would go officially, 
but they admitted privately that no loss meant a gain. 
The erysipelas had nearly all disappeared, and the 
great peril now was from pneumonia, which had not 
developed, but still threatened. If they could keep 
the patient from going backward until one or two 
o'clock this morning, they said, there would be sub- 
stantial basis for hope. There was slight oedema in 



500 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

one of the lungs, but the other was entirely free. He 
was still somewhat troubled by the accumulation of 
mucus in one lung, but it was not to the alarming ex- 
tent as on the day before. 

At eleven o'clock Senator Sherman sent the fol- 
lowing telegram, which was given to the press in lieu 
of a bulletin : 

*' To THE Hon. Redfield Proctor, Secretary of War, 
Washhigton, D. C. : 

" Telegram received. General Sherman passed a 
good night. Asthma, his old disease, his chief trouble. 
Heart and lungs performing their functions. We are 
much encouraged and hope for recovery. He has 
every care which love, sympathy, and human skill can 
render, for which we all are profoundly grateful." 

At twelve m. General Thomas Ewing appeared, and 
said that for the last fourteen hours the patient's con- 
dition had been easy and that he had been resting 

quietly. 

The Crisis Passed. 

" We all think," said General Ewing, ** that the su- 
preme crisis has been passed." The following bulletin 
was given out later : 

" 1. 20 p. M. — After a consultation the physicians say 
there has been no chanQ^e in General Sherman's con- 
dition since this morning." 

The afternoon was void of news. The doctors did 
not put out a bulletin for several hours, and no news 
was looked upon as equivalent to good news. The 
early hours of morning were the ones looked fpr 



BATTLING WITH THE FOE. 501 

with apprehension. It is then, when all nature seems 
to be at an ebb, that danger is to be feared. If those 
hours could be reached and passed in safety and 
pneumonia kept at bay, the doctors said they could 
then begin to talk of hope. 

The chief danger from erysipelas they declared to 
be past. The swelling was going down and the action 
of the muscles was growing more normal. General 
Sherman was out of pain, and if his strength could be 
kept up there was a good prospect of recovery. 

Kind Inquirers. 

There were many callers at the house during the 
afternoon, but no one save the members of the family 
were permitted to see the sufferer. Among the tele- 
grams of sympathy or inquiry received were ones 
from Governor Hill, ex-President Cleveland, ind 
Governor Fitzhugh Lee of Virginia. 

Evening brought an increase of fever, and with it 
an increase of anxiety. It was felt that the steady 
drain on the resources of the aged man was slowly 
undermining his vitality, and while no alarming 
symptoms were developed, all felt that he was slowly 
growing weaker. The elation which had marked the 
hours of sunshine disappeared, and the family shut 
themselves away from the newspaper-men and were 
chary of information, saying that they cared only to 
speak in case of a marked change for better or for 
worse. 

The doctors were non-committal and evasive. 
They could give no good news ; they would not 



502 GENEEAL SHERMAN. 

advance any further prognostications. The doughty 
old sufferer had behed their prophecies too many 
times. At nine o'clock a servant-girl was sent in a 
hurry to the drug-store. The general had a bad 
turn, and it looked as if he was sinking. 

An Alarming- Bulletin. 

The doctors were at the bedside. The consulta- 
tion was the longest which had been held, and the 
countenances of the physicians showed that the 
situation was extremely critical. At ten o'clock they 
issued a bulletin which was truly ominous. It was 
as follows : 

" lo p. M. — After consultation the doctors say there 
is no chanoe for the better." 

A member of the household spoke frankly. " The 
general is undoubtedly growing weaker," he said, 
'' and this gives the family food for anxiety, for even 
the most stubborn vitality must yield in time. Yet 
there is no marked change in his condition. He 
rests easily and is not troubled by mucus. It is 
his extreme and growing weakness that causes the 
chief anxiety." 



CHAPTER XXV. 

The Struggle Ended.— The Great Warrior's 
Last Battle. 

General Sherman died at ten minutes of two 
o'clock on Saturday, February 14th, aged seventy-one 
years and five days. 

His end was peaceful — it could not have been more 
so. He had been totally unconscious all the morning, 
and had ceased to struggle long before the coming of 
the end. The immediate cause of death was said to 
be the fillinof of his luno^s with mucus, which he had 
not strength to throw off He had fought so long as 
a particle of strength remained, and even at the close 
his iron will was not vanquished. He was not ready 
to go until his son '* Tom " had come home to him. 
But death beckoned and he had to go. 

All the morning he lay dying, his family grouped 
about his bed. His struggles, which had been painful 
when he returned to that semi-consciousness which 
showed the proud, unconquered spirit that still lived, 
within him, were pitifully weak now. With all hopes 
gone the family prayed only for a speedy end. For 
hours they stood grouped about the bed, watching 
and waiting for the end. Several times it seemed as 
if it had come, but once more the spirit struggled back 
and death was beaten off again. 

503 



604 GENERAL SHERMAK. 

But at ten minutes of two there came a chano^e. 
The color and the look which are noticeable only 
when death comes suddenly spread over the drawn 
face, disfigured with iodine, and the nurse, who had 
been bending over him listening to the last faint 
flutterings of his heart, quickly straightened up and 
said, " He is dead." 

Remarkable Coincidence. 

Thus, thirty hours after the last admiral of the 
United States, Admiral Porter, the last general, his 
friend for many years^ passed away. 

The last general of our army ; the last of the great 
heroic figures who filled the eye of the public in the 
bloody era that is past ; the last of the idols whom 
the tattered remnant of the armies of the sixties 
loved to follow and to worship, William Tecumseh 
Sherman, was gone, and with him one of the strongest 
links that still connected the people of America with 
an epoch which all would willingly forget save for 
the mighty debt of gratitude which the present 
generation owes to the heroes of that past and 
passing one. 

Not the least of the batdes fought by Sherman 
was the one with disease and death. It was a batde 
to be proud of. It was an exhibition of i\merican 
pluck and grit and unconquerable determination in 
which the least of Americans must feel a reflected 
pride. Brief, compared to the long-enduring struggle 
of the hero Grant, it was yet long enough to show 
the metal of the man, who had but one reason for 



THE LAST BATTLE. 605 

caring to remain on earth — a wish to clasp his absent 
son in loving arms. 

Oh, what a rare and sweet example of parental 
love ! Who would have looked for it in the grim 
old soldier who had hid this love behind a crusty 
exterior for ten long years? About the last word 
which his lips uttered was his cry for "Tom" on 
Friday. But he could not hold out till the coming 
of that son. The forces against him of disease and 
age were too mighty. But he held off the end with 
wonderful power and vigor, and died as he had lived^ 
with an unvanquished spirit. 

The L.ast Ebb of Life. 

The beginning of the end was about six o'clock the 
evening before. The tide of life, which had risen and 
fallen so many times, and which during the day had 
passed the flood-mark of hope, began its final ebbing, 
which, to the eyes of the professional watchers, would 
never be stayed again. It was a question now of 
hours only. How long could the sturdy frame with 
stand the gnawing teeth of his disease ? Time onl) 
could give the answer. 

The family, who had begun to smile and talk cheer 
ily of recovery, now grew haggard again. Hope van- 
ished. They read the story in the eyes of the silent 
doctors. They knew that the last rally had been held 
and that the standard of life must be lowered. Well, 
let it come ! It was better than this agony of waiting. 
None but the family and the professional attendants 
were admitted to the sick-room. The forehead and 



506 GENEHAL SHERMAN. 

Other parts of the face affected by erysipelas had 
been anointed with iodine. 

The general was speechless now, and utterly un- 
conscious. All the enero^ies of his beinor were con- 
es o 

centrated on the one desperate task of breathing, 
and all efforts to assist this operation seemed to have 
no effect. " No better" was the repeated report from 
the chamber of sickness ; and no better meant the 
constant sapping of the depleted store of strength. 

Fast Sinking-. 

At four o'clock in the mornino- it seemed as if he 
were sinking to the end, and again the family were 
sumn^oned. The trained nurse who had zealously 
attended him, and who for more than twenty-four 
hours had refused to take sleep or rest, did all that 
a nurs< could do to minister to his wants. Two hours 
before this the doctors said " Not yet," and some of 
the family had left the house, but they were hastily 
called back, and all came expecting that he would 
scarce survive the rising of the sun. 

It was Dr. Alexander who first noticed a change for 
the worse. It was slight, to be sure, but the trained 
eye of the friend and physician saw an ominous signif- 
icance in it. 

Then this bulletin came from the general's house : 
"The physicians after consultation declare that the 
general's condition is now hopeless. He is dying, and 
the end is near." There was no mistake about it this 
time, as before. 

Dr. Alexander, who brought this bulletin to the 



THE LAST BATTLE. 507 

telegraph-office, added significantly to the reporters 
assembled, "There will be no more bulletins." 

The erysipelas had again set in, and bronchitis had 
also attacked the sick man. At half-past nine another 
report came from the house through a friend of the 
general. He said that the dying man was in no phys- 
ical pain. It was somewhat difficult for him to 
breathe, but otherwise he was not suffering. 

From ten o'clock on General Sherman continued to 
fail. At twenty minutes past eleven it was stated that 
his death was but a question of minutes. There were 
many callers during the morning. Only immediate 
friends were admitted. The others merely left their 
cards. At twenty-five minutes past eight o'clock 
Senator Sherman telegraphed to his family at Wash- 
ington that the general was still alive, but only partially 
conscious. 

Death only a Question of Minutes. 

He was apparently without pain, but his breathing 
was labored and his strenorth diminishino^. At ten 
minutes past twelve p. m. Thomas Ewing, Jr., said that 
no further bulletins of General Sherman's condition 
would be issued. Death was only a question of 
minutes, he said. 

At a quarter to twelve a carriage and a pair drove 
up to the door with a caller, who was Mrs. U. S. 
Grant. She did not leave her carriage, but upon be- 
ing told that there was not the slighest hope for the 
general, was deeply affected and immediately drove 
away. There was nothing to do now but wait for the 



508 GENEHAL SHEBMAN. 

end, and the family waited with beating hearts. In 
the general's office in the basement were a number 
of military gentlemen, including Generals Howard, 
Slocum, Stewart L. Woodford, and the commander 
of Grant Post of Brooklyn. 

About the bedside were grouped the general's two 
unmarried daughters, Misses Lizzie and Rachel Sher- 
man, his son Philemon T., Lieutenant and Mrs. Fitch, 
Lieutenant and Mrs. Thackara, Senator John Sher- 
man, Mrs. Colgate Hoyt, Dr. Alexander, and General 
Thomas Ewing. The nurse sat at the bedside watch- 
ing the pinched lip of the dying man. 

In the windows in front the shades were up and the 
curtains slightly parted. The policeman paced in 
front and kept the noises at a distance, save the loud 
detonation of the blasters who were at work in a lot 
across the way. A hush seemed to fall upon the 
street. 

The End had Come. 

Suddenly the watchers on the opposite sidewalk 
saw the curtains pulled together and the shades drawn 
down. A moment later General Ewing appeared 
bareheaded at the door and waved his hand. " It is 
all over," he said. 

In another moment the electric spark was flashing 
over the land the news. Sherman was dead ! His 
spirit had joined the great majority with his many old 
comrades, and had met the gentle spirit of his wife at 
last. He had marched from Adanta to the sea. He 
had crossed the dark, dark river. Let the fife shriek 



THE LAST BATTLE. 609 



and the drum sound the deathless song that was writ- 
ten for him, ana will never die so long a^ martial 
music lives . 

"Bring the good old bugle, boys, we'll have another song — 
Sing it with a spirit that will start the world along — 
Sing it as we used to sing it, fifty thousand strong. 
While we tvere marching through Georgia. 

"' Huri-ah ! hurrah ! we bring the jubilee ! 

Hurrah ! hurrah ! the flag that makes you free ! * 
So we sang the chorus from Atlanta to the sea. 
While we were marching through Georgia." 

Those who were present in the room said that the 
end was so quiet as to be almost imperceptible. It 
was not until the nurse looked up and spoke the 
simple words, " He is dead," that his daughters knew 
that they were fatherless. 

*' 'Halt!' breathed a muffled voice; 

'Ensheath thy sword, lay down thine arms. 
No more the battle's bugles or alarms 
Shall rouse thy lion's heart. Rejoice!' 
Yet, spite Death's mandate low, 
Despite a nation's woe, 
Sherman marched on — 
Marched on triumphantly, 
As when he led his armies to the sea — 
Marched on ! 

•*0 Death! thou couldst not stay 
A hero, dauntless set upon his way 
To a new planet, toward eternal peace ; 
Thou couldst not touch him, save with pain surcease : 

For while thou spakest, even, 
Sherman marched on — to heaven. 
Where, then, thy sting, O Death? since he 
J}a§ beard God's xoll-oall Where thy victorjr, 



510 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

O grave? since he has made reply. 

Can Sherman die? 
Nay; glory -girded, one more battle won. 

He has marched on. 

** Choke back your sobs, O men ! 
He has outstripped the sun — what then? 
The Spring, that cometh soon, will let 
Her gently falling tear-drops wet 
His new-made grave. 

"Nature will weep, but men — men do not weep the brave. 
Lay his sheathed sword upon his breast; 
After life's burning warfare peace is best. 
Let dust to dust return; nothing can shroud 
The soul of Sherman. Be not overhowed 
With grief; rather let joy exult; 
For even Death's grim "Halt!" 

His purpose could not stay; 

He saw the coming day, 
And 'neath the sunrise marched, as toward the sea, 

Marched — marched — to immortality.'* 

Messages of Sympathy. 

The following telegrams were received by the 
family of General Sherman : 

To Hon. John Sherman : Convey to your brother's 
bereaved family our tenderest sympathy. A very 
great man has gone. James G. Blaine. 

To P. T. Sherman: In this hour of affliction you 
have my deepest sympathy. The memory of General 
Sherman will be for ever cherished by the American 
people as one of their most valued possessions. 

B. F. Tracy. 

Governor Pattison of Pennsylvania sent the follow- 



THE LAST BATTLE. 51^ 

ing message to P. T. Sherman : '' I desire to express 
the sincere sympathy of the people of Pennsylvania 
for the family of General Sherman, of whose death I 
have just been advised. His patriotic, faithful, and 
invaluable services to his country will ever be grate- 
fully remembered." 

Miss Sherman: Deep and heartfelt sympathy fo« 
the irreparable loss both to you and to America. 

H. M. Stanley. 

Gv;ineral Joseph E. Johnston, Sherman's great foe, 
sent the following: 

To the Misses Sherman : Intelligence of Genera* 
Sherman's death grieves me much. I sympathize 
deeply with you in your great bereavement. 

To Miss Rachel Sherman: The nation mourn? 
and sympathizes with you in all your great sorrow. 
Your illustrious father's death is to Mrs. Morton, oui 
children, and myself the loss of a personal friend, Uj 
whom we were devotedly attached. 

Levi P. Morton. 

To the Misses Sherman : The death of my old 
commander causes deep sorrow to myself and house- 
hold. Our sympathy is with his family in their great 
affliction. John M. Harlan. 

To the Hon. John Sherman : We mourn with the 
family and kindred of General Sherman. He w^s 



6i'2 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

beloved by me and my family with the warmest per- 
sonal affection. I expect to reach the Fifth Avenue 
Hotel Monday. R. B. Hayes. 

To Hon. John Sherman: Please accept for your- 
self and the members of your family sympathy in 
the bereavement you suffer in the loss of the general 
commander, who was my dearest friend. 

J. M. ScHoriEi.D. 

The following is the President's message to the 
family of General Sherman : 

Executive Mansion, Washington, Feb. 14, 1891. — 
To Hon. John Sherman, New York : I loved ana 
venerated General Sherman, and would stand very 
near to the more deeply afflicted members of his 
family in this hour of bereavement. It will be as if 
there were one dead in every loyal household in the 
land. I suggest the body be borne through Wash- 
ington and lie in state for one day in the rotunda of 
the Capitol. Please advise me of any arrangements 
made. Benjamin Harrison. 

Upward of three thousand telegrams were received 
within twenty-four hours, expressing the sympathy 
felt in all parts of the land, and the high appreciation 
in which General Sherman was held by all classes of 
his countrymen. 

There is something impressive in the sight of a 
great natipn moved by a commor) feeling. As m tb^ 



THE LAST BATTLE. 513 

old days of the war the whole North was sometimes 
thrilled and overjoyed by the^ news of victory, so now 
the country was affected by a commc i sorrow. 

And the grief was not entirely confined within 
geographical lines. In all parts of the land there 
was mourning for the hero whose war record was 
one of the most brilliant written in the annals of the 
republic. The hills of New England, the Rockies in 
the West, and the vales of the South might well have 
been draped in black. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

A Nation in Mourning. — Tributes of Love and 

Respect. 

President Harrison had just finished his luncheon 
and was walking up stairs to his office when the bul- 
letin announcing the death of General Sherman 
reached the White House. The telegraph operator 
handed the despatch to Private Secretary Halford, 
who hastened to inform the President, and met him 
on the stairway. The President was very much 
shocked He served under General Sherman in the 
famous march to the sea, and the friendship begun at 
that time had been strengthened by their close asso- 
ciation ever since. General Sherman never visited 
Indianapolis while General Harrison was there with- 
out spending many hours in his society, and even 
greater intimacy had exisjed between them since the 
President's election. The last time they were together 
was on January 27th, when General Sherman called 
at the White House in company with General Scho- 
field. In the words of Mr. Halford, ''The President 
had the greatest love and admiration for General 
Sherman, and is sorely grieved at his death." 

A few minutes after reading the bulletin the Presi- 
dent received a brief telegram from Senator Sherman 
announcing his brother's death. He thereupon sent for 

614 



A NATION IN MOUKNING. 515 

General Lewis A. Grant, who was acting as Secretary 
of War, and Major-General Schofield, and gave in- 
structions for full military honors for the dead soldier, 
and made several suggestions in regard to the cha- 
racter of the general order announcing General Sher- 
man's death to the army. He also prepared a message 
to Congress on the same subject and issued the fol- 
lovvinor executive order: 

It is my painful duty to announce to the country 
that General William Tecumseh Sherman died this 
day at 1.50 oclock p. m., at his residence in the city of 
New York. The Secretary of War will cause the 
highest military honors to be paid to the memory of 
this distinguished officer. The national flag will be 
floated at half-mast over all public buildings until after 
the burial, and the public business will he suspended 
in the executive Departments at the city of Washing- 
ton and in the city where the interment takes place 
on the day of the '. neral, and in all places where 
public expression is given to the national sorrow 
during such hours as will enable every officer and 
employee to participate therein with their fellow- 
cidzens. Benjamin Harrison. 

Executive Mansion, Washington, D. C, February 
14, 1891. 

An Ideal Soldier. 

The message to Congress is as follows: 

To the Senate and House of Representatives : 

The death of William Tecumseh Sherman, which 
took place to-day at his residence in the city of New 



516 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

York at 1.50 o'clock p. m., is an event that will bring 
sorrow to the hearts of every patriotic citizen. No 
living American was so loved and venerated as he. 
To look upon his face, to hear his name, was to have 
one's love of country intensified. He served his 
country, not for fame, not out of a sense of profes- 
sional duty, but for love of the flag and of the benef- 
icent civil institutions of which it was the emblem. 

He was an ideal soldier, and shared to the fullest 
the esprit de corps of the army ; but he cherished the 
civil institutions organized under the Constitution, and 
was only a soldier that these might be perpetuated in 
undiminished usefulness and honor. He was in noth- 
ing an imitator. A profound student of military sci- 
ence and precedent, he drew from them principles 
and suggestions, and so adapted them to novel condi- 
tions that his campaigns will continue to be the profit- 
able study of the military profession throughout the 
world. 

His genial nature made him a comrade to every 
soldier of the great Union army. No presence was 
so welcome and inspiring at the camp-fire or com- 
mandery as his. His career was complete ; his honors 
were full. He had received from the Government 
the highest rank known to our military establishment 
and from the people unstinted gratitude and love. 

No word of mine can add more to his fame. His 
death has followed in startling quickness that of the 
admiral of the navy, and it is a sad and notable inci- 
dent that when the Department under which he served 



A NATION IN MOURNING. 517 

shall have put on the usual emblems of mourning- four 
of the eight executive Departments will be simultane- 
ously draped in black, and one other has but to-day 
removed the crape from its walls. 

Benj. Harrison. 
Executive Mansion, Feb. 14, 1891. 

General Army Order. 

The Actincr Secretarv of War issued a general 
order to the army announcing the death of General 
Sherman. It included the President's message to 
Congress and the executive order issued by him to 
the executive Departments, and ordered that the War 
Department be draped in mourning for the period of 
thirty days, and that all business be suspended therein 
on the day of the funeral. 

This was accompanied by another order issued by 
Adjutant-General Kelton, by command o( Major-Gen- 
eral Schofield, as follows : 

On the day of the funeral the troops at every mili- 
tary post will be paraded and this order read to them, 
after which all labors of the day will cease. The 
national flag will be displayed at half-staff from the 
time of the receipt of this order until the close of 
ihe funeral. On the day of the funeral a salute of 
seventeen euns will be fired at half-hour intervals, 
commencing at eioht o'clock a. m. The officers of 
the army will wear the usual badges of mourning, 
and the colors of the several regiments and battal- 
ions will be draped in mourning for a period of six 



518 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

months. The day and hour of the funeral will be com- 
municated to department commanders by telegraph, 
and by them to their subordinate commanders. Other 
necessary orders will be issued hereafter relative to 
the appropriate funeral ceremonies. 

Imposing- Obsequies in New York. 

General Sherman's funeral began in New York on 
February 19th, and ended in St. Louis on the 21st. 
But once has New York seen a o-reater funeral 

o 

pageant, and that was when General Grant was borne 
to his tomb in Riverside Park. Twenty thousand 
men, it is said, followed the remains of General Sher- 
man as they were carried through the streets, decorated 
with emblems of mournino- and throneed with mourn- 
ers eager to participate in the last honors to the hero 
of the " March to the Sea." 

The day was wellnigh perfect, and from first to last 
no serious accident, no untoward incident, detracted 
from the beauty and impressiveness of the pageant. 
The bright sunshine, which made the metal helmets of 
the soldiers glitter as they marched and sent the light 
flashing from swords and guns, relieved the sombre- 
ness of the funeral cavalcade, and gave the procession 
the appearance of bravery which befitted a great 
soldier's funeral. Everything seemed suited to the 
occasion and to the man, and Nature and the nation 
joined in doing honor to the great Union captain. 

Sympathetic Crowds. 

An hour or more before the hour set for the mov- 
ing of the procession the str--.ets along which it was 



A NATION IN MOUKNING. 519 

to pass began to fill, and at two o'clock they were 
densely packed. Tens of thousands crowded every 
available place, and some, women as well as men, 
stood for hours, that they might see "Sherman's 
funeral." The interest manifested was intense, and 
the comments on the dead hero heard on every hand 
were always appreciative, although sometimes uncouth. 

The first thing that the waiting thousands saw were 
the mounted police that forced the crowd back to the 
sidewalks, leaving the street free for the vast proces- 
sion. Not far behind them came the regular troops> 
mounted and on foot, marching with the precision 
which marks the veteran. Then followed, drawn by 
four black horses, the caisson on the top of which 
rested the coffined remains of General Sherman, the 
simple casket covered with the flag of the United 
States. 

Behind the caisson came the carriages of the 
mourners, the President, Cabinet, and other distin- 
guished attendants, and these were followed by the 
Loyal Legion, the Grand Army, and the National 
Guard. The procession made a striking picture as 
its various and contrasting sections passed slowly 
down Fifth avenue, and it compelled the comment 
that the hero of Atlanta was worthily escorted. In 
the marching line was a committee of twelve men 
from the Confederate Veteran Camp of New York, 
and one of the honored pall-bearers was General 
Joseph E. Johnston, one of the greatest of the 
Confederate commanders. 



520 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

The Solemn Knell. 

As the procession moved church-bells tolled slowly., 
and from St. Thomas's, near Central Park, down to 
Old Trinity, their solemn music gave notice that Gen- 
eral Sherman's funeral escort was marching. At 
intervals cannons boomed, salutes of seventeen guns 
havine been fired at half-hour intervals from Fort 
Wood on Bedloe's Island, Fort Hamilton, Fort Wads- 
worth, Fort Schuyler, Governor's Island, Willett's 
Point, and from the recruiting depot on David's Island. 

The mourning decorations were not, as a rule, 
elaborate, but they were tasteful, and such as Gen- 
eral Sherman would have been likely to approve, 
comprising mainly flags crape bordered. One of 
these, which hung from one of the Vanderbilt houses, 
bore the names of all the battles in which General 
Sherman fought. Nearly every house passed by the 
procession bore some evidence of sorrow, and from 
some floated several flao-s bearinor the insignia of 
mourninor. There was no ostentation ; there was also 
no neglect. The mourning decorations, like the 
pageant, were impressive, but they were not oppres- 
sive throuo^h excessive sombreness. 

The Casket Open during^ the Forenoon. 

The casket remained open during the forenoon for 
any distinguished visitors that might arrive from the 
hotels. At 10.30 none but some intimate friends and 
old veterans had come in to take a last look at their 
old commander. A few minutes before eleven o'clock 
a large floral shield was received at the house from 



A NATION IN MOURNING. 521 

West Point cadets. The shield was six feet in height 
and four feet broad. It was made of white and blue 
immortelles, and bore the inscription, " William Te- 
cumseh Sherman, from his West Point boys, Class of 
1840." At the top of the shield was the American 
eagle worked in blue immortelles, and at the bottom 
a sword and scabbard in the same flower. The base 
of the shield was made of white calla lilies. At eleven 
o'clock Secretaries Proctor and Rusk drove up to the 
house in a carriage and passed in at the front door. 

At eleven o'clock many other distinguished guests 
arrived at the house. Among the number were Gen- 
eral O'Beirne and General Romer. Shortly after them 
Secretary Blaine walked up Seventy-first street, arm-in- 
arm with General Thomas Ewing. President Harri- 
son would not look upon the remains of the general. 
The family sent an invitation to him this morning at 
the Fifth Avenue Hotel, but the President kindly re- 
plied that he preferred to keep with him the remem- 
brances of the general while alive. He did not wish 
to see him in death, when their associations had been 
so warm and genial. 

At noon every doorstep along the street was 
crowded with interested spectators and windows 
were filled with expectant faces. The street was 
kept free from pedestrians, but the side-streets were 
crowded with the forming troops and citizens. 

About 12.25 the caisson, draped in black and 
drawn by four horses, was drawn up in front of the 
Sherman house. The horses were mounted by regu 



622 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

lars and an army officer was in charge. Behind the 
caisson was an orderly leading the blajk charger 
which bore the military trappings of the general. A 
black velvet covering almost hid the horse from view, 
but the boots and saddle were plainly conspicuous. 

The services of prayer began promptly on the 
hour. At five minutes to twelve a Father left the 
general's late residence and entered No. "j"] Seventy- 
first street, and summoned the boy choir of St. 
Francis Xaviei'. The services were over at 12.30. 
The prayers were read by Rev. Father Sherman. 

There were about one hundred and fifty persons 
present at these ceremonies. The greater number 
were relatives, but there were many close friends as 
well, among them being Mrs. Grant and Senator 
Cameron. 

The reading of the service and the singing to- 
gether did not occupy more than fifteen minutes. 
During that time no one was permitted to enter the 
house. There were large crowds of people all along 
the street and on the house-stoops, but they main- 
tained the utmost order, and by their silent, com- 
posed demeanor manifested their respect for the 
dead general. 

As the hour of two drew near the scene in the im- 
mediate neighborhood was one full of life. Mounted 
officers and orderlies dashed through the streets, the 
polished trimmings of their horse equipments flash- 
ing in the bright sunlight, and their yellow- and scar- 
let-lined capes flying in the breeze. 




VETERANS SALUTING THE FUNERAL TRAIN. 



624 GENEEAL SHERMAN. 

Drooping- Flag-s, 

Flags at half-staff in almost countless numbers flut- 
tered from windows of every house in the vicinity. 

Ex-President Cleveland and Chauncey M. Depew 
arrived at the house together about 1.30. Soon after 
came Governor Pattison of Pennsylvania and Major- 
General Snowden, with their staff, and followinor them 
were Governor Bulkley and staff and Lieutenant- 
Governor Jones. Ex-President Hayes was accom- 
panied by Joseph H. Choate. 

The Senate committee arrived in a body, wearing 
the usual signs of mourning, and after them came the 
large committee of the House. It was close on to 
two o'clock when President Harrison, with Lieutenant 
Ernst, his aide-de-camp, reached the house. Follow- 
ing were the remaining members of the Cabinet. 

Mourning- Decorations. 

The hour at which the head of the funeral proces 
b.on was to move from Seventy-first street was two 
o'clock, but long before that time spectators began to 
take up their places along the route of march. Every 
house in the block where General Sherman lived so 
long was tastefully decorated with draped flags. 
Along Fifty-seventh street, from Broadway to Fifth 
avenue, nearly every house was draped, and up to 
noon the work of decoration continued. Fifth avenue 
from the Plaza at Central Park to the Arch at Wash- 
ington Square presented a bewildering array of 
draped and half-masted flags. The club-house of the 
Seventh Regiment Veterans was handsomely draped. 



A NATION IN MOUKNING. 525 

and the Union League Club building presented an 
elaborate display of black. Especially noticeable were 
the sombre decorations of the big hotels along the 
line. The big wholesale houses on Broadway had 
their flags at half-mast, and the smaller stores were 
tastefully draped. The side-streets were similarly 
decorated. 

Forming' the Procession. 

The first move toward the formation of the pro- 
cession was at 1.58. General Howard came out on 
the front steps of the general's residence and ordered 
the caisson, which had beeii withdrawn, to come up. 
At that instant a detailed squad of the Sixth Cavalry 
formed to the left of the house in the middle of the 
street. The caisson came up in front of the house at 
exactly two o'clock. Generals Howard, Slocum, John- 
ston, and other military dignitaries formed two lines 
on the walk and made a passageway to the caisson. 
As the pall-bearers left the house an army band out 
toward Central Park began playing a funeral march. 

Six lieutenants appeared in the doorway bearing on 
their shoulders the casket of the general. Slowly they 
bore their burden to the awaiting funeral carriage. All 
heads were then bared, and silence reigned from one 
end of the street to the other. This was at 2.05. A 
narchlng order was given and the caisson moved out 
.oward Eighth avenue. The private carriage of Gen- 
eral Butterfield was then driven to the door, and 
Generals Schofield, Ploward, Slocum, and Schofield's 
aide entered. The pall-bearers were then seated In 



526 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

their respective carriages in quick succession, and 
were ready to fall into line. 

The members of the family then entered their car- 
riages, and the friends, governors, senators, and other 
notables followed in the order previously announced. 

The procession at 2.45 had moved down Eighth 
avenue for some distance, but the movement was very 
slow. Out on the side-streets were hundreds of car- 
riages waiting for a place in the immense procession. 

As the caisson bearing the body rumbled over the 
pavement through the sunlit street into Eighth avenue 
the vast crowds stood with uncovered heads, rever- 
ently watching the starry folds of the American flag 
enveloping the casket. More than one veteran wept 
as the body of his old commander was borne past 
him. The sidewalks, the roof-tops, every window, 
swarmed with watching humanity. As the cortege 
passed down the avenue there fell in behind it the 
Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United 
States and officers of the army and navy, among them 
being representatives of the Ohio Commandery, of 
which General Sherman was a member. Then came 
the Grand \''my of the Republic, followed by the West 
Point cadets. 

The next in line was the National Guard, under 
command of General Louis Fitzgerald. Among the 
veterans were the Confederate Veterans' Camp of 
the city of New York, riding in carriages, and after 
them came, in carriages, representatives of the 
Chamber of Commerce and the New York Historical 



A NATION IN MOUENING. 52? 

Society, of the Common Councils of Boston and 
Brooklyn, the Union League Club, and other bod- 
ies. Altogether, fully fifteen thousand men were in 
line. 

The whole line of the long route was thronged on 
sidewalks, on house-tops, and in every window with 
reverent spectators, who stood in silence with bare 
heads as the body of the dead general was borne 
past them. The route was lined with seventeen hun- 
dred policemen, and the most perfect order was 
maintained. As the procession moved slowly along 
the church-bells be^an to toll, and through the whole 
route the mournful sound of the bells continued as it 
wended its way to its destination. There were many 
funeral dirges played, but none struck with keener 
force on the listening ears than " Marching through 
Georgia," played in half time, as arranged for the 
occasion. 

In New York especially General Sherman was a 
favorite. The achievements of the man, his blunt yet 
kind demeanor, his downright integrity, and honesty 
of purpose, his commanding figure, which, wherever 
he went, associated Am with the heroic deeds of 
the nations' patriots, all served to endear him to the 
hearts of the people, and awake profound regret at 
his death. 

New York honored itself in the memorable tribute 
she paid to the dead soldier. The assemblage of per- 
sons from distant places told how strong a hold Sher- 
man had upon the love and admiration of his country- 



528 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

men. He had made his place in the nation's his- 
tory. He was a magnificent figure in the wonderfial 
panorama of our national life and deeds. It was 
fitting that his obsequies should be nothing less than 
a national demonstration. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

Final Obsequies of General Sherman. — Grand 
Procession of Troops and Civic Bodies, 

On February 21st, St. Louis bade an impressive 
farewell to the soldier whose miUtary genius was 
excelled by none and equalled by few. 

For the first time in several days the sun shone out 
gloriously, but its rays fell upon a city draped in 
mourning. The hearts of the people were saddened, 
and with one accord all manner of men abandoned 
"heir earthly pursuits and assembled along the line of 
he funeral procession to do homage to the honored 
dead. As early as 6.30 o'clock in the morning the 
Union Depot was thronged with people awaiting the 
arrival of the Sherman funeral train. As the morning 
advanced the crowd became larger, and each train as 
it entered the depot deposited load after load of 
human freight, which added to the throng until the 
depot became almost impassable. 

When the hands of the big clock pointed to 8.20 
o'clock a squad of police marched to the depot, and 
soon the immense crowd was under control. In a few 
minutes the funeral train appeared, and the ponder- 
ous iron horse slowly rolled into the station. The 
dull black engine looked duller, blacker, and heavier 
than ever before, its sombre drapings of mourning 
adding to the dismal effect. 

3A m 



630 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

For miles the streets were lined with solid walls of 
people, standing at least a dozen deep, and the evi- 
dences of affection in which his fellow-townsmen held 
General Sherman were abundant on all sides. The 
city was draped in mourning. Evidences of individual 
sorrow were also abundant, and badges of ribbon and 
crape fluttered from every coat-lapel. The grief of 
those in the procession was not alone genuine, but 
apparent to every one. His comrades of Ransom 
Post marched in hollow square about the caisson. 

The Historic Thirteenth. 

Following the caisson were the handful of surviv- 
ors of the old Thirteenth Infantry, a small and grief- 
stricken body of men, following their old leader over 
a road which they too must travel at no very far dis- 
tant day 

There were, besides, thousands of veterans of the 
war, members of the Grand Army of the Republic, 
old and grizzled comrades-in-arms of the dead gen- 
eral. Slowly they walked, and only too plainly was 
it written that the ravages of time were fast depleting 
the ranks of the preservers of the Union. Yet 
none of them were so feeble that they would admit, 
even to themselves, that they were taxing their 
strength in following Sherman to Calvary, even as 
they had followed him to Savannah. 

Arrival of the Funeral Train. 

The funeral train arrived at just half-past eight. As 
it crossed the bridge a salute from a near-by battery 
announced its approach. Emerging from the tunnel. 



FINAL OBSEQUIES. 531 

it was compelled to proceed slowly while the police 
cleared the tracks of people. On the depot platform 
was Governor Francis with his staff and the members 
of the General Reception Committee, headed by 
Messrs. James C. Yeatman and Henry Pitchcock. 

After an exchange of greetings the governor and 
representatives of the General Committee and Ran- 
som Post, G. A. R., were introduced to the members 
of the Cabinet and Lieutenants Fitch and Thackara. 

Meantime, outside, the military companies were 
moved into position. The caisson on which the body 
was to be borne from the train to its resting-place was 
standing on Poplar street, at the entrance of the car- 
riage-way. It was from Battery E, First Artillery, and 
was under Lieutenant Wilson, with Sergeant Cannon 
in immediate charge. It was drawn by six bay horses. 
The riders were the men who worked the Hotchkiss 
gun at the battle of Wounded Knee Creek during the 
recent Indian war. They belonged to the Seventh 
Cavalry, known as the " Fighting Seventh." Their 
names were Privates Mallory, Ryan and Krauss. The 
body-bearers were eight sergeants. Four of them — 
Sergeants Connelly, Lang, Hennessey and Siegber — 
were from the Seventh Cavalry. The other four — 
Sergeants Hunneman, Lavay, French and Donohugh 
— were from Battery E, First Artillery. 

The Riderless Horse. 

In front of the caisson, on Poplar street, was th^ 
Twelfth Infantry, from F'ort Leavenworth, under coiri- 
mand of Colonel Townsend, drawn up in line facij\i; 



532 GENEKAL SHERMAN. 

the depot. On the opposite side of the street were 
the members of Ransom Post, who were to act as 
guard of honor. The horse that was to be led behind 
the caisson, equipped with the dead general's saddle, 
bridle, boots and spurs, stood next to the caisson. 
He was a black horse belonging to Troop D, Seventh 
Cavalry, of Fort Riley, Kansas, and was brought from 
there especially for this purpose. It was led by Ser- 
eeant Georoe H. Rathouber. The hearse on this 
occasion was not covered with a black cloth, as was 
done in the general parade in New York. 

Removal of the Body from the Train. 

At a quarter-past ten an open barouche drove into 
the carriage-way. All of the floral pieces brought 
from New York and those received during the trip 
were put in this carriage, to be conveyed to the 
cemetery. General Merritt and staff arrived at the 
depot at half-pafit ten. At this hour the adjacent 
streets and Twelfth street bridge were fairly black 
with people. The police had all they could to keep 
room enough for the procession to move in. 

Immediately after the arrival of General Merritt 
and staff preparations were made to remove the body 
fr(-'m the car where it had rested during its Ion: 
journey. The eight body-bearers took up position-.^ 
at the car-door, four on each side. Directly behind 
them, six on a side stood the honorary pall-bearers. 
They were : Military — Major-General John Pope, 
Brevet Major- General Amos Beckwith, Brevet Major- 
General A. J. Smith, Brevet Major-General John W. 



FINAL OBSEQUIES. 533 

Turner, Brevet Major-General Willard Warner, Brevet 
Brigadier-General John W. Barriger, Commander 
Charles S. Cotton, U. S. N. ; Citizens — Judge Samuel 
Treat. Colonel Georore E. Leiorhton, Colonel Charles 
S. Parsons, Byron Sherman, Esq., Daniel B. Harri- 
son, Isaac Sturgeon, and Thomas E. Tutt. 

A Silent Throng. 

Ranofed in line on each side of the carriacr*^- 
entrance were the military and public officials who 
had accompanied the remains from New York, Gen- 
eral Merritt and staff, and Governor Francis and 
staff Three comrades of Ransom Post entered the 
funeral car and assisted the six serg^eants in charcre 
to lift the casket out through the car-door to the 
shoulders of the waiting pall-bearers. As the end 
of the flag-covered oaken box was passed through 
the door every head was uncovered and silence 
reigned supreme. Slowly and carefully the precious 
burden was taken from the car and placed on the 
shoulders of the stalwart sergeants. 

As they started with slow step out through the 
carriage-way to the waiting caisson, the Twelfth 
Infantry presented arms, flags were dipped and the 
^regimental band played Pleyel's well-known hymn. 
Many, many hearts were touched by the sight, and 
veterans and comrades of the dead soldier could 
be seen crying on all sides. Generals Howard and 
Slocum were so overcome they could not speak for 
several minutes. The casket was placed lengthwise 
on the caisson and strapped in place. On it were 



634 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

placed the hat and sword of him who lay inside. 
The delivery of the remains to the St. Louis body- 
guard relieved the six sergeants who had accom- 
panied it from New York of all further care. 

The Procession. 

When the fastening of the casket was finished, 
Colonel L. Townsend gave the order to march, and 
the Twelfth Infantry wheeled into line and marched 
up Eleventh street to the corner of Clark street. 
Here they halted. The open carriage with the floral 
pieces followed directly behind. Then the order was 
given by Lieutenant Wilson, and the caisson, with its 
sacred burden, moved slowly up Eleventh street to a 
place next the carriage containing the flowers. On 
each side of the caisson walked the four military 
body-bearers. Directly the caisson started the four 
hundred members of Ransom Post, who had made 
up the guard of honor, marched up in two columns, 
Dne going to one side and the other on the opposite 
side of the caisson. The saddle-horse bearing the 
riding equipments of the general was led just be- 
hind the caisson and between the columns of Ran- 
som Post. 

Meanwhile the immediate members and relatives 
of the Sherman family had filled coaches, and werc^ 
now driven into a place in the procession next to the 
guard of honor. Behind the family were carriages in 
which were the people who had come from New York 
to attend the funeral. In the first coach were Secre- 
tary and Mrs. Noble, Judge Hough and Major Ran- 



FINAL OBSEQUIES. 535 

dolph ; in the second, Secretary Rusk, Assistant 
Secretary Grant, Charles A. Greeley, Captain Kings- 
bury; the third carnage contained ex- President Hayes, 
General Schofield, Governor Stannard, and Lieuten- 
ant Anderson ; the fourth, Generals Howard, Slocum, 
and Broadhead and Lieutenant Howard ; the fifth, 
General Alger, James E. Yeatman, Colonel McCreary, 
and General James D. Moore. When these carriages 
had taken their proper places in the line, General 
Merritt with his staff galloped to the head of the pro- 
cession, which was at the corner of Clark avenue and 
Eleventh street. At just ten minutes after eleven, 
all division commanders having reported everything 
ready. General Merritt gave the order to march. 

Great Popular Demonstration. 

The funeral column was made up of six divisions, 
composed of the regular military escort, as provided 
by army regulations, and Grand Army posts. Loyal 
Legion, Sons of Veterans, civic societies, State militia 
of Missouri and Ohio, and Legislatures of Missouri, 
Illinois, and Kansas, governors of States and staffs, 
unorganized bodies, and citizens in carriages and on 
foot. The route of the procession from the depot to 
Calvary Cemetery, a distance of nearly eight miles, was 
through some of the principal streets and avenues. 
After starting from the junction of Eleventh street and 
Clark avenue, the cortege moved up Eleventh street 
to Market, through Market to Twelfth, and through 
Twelfth to Pine street. The route was through the 
business section. 



636 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

The stores were closed, but the windows of nearly 
all the big blocks were filled with spectators, and the 
sidewalks were filled with crowding, surging masses 
of humanity. While there was no disorder (in the 
full sense of the word) in the streets mentioned, the 
jam of people coming in from the various intersect- 
ing streets when the procession started was some- 
thing terrific. Strong men and weak women were 
swept along by this human tidal wave until they 
were brought to a standstill by the crowds that 
already had possession of every inch of available 
standinor-room. 

The march to the cemetery from the depot was 
through some of the principal streets of the city. 
The route laid out was through Eleventh, Market, 
Twelfth, and Pine and Grand avenue, thence out 
Florissant avenue to Calvary Cemetery. The en- 
trance to the cemetery was by the rear gate. The 
larger part of the military remained outside of the 
cemetery. 

The Scene at the Cemetery. 

When the caisson entered the gates of the cem- 
etery most of the troops remained outside of the 
cemetery. On account of the large, number of car- 
riages occupied by Grand Army men, members of the 
Loyal Legion, and the Sons of Veterans who were 
unable to endure the fatigue of the entire march of 
nearly eight miles, and for whom carnages were pro- 
vided at the corner of Grand and K^.FA?rn avenues, 
the road from the entrance to the rx-i'^Mery tc the 



FINAL OBSEQUIES. 537 

grave was soon blocked, and many of those who 
occupied carnages and near the end of the proces- 
sion were obHged to leave them some distance from 
Jie gate and walk to the grave. This caused some 
delay, and it was not until half-past two o'clock that 
all who had been assigned places took their positions 
about the open grave, which was lined inside with 
flags. 

A short distance to the south was the brave 
Thirteenth, to the east members of the G. A. R., 
and direcdy around it to the north were grouped 
Senator Sherman, the Misses Sherman, P. T. Sher- 
man, Colonel Hoyt Sherman, Lieutenants Thackara 
and Fitch and their wives, Judge and Mrs. P. B. 
Ewing, General and Mrs. Thomas Ewing, General 
and Mrs. Nelson A. Miles, Secretary and Mrs. Noble, 
Secretary and Mrs. Rusk, Assistant Secretary Grant, 
ex-President Hayes, General Schofield, General How- 
ard, General Slocum, and others. After all had taken 
their positions the eight sergeants, acting as body- 
bearers, lifted the casket from the caisson and bore it 
reverentially to the grave, when all that was mortal 
of General Sherman was lowered to its last resting- 
place. The casket was draped with flags and was 
bare of any floral tributes. 

The Services at the Grave. 

The services were of the simplest character and 
were conducted by Rev. Thomas Ewing Sherman, 
all assembled at the grave standing with uncovered 
heads. As the casket was being lowered the regi- 



538 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

mental band played Pleyel's hymn. Father Sherman 
read the Catholic service, one of the selections being 
"I am the resurrection and the life," offered a fervent 
prayer, and the services were at an end. As the 
services progressed many about the grave were 
visibly affected, and when the flags surrounding the 
casket were removed the sounds of low sobbing were 
heard. At three o'clock the closing of the grave 
took place, and the buglers of the Seventh Calvary 
sounded "Taps," "Lights out." Salutes were fired 
by the Thirteenth Infantry, followed by three salvos 
of artillery, which was stationed some distance to 
the east. Wreaths and branches of evergreens were 
then placed upon the grave by loving hands. The 
funeral party and troops returned to the station and 
the many thousands of citizens dispersed to their 
homes. 

Thus was laid to rest by the side of his wife and 
two sons, one of whom was his " soldier boy," Gen- 
eral William Tecumseh Sherman 

Description by an Eye-witness. 

The following graphic recital of the events attend- 
ing the last obsequies is from the pen of an eye-witness 
of the wonderful spectacle : 

The scene at the St. Louis Union Depot as early as 
six o'clock was one of great animation, and by the 
time the funeral train arrived the crowd rivalled in 
numbers the largest ever seen in this city. Every few 
minutes, from 6.40 a. m, to 10 o'clock, a train would 
roll in bearing a com.pany or regiment of militia under 



FINAL OBSEQUIES. 539 

arms and In full uniform, besides numerous civilians 
and State dignitaries from other States. Committees 
were promptly on hand to meet and escort them to 
their respective places, and notwithstanding the push 
and jam of the crowd, there was but little confusion in 
readily carrying out the programme that had been 
previously arranged. With the marching and counter- 
marching of the incoming troops, with their glistening 
bayonets, the scene just before the arrival of the 
funeral train vividly called to mind the excitement 
attending upon the movements of an army during 
the war. 

It was early announced that the funeral train, which 
was expected at 7.30 o'clock, would not arrive till 8.25, 
so there was no anxious waiting upon the part of the 
committees appointed to meet it. A few minutes after 
eight o'clock Colonel Brodhead, chairman of the re- 
ception committee, and a number of the members of 
his committee, assembled in the ladies' waiting-room 
of the depot, and were soon joined by Governor 
Francis and several other prominent gentlemen. 
They proceeded to a position just outside the main 
entrance, where they were joined by General Merrltt. 

Dense Crowd. 

Promptly at 8.30 the funeral train was sighted 
slowly approaching around the curve at the east end 
of the yards. Its approach was announced by a 
salute. The crowd that now lined both sides of the 
track to a depth of several feet became anxious to 
catch a view of the train, and were widi great dif- 



540 GENERAL •SHERMAN. 

ficulty pressed back by the police, who were stationed 
every few feet along the track. 

The engine drawing the train was No. 8 of the 
Bridge and Tunnel Company. It was heavily draped 
in black, and on the headlight was placed an engrav- 
ing of the dead general surrounded by a band of 
black, while over the engine was fastened a United 
States flag draped with crape. Slowly, with muffled 
bell, the engine pulled past the main entrance, reveal- 
ing one after another the eight heavily and tastefully 
draped coaches composing the funeral train, till the 
locomotive reached the Twelfth street bridge. 

Impressive Scene. 

Immediately following the engine was the funeral 
car, with the doors of each side pushed back, reveal- 
ing the interior. The floor was covered with a hand- 
some carpet, and in the centre was a catafalque, or: 
which rested the black walnut casket covered with a 
silk flag, while on the top of it lay the dead general's 
sword and hat. At the head of the casket were a 
number of beautiful floral emblems, and at the foot, 
on a stand, were the saddle, bridle, boots, and other 
riding equipments of the dead hero. The interior of 
the car was entirely covered with black cloth. On 
each side of the catafalque stood erect the guard of 
honor, composed of the following past commanders 
of Ransom Post, who went on to meet the train at In- 
dianapolis : John B. Harlow, J. G. Butler, Smith P. 
Gait, and A. G. Peterson. 

The commercial strife of a great city was arrested 



FINAL OBSEQUIES. 541 

for a few hours when the people of St. Louis ranged 
themselves in line and paid reverence to the remains 
of William Tecumseh Sherman. Outwardly this as- 
pect of mourning was preserved throughout the day, 
save for the activity of the restless ones, who, having 
satisfied their curiosity, set about other business. No 
one can gainsay the affection and respect felt for Gen- 
eral Sherman by the mass of the multitude who for- 
£Ook their customary vocations. It was shown in the 
deep and reverential silence maintained while the pro- 
cession passed — in the eagerness of the many whom 
a mere military show does not summon from their 
homes. 

The spectacle offered by the funeral procession was 
most impressive and significant. Two generations of 
men and women blocked the sidewalks along Pine 
street and Grand avenue for many miles. For the 
older generation war had been a horrible reality ; for 
the younger it was but an historical episode. But 
young and old were perhaps equally impressed by the 
solemnity of it all. 

The murmur of expectation caused by the distant 
sound of approaching troops was stilled when the 
first horseman advanced, and silence fell upon the 
multitude assembled to the west of where the proces- 
sion had gotten under way. All was in harmony with 
the occasion. Early in the morning the clouds low- 
ered forbiddingly, and there seemed small hope that 
the wretched weather of the past week would be 
broken. But just before eleven o'clock — the hour 



542 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

set for the order to march — the sun absorbed the mist 
and shone cheerfully enough, and a light breeze bore 
away the smoke and the lingering fog. The streets 
had been washed clean by the heavy rains ; the air 
was fresh and bracing. It was excellent marching 
weather. 

Bronzed Veterans. 

The sight of trained soldiers is always an inspiring 
one. In line was a regiment of the regular army, a 
regiment made up of cavalry, artillery, and infantry — 
bronzed and weatherbeaten men, most of them, who 
formed a dignified and solemn escort to the remains 
of the old commander. The troops showed service, 
and when the broken companies of the Seventh 
Cavalry rode by the spectators were reminded that 
war is even yet a reality and that these men had 
fouo^ht at Wounded Knee. 

No more melancholy procession than a military 
funeral finds its way to a cemetery. Neither crape 
nor coffin was needed to emphasize the mournful- 
ness of that march to the grave. The impression 
of sorrow is conveyed in the slow steps of the 
soldiers, in the sad strains of bugles which were 
moulded for inspiring melody, and in the sullen tone 
of muffled drums. As the escort moved west there 
came a sound even more doleful than these. It was 
the tolling of the bell in the tower of St. John's 
Catholic church at Sixteenth and Chestnut streets. 
It began before the escort was under way, and 
clanged a cheerless accompaniment to the slow and 



FINAL OBSEQUIES. 643 

monotonous tramp of the troops. Then one of the 
military bands struck up a funeral march, and people 
easily affected felt glad that the sun was shining. 

Tokens of Grief. 

Since the war in which Sherman fought there has 
perhaps occurred nowhere in the West so imposing 
a public ceremony. In the matter of mere numbers 
there has been no such body of men in line in St. 
Louis since the encampment of the Grand Army of 
the Republic. It was not singular, then, that the 
railways brought to this city thousands of strangers, 
who, swelling the local population, made sightseers 
thankful that the route to the cemetery was so long. 
Otherwise the pavements and the windows along the 
line of march would scarcely have accommodated the 
crowds. 

They stretched for miles up Pine street and along 
Grand avenue, and the streets at their intersection 
were blocked with well-filled wagons. Mourning 
was displayed in many windows, and while the pro- 
cession was under way St. Louis and its people 
showed innumerable tokens of sincere grief. There 
was something more than this visible in the attitude 
of the older spectators. They realized that another 
link in the chain of events between '6i and '91 had 
been broken — that another paragraph was prepared 
for American history. And they took their way 
thoughtfully to their homes, never to forget the 
mournful scenes of the day. 

Seldom has St. Louis ever made such a display of 



544 GENERAL SHESMAN. 

Visible tokens of its sorrow. Perhaps it has never 
been more universally draped in mourning. Both in 
the business portions and the residence neighbor- 
hoods there was a general display of funeral hang- 
ings. The stately buildings on the down-town streets 
and the small and unpretentious shops removed fron 
the business centre were alike draped. On tl; 
public buildings the sombre materials were unspar 
ingly used. Along parts of the route of the funeral 
pageant every building was made to testify to the 
general sadness. In every part of the city the same 
mournful scenes were presented. The drapery and 
other emblems varied in quality, quantity, and per- 
haps in taste and skill of arrangement, but whether it 
was the black calico draping of the small shop or the 
cashmere, serge, bombazine, bunting, or broadcloth 
of the richer houses, it none the less testified to the 
popular esteem in which the city held the dead hero. 
Flags in Graceful Folds. 

Many liberally disposed persons incurred great ex- 
pense in this work of love and reverence, though they 
occupied houses in unfrequented streets, where their 
displays were hidden from general view. The ma- 
terials used in the principal down-town thoroughfares 
and in the wealthier residence neighborhoods were all 
costly. 

The piers of the basement section of the Govern- 
ment building were heavily shrouded with black, an^ 
the upper stories were hung with the same materials, 
secured with black rosettes. The City buildings were 



FINAL OBSEQUIES. 545 

all elaborately draped with black materials and flags. 
In the windows everywhere were portraits of Sher- 
man in black frames. Large flags gracefully arranged 
In folds or looped up with black bands were used as 
drapery on many of the big business buildings and on 
private dwellings. On others there were many small 
flags with crape sashes. 

A large flag with a heavy black bar extending diag- 
onally across it floated over Washington avenue near 
Seventh street. Broad bands of mourning were 
stretched lenc/thwise across several buildings on that 
street, and a large number of the windows were hand- 
somely decorated. Black and white feathers taste- 
fully grouped, and sheaves of wheat and rye with 
appropriate inscriptions, made many of the large 
windows on the principal streets attractive. 

The banks, the railroad offices, big wholesale 
houses, hotels, and other large edifices, all bore some 
mournful tribute to the dead man. It was all done 
hurriedly, but none the less tastily. 

The wealthy residents on the streets and avenues 
through which the funeral procession passed had their 
palatial abodes put in mourning costume by skilled 
decorators and designers. The work was not elabo- 
rate, but it was rich, costly, and in keeping with the 
homes. Many of these houses were not draped, how- 
ever, either because of the short time allowed for 
the work after it was known what route the funeral 
procession would take or because of a question of 
propriety. 



546 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Myriads wlio Honor the Hero. 

The hotels were all so well filled that many of the 
late-comers to the city could not obtain rooms, but 
myriads came for the day only, and the numbers who 
sought accommodations at the hotels furnished no 
fair standard by which to estimate the entire number 
of strangers in the city. By noon the population liad 
bounded from its ordinary limit at half a million to 
very much nearer six hundred thousand, and citizens 
and strangers were out early, side by side, seeking 
the most advantageous point possible from which to 
view the procession. Hundreds of country relatives 
and friends found comfortable quarters in the houses 
of citizens within view of the line of march, but there 
were myriads who were less fortunate. Train-load 
after train-load rolled into the depot from every poin^ 
of the compass during the first half of the day. 

The day had scarcely begun when the earliest 
arrivals were landed, and soon there were in all of 
the down-town streets little, broken, irregular lines of 
men and women wandering about till time for the 
pageant to move. In a short time these processions 
became denser and broader. A little later armed and 
uniformed lines of men gave variety to the scene. 
Soon they were all over the down-town district. They 
no longer moved in thread-like lines ; the sidewalks 
were no longer broad enough to hold them. Every 
house except those along the line of march seemed to 
give up its occupants to join the strangers in the wild 
rush hither and thither, jostling and pushing to get in 



FINAL OBSEQUIES. 547 

the streets from which the column could be seen, and 
afterward to get good standing-places there. 

Martial Dirges. 

Then there was a blare and clash of bands, and the 
b:g crowd increased its struggle to get the vantage- 
points. Hundreds of them took to the street-cars and 
were quickly transported far out along the line. Hun- 
dreds of others did not understand the necessity of 
going early, and as a result the jam was so great in 
many of the down-town streets that the street-cars 
were delayed or stopped entirely when the procession 
was forming. 

All kinds of vehicles were moving in the direction 
of Pine street lone before the cortege was to move. 
Trucks of all kinds, licensed and unlicensed vender- 
wagons and carts rigged out with rows of wooden 
benches, light wagons, carriages, coaches, and cabs, 
were called into use to give the anxious people an 
opportunity to see the uniformed line. But many of 
them were disappointed. 

The windows, roofs, and balconies were lined with 
people before the procession moved. And still others 
came pushing and crowding, creeping under wagons 
and crowding between vicious horses. They rushed 
pellmell one way in expectation of finding a vacant 
place, and then dashed back again when they discov^ 
ered that there was no such place in sight. Pale- 
faced, ill-clad women, gayly-dressed girls, clerks, 
workingmen. and merchants crowded together and 
conversed while the line moved. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Glowing Eulogies upon the World-Renowned 
Commander. 

When the President's message announcing Gen- 
eral Sherman's death reached the Senate, discussion 
of the subject under consideration (the Copyright 
bill) was suspended, and Mr. Hawley, of Conneciicut^ 
offered the followino-: 

Resolved, That the Senate receives with profound 
sorrow the announcement of the death of William 
Tecumseh Sherman, late general of the armies of 
the United States. 

Resolved, That the Senate renews its acknowledg- 
ment of the inestimable services which he rendered 
to his country in the day of its extreme peril, laments 
the great loss which the country has sustained, and 
deeply sympathizes with his family in its bereave- 
ment. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be for 
warded to the family of the deceased. 

Mr. Hawley said : 

" Mr. President, at this hour the Senate, the Con- 
gress, and the people of the United States are one 
family. What we have been daily expecting has hap- 
pened: General Sherman has received and obeyed 
his last order. He was a great soldier by the judg- 

548 



GLOWING EULOGIES. 649 

ment of the great soldiers of the world. In time 
of peace he had been a ereat citizen, elowino- and 
abounding with love of country and of all human 
ity. His glorious soul appeared in every look, 
gesture, and word. The history of our country is 
rich in soldiers who have set examples of simple sol 
Alrrly obedience to the civil law and of self-abnega 
iion. Washino^ton, Grant, Sheridan, and Sherman 
lead the list. Sherman was the last of the illustri- 
ous trio who were by universal consent the foremost 
figures in the armies of the Union in the late war. 
Among the precious traditions — to pass into our his- 
tory for the admiration of the old and the instructior^ 
of the young — was their friendship, their most har- 
monious co-operation without a shadow of ambition 
or pride. When General Grant was called to Wash- 
ington to take command of the armies of the Union 
his great heart did not forget the men who stood by 
him." 

Beautiful Tribute by Hawley. 

Here Mr. Hawley read the letter from Grant to 
Sherman (written at that time), expressing thanks to 
him and McPherson as the men to whom, above all 
others, he owed his success, and Sherman's letter in 
reply saying that General Grant did himself injustice 
and them too much honor. 

Mr. Hawley closed his remarks (his voice fre- 
quently giving way from grief and emotion) by read- 
ing the following passage from Bunyan's Pilgrim' i 
Progress : 



550 GENERAL SHERMAN, 

"After this It was noised about that Mr. Valiant- 
for-Truth was taken with a summons. When he 
understood it he called for his friends and told them 
of it. Then said he : 'I am going to my fathers ; and 
though with great difficulty I got hither, yet now I do 
not repent me of all the trouble I have been at to 
arrive w^here I am. My sword I give to him that 
shall succeed me in my pilgrimage, and my courage 
and skill to him that can get them. My marks and 
scars I carry with me, to be a witness for me that I 
have fought His battles who will now be a rewarder.' 
When the day that he must go hence was come, 
many accompanied him to the river-side, into which 
as he went, he said, ' Death, where is thy sting?' and 
as he went down deeper he said, ' Grave, where is 
thy victory ?' So he passed over, and all the trumpets 
sounded for him on the other side." 

From Senator Morg^aii. 

Mr. Morgan said : " On this occasion of national 
solemnity I would lead the thoughts and sympathies 
of the American Senate back to those days in our 
history when General Sherman was, by a choice 
greatly honorable to his nature, a citizen of the State 
of Louisiana, and presided over a college for the 
instruction of Southern youths in the arts of war and 
the arts of peace. These were not worse days than 
some we have seen durine the last half of this 
century. In those days, notwithstanding the then 
conditions of the South, in view of its institutions 
inherited from the older States of the East, every 



GLOWING EULOGIES. 651 

American was as welcome in Louisiana and the 
South as he was elsewhere in the Union. We are 
gradually and surely returning- to that cordial state 
of feeling which was unhappily interrupted by the 
Civil War. 

" Our fathers taught us that it was the highest pa- 
triotism to defend the Constitution of the country. 
But they had left within its body guarantees of an insti- 
tution that the will of the majority finally determined 
should no longer exist, and which put the conscience 
of the people to the severest test. Looking back 
now to the beginning of this century and to the con- 
flict of opinion and of material interests engendered 
by these guarantees, we can see that they never could 
have been stricken out of the organic law except by a 
conflict of arms. The conflict came, and it was bound 
to come, and Americans became enemies, as they were 
bound to be in the settlement of issues that involved 
so much of money, such radical political results, and 
the pride of a great and illustrious race of people. 
The power rested with the victors at the close of the 
conflict, but not all the honors of the desperate war- 
fare. Indeed, the survivors are now winning honors, 
enriched with justice and magnanimity, not less worthy 
than those who fell in battle, in their labors to restore 
the country to its former feeling of fraternal regard 
and to unity of sentiment and action, and to promote 
its welfare. 

'' The fidelity of the great general who has just de- 
parted in the ripeness of age and with a history 



552 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

marked by devotion to his flag was the true and 
simple faith of an American to his convictions of duty. 
We differed with him and contested campaigns and 
battle-fields with him, but we welcome the history of 
the great soldier as the proud inheritance of our 
country. We do this as cordially and as sincerely as 
we orave him welcome in the South as one of our 
people when our sons were confided to his care in a 
relation that (next to paternity) had its influence upon 
the young men of the country. 

Supreme Devotion. 

"The great military leaders on both sides of our 
Civil War are rapidly marching across the borders to 
a land where history and truth and justice must de- 
cide upon every man's career. When they meet 
there they will be happy to find that the honor of 
human a':t/ons is not always measured by their wis- 
dom, but by the motives in which they had their 
origin I cherish the proud belief that the heroes of 
the Civil War will find that, measured by this stand- 
ard, none of them, on either side, were delinquent, 
and they will be happy in an association that will 
never end, and will never be disturbed by an evil 
thought, jealousy, or distrust. When a line so narrow 
divides us from those high courts in which our actions 
are to be judged by their motives, and when so many 
millions now livinor and increasino- millions to follow 
are to be affected by the wisdom of our eriactments, 
we will do well to give up this day to reflection upon 
our duties and (in sympathy with this great country'! 



GLOWING EULOGIES. 553 

to dedicate the day to his memory. In such a retro- 
spect we shall find an admonition that an American 
Senate should meet, on this side of the fatal line of 
death, as the American generals meet on the other 
side, to render justice to each other and to make our 
beloved country as happy, comparatively, as we should 
wish the great Beyond to be to those great spirits. 

From Senator Manderson. 

Mr. Manderson said that as the hours of the last 
few days passed away he had not had the heart to 
make such preparation for the event which all feared 
and dreaded as might seem to be meet and appropri- 
ate. He had been afraid to prepare anything that 
might be in the nature of a post-mortem tribute. It 
seemed like a surrender to the enemy. The death 
of General Sherman came (although one might have 
been prepared for it) as the unexpected. It was a 
day of mourning and grief. Here, at the capital of 
the nation, lay the body of the great admiral, the 
chief of the navy ; and in New York was being pre- 
pared for the last sad rites the body of the greatest 
military genius which the nation had produced. 
General Sherman had been not only great as a 
military leader, but he had been great as a civilian. 
Who was there that had heard him tell of the events 
of his wonderful career who had not been filled with 
admiration and respect for his abilities ? It seemed 
to him that General Sherman was perhaps the only 
man in the North who in the early days of the war 
seemed to appreciate what the terrible conflicc meant 



554 GENERAL SHERMAN'. 

It was recollected how it was said in 1861 that he 
must be insane to make the suggestions which he 
made. These suoi^estions were so startling to the 
country that he (Mr. Manderson) did not wonder that 
men doubted General Sherman's sanity. Like men 
of great genius, he seemed to have lived in that 
debatable ground existing between the line of 
perfect sanity and insanity. 

After a review of General Sherman's military 
career, opening at Shiloh and closing at Atlanta, Mr. 
Manderson read General Sherman's letter to the 
mayor and common council of Adanta, beginning, 
" We must have peace, not only at Atlanta, but in all 
America." In conclusion, Mr. Manderson said: 

The Model Citizen. 

" General Sherman v^as estimable as a citizen, and 
as fully appreciated the duties of a civilian as he was 
admirable as a soldier. But this strife which we have 
watched for the past few days has ceased. The con- 
flict has ended. The nation has witnessed it. Sixty 
millions of people have stood in silence, watching for 
the supreme result. Death, ever victorious, is again 
a victor. A great conqueror is himself conquered. 
Our captain lies dead. The pale lips say to the 
sunken eye: 'Where is thy kindly glance?' And 
no answer is returned." 

Mr. Davis said he could hardly trust himself to 
speak. He had been a soldier under General Sher- 
man, and had received acts of kindness from him when 
he was a subaltern. As the years had gone by and 



GLOWING EULOGIES. 555 

the widening avenues of life had opened up ways of 
promotion, that acquaintance had ripened into friend- 
ship, and, he might say, into intimacy. He had first seen 
General Sherman at the siege of Vicksburg, twenty- 
eight years ago, when he was the very incarnation of 
war, but to-day that spirit had taken up its rest in the 
everlasting tabernacle of death. It was fit that the 
clangor of the great city should be hushed in silence, 
and that the functions of government should be sus- 
pended while the soul of the great commander was 
passing to Him who gives and Him who takes away. 
No more are heard the thunders of the captains and 
the shoutings. The soul of the great warrior had 
passed, and was standing in judgment befoi i Him 
who was the God of battles and was also the God of 
love. 

Mr. Pierce, as one of the soldiers who had served 
under General Sherman in the Army of the Tennes- 
see, gave some reminiscences of the war and paid a 
glowing eulogy to his old commander. 

The Eloquent Evarts. 

Mr. Evarts said that the afflicting intelligence of 
the death of General Sherman had touched the Sen- 
ate with the deepest sensibilities — that that grief was 
not a private grief, nor was it limited by any narrower 
bounds than those of the w^hole country. The affec- 
tion of the people toward its honorable and honored 
men did not always find a warm effusion, because 
circumstances might not have brought the personal 
career, the personal traits, the personal affectionate 



556 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

disposition of great men to the close and general 
observation of the people at large. But of General 
Sherman no such observation could be truly made. 
Whatever of affection and of grief Senators might 
feel was felt, perhaps, more intensely in the hearts 
of the whole people. To observers of his death, as 
they had been of his life. General Sherman had been 
yesterday the most celebrated living American. 

He was now added to that longer and more illus- 
trious list of celebrated men of the country for the 
hundred years of national life. One star differed from 
another star in glory, but yet all of the stars had a 
glory to which nothing could be added by eulogy and 
from which nothing could be taken away by detrac- 
tion. They shone in their own effulgence, and bor- 
rowed no light from honor or respect. It had been 
said already that General Sherman was the last of 
the commanders. If those who had passed out of 
life still watched over and took interest in what trans- 
pired in this world (and no one doubted it), what 
great shades must have surrounded the death-bed of 
General Sherman ! And who could imagine a greater 
death-bed for a ereat life than that which has been 
watched over in a neighboring city during the week? 
It had been reserved for him (Mr. Evarts), at the 
declining hour of the day, as a Senator from the 
State which General Sherman had honored by his 
residence, and in which he had died, to move, out 
of respect for his memory, that the Senate do now 
adjourn. 



GLOWING EULOGIES. 657 

The resolutions were then adopted unanimously, 
and, on motion of Mr. Hawley, the presiding officer 
was requested to appoint a committee of five Senators 
to attend the funeral of General Sherman. The Senate 
then, at 5 o'clock, adjourned till Monday at 1 1 a. m. 

In the House of Representatives. 

The President's message announcing General Sher- 
i.an's death was received in the House about three 
u^ oiock. Speaker Reed, after consultation with Mr. 
Cutv\leon of Michigan and a few others, decided, in 
view '>f the near expiration of the Congress, and of 
the nev\^ssity of getting the appropriation bills over 
:o the Sevate as soon as possible, that It would not be 
advisable fc lay the message before the House undl 
.:iear the ujluU time of adjournment. It was then re- 
%rred to the Cv^mmittee on Military Affairs, which will 
report appropncVie resoludons of respect and recom. 
mend that the Hc>\.se take part in the funeral services 
if that be in consont^uce with the feelings of the family. 

General CutcheoA, :,hairman of the Committee on 
Military Affairs, refe<^r^vi feelingly to the fact that 
General Sherman's death removed the last of the three 
great Union generals. M\ Cutcheon served under 
General Sherman only a sht/rr dme, but was attached 
to General Burnside's commauc^ when General Sher- 
man came to its relief 

"I regard General Sherman,' sa^d Mr. Cutcheon, 
" as the greatest strategist developed by the war. I 
should say that Grant was the greatest in his firmness 
and his unfaltering courage and confidence in his 



658 GENERAL SHERMAK. 

ability to succeed. He was also great in his spirit of 
magnanimity. Sherman knew more of the art and 
science of war. Sheridan was the most brilHant fig-hter. 

o 

Sherman was also great as a patriot and as a man. This 
passage from his memoirs, I think, is the key to the cha- 
racter of the whole man : it was at the outbreak of the 
war, when Sherman was in Louisiana: ' On no earthly 
account will I do any act or think any thought hostile 
to or in defiance of the old Government of the United 
States; " 

Warm Tribute from Mr. Blaine. 

Members of the Cabinet spoke feelingly of the 
death of General Sherman. Secretary Blaine said he 
could remember him personally from the time he wa? 
graduated at West Point, fifty years ago, when he was. 
himself a schoolboy of ten years. 

" For more than thirty years," continued Mr. 
Blaine, " by reason of family connections, I had 
known him very intimately. Of his many and great 
qualities on his public side I do not care to speak. 
General Sherman's military history is a part, and a 
large part, of the proudest annals of the nation. He 
did not grow less in the intimacy of private life or by 
the fireside in his own home. He had the kindest of 
hearts and the most chivalric devotion to those he 
loved. He was one of the warmest friends to those 
for whom he professed friendship. He was frank, 
just and magnanimous. He spoke and wrote with a 
freedom that almost seemed reckless, and oftentimes 
was misunderstood, as when he wrote his own 



GLOWING EULOGIES. 65% 

memoirs. His death seemed premature. Seeing 
him very often, I had discovered no decay in the acute- 
ness of his senses except in a sHght loss of hearing. 
I saw him last summer at Bar Harbor for a consider- 
able period, and his brightness of talk and his enjoy- 
ment of life, especially with the young, seemed as 
natural and marked as ever, but at the same time I 
had in some way gained the impression in talking 
with him that he had no expectation of a long life." 

Secretary Noble's Paiieg-yric. 

Secretary Noble said : " I feel a great personal 
grief at the loss of General Sherman, my friend for 
many years. I was born in Lancaster, where he was. 
His father was my father's friend, and while I retain 
for him the admiration that all Americans and the 
whole world must, I feel that one has gone from me 
b) whose approval my personal action in life has 
been greatly influenced. I served under him in the 
war, and had been honored by his friendship and per- 
sonal intercourse in St. Louis, New York, and Wash^ 
ington since. His miUtary achievements in the 
service of the republic are a part of the history of 
our country ; but great as his talents as a commander 
were, they were equalled by the beautiful traits of his 
character that made him the instructive companion, 
the genial friend, and wise counsellor that he was. 
He was as tender and kind in private life as he was 
great and successful in war. His literary taste was 
most wonderful, and his memory, not only of events and 
facts, but even of figures and statistics, was unfailing. 



560 GENEEAL SHERMAN. 

" His love for his comrades-in-arms was like that of 
a father for his children. His love embraced all our 
people. Among the first events in my official life 
here was a visit from General Sherman, voluntarily 
made in behalf of General Joseph Johnston, of whom 
he spoke in the highest terms. He was as ready to 
support any man when friendly to the Government 
as he was uncompromising to all its enemies. He 
was as grand a patriot as ever lived, and I believe 
that his services, his speeches, and examples will have 
a happy influence upon our country through all its 
history. This is no time nor place to attempt to 
speak of all that was valuable and admirable in the 
career and character of General Sherman. May God 
bless and console his family, and raise up other men 
like him for the support and protection of our 
republic !" 

A Man of "Pure Gold." 

Postmaster-General Wanamaker said : " I had only 
ten years' personal acquaintanceship with General 
Sherman, but even a much shorter time would have 
drawn me to him closely. He never seemed to me 
like an old man, and always woke up in me all the 
boy that was in me. I was never where he was that I 
could get near to him that we did not put our arms 
around each other. The ring of his words and ways 
showed that he was made of pure gold. No man 
that I ever knew combined in such a degree the cour- 
age of a lion, the loving gentleness of a woman, and 
the simplicity of a child. The sunset of his career 



GLOWING EULOGIES. 561 

^as been as gorgeous and beautiful as the glory of 
his great campaign." 

Attorney-General Miller said : " In General Sher- 
man's death the world has lost the first of its military 
men. At least there is no one surviving at all com- 
parable to him, unless it be the great German marshal 
Von Moltke. He was not only a great soldier, but he 
was wise in all public affairs. He was, perhaps, the 
first to appreciate, or at least the first to announce, 
the magnitude of the nation's task in suppressing the 
j^reat rebellion. In this he was ahead of his contem- 
poraries, and, as usual with men ahead of the times, 
he was thought to be wild, not to say crazy. Events, 
however, more than justified his declarations. I have 
met General Sherman a good many times, but had no 
close relations with him. One thing especially struck 
me in the great Centennial review in New Yc"k. 
There he stood by the side of the President. No 
matter what else might be claiming his attention, he 
never failed to take off his hat and salute the flag. 
He might let the men pass without recognition, but 
never the flag. Very few men have ever been so 
close to the hearts of the people of the United States 
as General Sherman. 

From Old Comrades. 

General Henry W. Slocum, in speaking of General 
Sherman, said that he felt that he had lost his best 
friend. In Sherman's famous march General Slocum 
was in command of the left wing, and the friendship 
then formed survived the war and became stronger 



662 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

with each succeeding year. He and General Sher- 
man were much together of late years. At pubHc 
dinners which they both attended it was always to be 
noticed that the two veterans seemed to enjoy, fully 
as much as anything, getting together and talking 
over the interesting story of the war. 

General Slocum joined Sherman's expedition at 
Atlanta, and was with it from that time until the 
close of the war. Every other day General Sherman 
rode with him. On these occasions General Sher- 
man, who was a great talker, was as entertaining a 
companion as could well be imagined. His conversa- 
tion covered a wide range of subjects, but touched 
JIghtly on the one subject which at that time possessed 
the greatest interest, not only for General Slocum, 
but for the whole country — the march itself and what 
was expected of it. 

General Sherman's appearance at this time. Gen- 
eral Slocum says, was about the same as it was In 
later years. He was angular, nervous, but giving 
every one the impression of being a man of great de- 
termination. At the same time he was of a sanguine 
temperament. 

'' From the time he started on the expedition, ' said 
General Slocum, "he never seemed for a moment to 
doubc that it would ultimately prove successful. Noth- 
ing seemed to shake his faith in this respect. He 
never discussed his plans with me to any extent. It 
was not his habit to discuss them with his subordinates. 
He preferred saying little about what he intended to 



GLOWING EULOGIES. 563 

do until It be'^ame necessary. His self-reliance was 
remarkable." 

The Army Idolized Him. 

With his troops, General Slocum said, General 
Sherman was exceedingly popular. This was perhaps 
but natural, as he had led them to success, and a com- 
mander in such a position generally is popular. While 
possibly he v;a'i not generous with his men, he was 
always just, anJ this fact they recognized and honored 
him for. Hi'p li^jnse of justice caused him to be severe 
in his treacrrent of those who failed to do their duty. 
He alway* (ooked well after the welfare of those 
under hi*: command, and was never above h»,ving a 
pleasant vjord for his men. Yet he was none the 
less a soldier, a man of deeds. 

Speaking of the feeling of the Southern people 
against General Sherman, which was probably stronger 
than that felt against any other Northern general, 
General Slocum said that it had never been General 
Sherman's wish or intention to cause any unnecessary 
suffering to the people in the country through which 
he was marching. For the burning of Columbia he 
was in no way responsible. Yet he was charged with 
it, with much bitterness, by the Southern people. As 
a matter of fact, the inhabitants of the place were 
themselves to blame for its burning. They had filled 
the streets with cotton, and when Sherman's army 
marched in, thinking to propitiate the soldiers, they 
had waylaid them with whiskey, which they gave to 
them in tin cups, as much as they would take, until 



664 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

every ugly fellow in the ranks was still uglier and 
half drunk. 

Sorrows of War. 

" General Sherman," said General Slocum, '* always 
expressed great regret at the suffering caused by the 
burning of Columbia. He talked with me about it at 
the time, and frequently spoke of it after the war. 
Nothing was further from his intentions than that the 
city should be burned. He strove to burn everything 
useful to the Confederates ; nothing else. When we 
first crossed into South Carolina, we found we were 
walking on torpedoes planted in the road, and the 
troops did some burning on their own account, but 
General Sherman put a stop to it as soon as possible." 

One of the most astonishing things about General 
Sherman, General Slocum declared, was his memory. 
He never seemed to forget anything which he met 
with, and which he thought might at any future time 
be of use to him. Having been stationed at Charles- 
ton before the war, he seemed to have the whole 
topography of the State at command. Frequently he 
was able to give information which wa^. not found on 
the map which General Slocum had with him. When 
asked how he came s know some particular thing 
about the country, he would say that he had noticed 
it several years before. 

Tribute from General Howard. 

Major-General O. O. Howard, commanding the 
Division of the Atlantic, was much affected by the 
death of his old comrade and friend. He talked for a 



GLOWING EULOGIES. 565 

few moments regarding the dead commander, and his 
voice trembled as he spoke. 

"General Shermai^," he said, "has permitted me 
during the last two years in which I have been sta- 
tioned in the vicinity of his home to be particularly 
intimate with him. He never seemed like a fellow- 
officer so much as like a father or elderly friend. So 
to-night my heart bleedn at his loss. When did I first 
meet him ? I think it was shortly before the first 
batde of Bull Run, and after that I was with him at 
Chattanooga and on the march to the sea. My per 
sonal acquaintanceship with him did* not really begin 
until 1863." 

Reininiscences hy General King-. 

Said General Horatio C. King: "The announce- 
ment of General Sherman's death is a ereat shock to 
me, as I have had a strong hope that he would pull 
through. I regard it as one of the greatest privileges 
of my life that I have been favored with the close 
friendship of General Sherman. He was the most in- 
teresting conversationalist I have ever met, and his 
fund of reminiscences was seemingly inexhaustible. 
I shall never forget the first address he made at one 
of our army reunions held in Philadelphia, June 6, of 
the Centennial year. The meeting was in the 
Academy of Music. He made quite a long and 
patriotic off-hand address, in which he counselled ten- 
derness toward the South. 'Let us,' he said, 'forgive 
and forget — provided they will do the same.' 

"General Sherman has felt of late years that his 



566 GENERAL SHERMAN. 

Strength was being too strongly taxed by the in- 
cessant social demands upon him. He never could 
refuse his old Western associates, but I had some 
difficulty to persuade him that he had as many friends 
in the East. At Saratoga Springs in 1887 he gave 
me a most laughable scoring for my persistence. He 
said: * By the law of our land, which is the only 
king we worship, I was turned out to grass, and I 
was told that I could spend the rest of my days in 
peace and retirement. I sought refuge in the city of 
St. Louis ; I found but little peace there. But I read, 
[ think in Dr. Johnson, that peace and quiet could 
only be had in a great city or forest — in Nature's 
wilderness. I therefore sought it in New York City.' 
Then General Sherman told his famous story of Cap- 
tain Bonneville. Bonneville, it seemed, wanted peace 
and quiet. He asked for two years' leave of absence, 
and got it, and he went out to the mountains where 
Salt Lake now is. He caught beavers and otter and 
fished, and the Crows came and cleaned him out, 
and he kept out of the way for two years more. 
He was reported dead. He went to the adjutant- 
general and reported, but the adjutant says: 'Bon- 
neville is dead.' — He says : ' I am not dead.' — ' Oh 
yes,' said the adjutant, ' you are dead ; you are as 
dead as a mackeral. Go away from here and don't 
disturb the record.' 

" Sherman is the last of the great triumvirate of 
generals — Grant, Sherman and Sheridan — for in that 
order they will always be named ; yet to my think- 



GLOWING EULOGIES. 567 

ing Sherman possessed the highest miHtary genius, 
and as a strategist had not his equal in the war of 
the rebeUion." 

Tributes from Abroad. 

Lord Wolseley, who is beHeved to be the best 
informed man in the British army, said: "I join the 
people of the United States in their regret at General 
Sherman's death, for his loss is not confined to 
America, but is shared by all military people." 

Asked what he thought of Sherman as a military 
commander, Lord Wolseley replied that it was a 
difficult matter for an outsider to make comparisons, 
but, speaking purely from a military point of view, he 
ii-.doubtedly would place Sherman at the head of all 
the Northern commanders as a strateg^ist. Sherman 
show?,d great power, and in this he excelled all 
others, while in the achievements for which he was 
most famous — notably his march to the sea — he dis- 
played a dash combined with strategical skill that at 
once proved his great power. 

Colonel Hugh McCalmont, C. B., who has seen 
much service in India, and who was the officer com- 
manding the Fourth (Royal Irish) Dragoon Guards 
at Dublin, said with great feeling that in his judg- 
ment Grant would not have been able to break down 
the heroic opposition of Lee if it had not been for the 
genius of Sherman, whose march to the sea was the 
grandest thing of its kind in history. He especially 
admired Sherman because he was a pukka general 
(pukka in India means real, genuine), also because be 



568 GENERAL SHERMAN. -"' y ^^ 

UJ^ (^ ^^"^^ 

was a soldier solely, having resolutely refused to" go 

in for politics. 

One of the most accomplished and best-read staff 
officers in the British army is Colonel S. F. Maurice, 
of the Royal Artillery, at present professor of Military 
Art and History at the Staff College. He said: ''I 
have long considered the Atlanta campaign of Sher- 
man as one of the most valuable lessons in war 
furnished by our time. The feature of Sherman's 
career which has always impressed me with the most 
interest as a man was the generosity with whicL, after 
he had himself opposed Grant's arrangements for the 
Vicksburg campaign, he immediately afterward on 
the spot and at the time confessed himself in the 
w^ong, and used all his military genius to poin' ^ut 
the skill, foresight and importance of what Grant had 
iione. The mode in which Sherman talked to influ- 
ential politicians and others of those very achievements 
of Grant became the starting-point of Grant's great 
career. To a large extent the United States owe to 
Sherman's generosity of character and to his military 
clearness of vision the ultimate selection of Grant as 
the general who carried their armies to success." 

Similar tributes from Von Moltke and other great 
military heroes show the estimate placed upon the 
renowned co-mmander who now lies in death, " his 
martial cloak wrapped around him."